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  1. Keith Lehrer (2000). Theory of Knowledge. Westview Press.
    In this impressive second edition of Theory of Knowledge, Keith Lehrer introduces students to the major traditional and contemporary accounts of knowing. Beginning with the traditional definition of knowledge as justified true belief, Lehrer explores the truth, belief, and justification conditions on the way to a thorough examination of foundation theories of knowledge,the work of Platinga, externalism and naturalized epistemologies, internalism and modern coherence theories, contextualism, and recent reliabilist and causal theories. Lehrer gives all views careful examination and concludes that (...)
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  2.  23
    Keith Lehrer (1974). Knowledge. Clarendon Press.
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  3. Keith Lehrer & Thomas Paxson Jr (1969). Knowledge: Undefeated Justified True Belief. Journal of Philosophy 66 (8):225-237.
    The recently offered, Purported counter-Examples to justified, True belief analyses of knowledge are looked at with some care and all found to be either incoherent or inconclusive. It is argued that justified, True belief analyses are based on sound insight into the concept of knowledge. The distinction between having been justified in claiming to know something and actually having known it is used in an effort to get the discussion of knowledge back on the right track.
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  4.  22
    Keith Lehrer & Carl Wagner (1981). Rational Consensus in Science and Society. Boston: D. Reidel.
    CONSENSUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL ISSUES Various atomistic and individualistic theories of knowledge, language, ethics and politics have dominated philosophical ...
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  5.  48
    Keith Lehrer (1997). Self-Trust: A Study of Reason, Knowledge, and Autonomy. Oxford University Press.
    The eminent philosopher Keith Lehrer offers an original and distinctively personal view of central aspects of the human condition, such as reason, knowledge, wisdom, autonomy, love, consensus, and consciousness. He argues that what is uniquely human is our capacity for evaluating our own mental states (such as beliefs and desires), and suggests that we have a system for such evaluation which allows the resolution of personal and interpersonal conflict. The keystone in this system is self-trust, on which reason, knowledge, and (...)
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  6. Keith Lehrer & Stewart Cohen (1983). Justification, Truth, and Coherence. Synthese 55 (2):191-207.
    A central issue in epistemology concerns the connection between truth and justification. The burden of our paper is to explain this connection. Reliabilism, defended by Goldman, assumes that the connection is one of reliability. We argue that this assumption is too strong. We argue that foundational theories, such as those articulated by Pollock and Chisholm fail to elucidate the connection. We consider the potentiality of coherence theories to explain the truth connection by means of higher level convictions about probabilities, which (...)
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  7. Keith Lehrer (1971). How Reasons Give Us Knowledge, or the Case of the Gypsy Lawyer. Journal of Philosophy 68 (10):311-313.
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  8.  84
    Keith Lehrer (2011). What Intentionality Is Like. Acta Analytica 26 (1):3-14.
    Intentionality is a mark of the mental, as Brentano (1874) noted. Any representation or conception of anything has the feature of intentionality, which informally put, is the feature of being about something that may or may not exist. Visual artworks are about something, whether something literal or abstract. The artwork is a mentalized physical object. Aesthetic experience of the artwork illustrates the nature of intentionality as we focus attention on the phenomenology of the sensory exemplar. This focus of attention on (...)
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  9. Keith Lehrer (1965). Knowledge, Truth and Evidence. Analysis 25 (5):168 - 175.
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  10. Keith Lehrer (1976). When Rational Disagreement is Impossible. Noûs 10 (3):327-332.
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  11. Keith Lehrer (1990). Theory of Knowledge. Routledge.
    In this important new text, Keith Lehrer introduces students to the major traditional and contemporary accounts of knowing. Beginning with the accepted definition of knowledge as justified true belief, Lehrer explores the truth, belief and justification conditions on the way to a thorough examination of foundation theories of knowledge, externalism and naturalized epistemologies, internalism and modern coherence theories as well as recent reliabilist and causal theories. Lehrer gives all views careful examination and concludes that external factors must be matched by (...)
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  12. Keith Lehrer (1976). 'Could' in Theory and Practice: A Possible Worlds Analysis. In M. Brand & Douglas N. Walton (eds.), Action Theory. Reidel
  13.  1
    Keith Lehrer (1989). Thomas Reid. Routledge.
    This book is available either individually, or as part of the specially-priced Arguments of the Philosphers Collection.
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  14. Keith Lehrer (1971). Why Not Scepticism? Philosophical Forum 2 (3):283.
     
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  15. Keith Lehrer (2000). Discursive Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (3):637-653.
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  16. Keith Lehrer (1960). Can We Know That We Have Free Will by Introspection? Journal of Philosophy 57 (March):145-156.
  17.  5
    Keith Lehrer (2016). Freedom of Preference: A Defense of Compatiblism. Journal of Ethics 20 (1-3):35-46.
    Harry G. Frankfurt has presented a case of a counterfactual intervener CI with knowledge and power to control an agent so he will do A. He concludes that if the agent prefers to do A and there is no intervention by CI, the agent has acted of his own free will and is morally responsible for doing A, though he lacked an alternative possibility. I consider the consequences for freedom and moral responsibility of CI having a complete plan P for (...)
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  18.  45
    Keith Lehrer (1986). The Coherence Theory of Knowledge. Philosophical Topics 14 (1):5-25.
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  19. Keith Lehrer (2006). Consciousness, Representation, and Knowledge. In Uriah Kriegel & Kenneth Williford (eds.), Self-Representational Approaches to Consciousness. MIT Press 409-419.
  20. Keith Lehrer (1970). Induction, Reason and Consistency. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 21 (1):103-114.
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  21. Keith Lehrer & Richard Taylor (1965). Time, Truth and Modalities. Mind 74 (295):390-398.
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  22.  3
    Keith Lehrer & Adrienne Lehrer (forthcoming). The Language of Taste. Inquiry:1-14.
    This is a jointly written paper. It has two parts: an empirical part and a theoretical one. Part one, the empirical part, is written by Adrienne Lehrer and describes the language of taste, illustrated by the vocabulary for wine language. The language of the taste of wine often has both a descriptive and evaluate element. Using wine talk as an example, one wine may be described as fruity, acidic, and light, and another as sour, unbalanced, and thin. The second uses (...)
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  23. Keith Lehrer (2011). Art, Self, and Knowledge. Oxford University Press.
    Knowing the content of art -- Consciousness, exemplars, and art -- Aesthetic theory, feminist art ,and autonomy -- Value, expression, and globalization -- Artistic creation, freedom, and self -- Aesthetics, death, and beauty -- Aesthetic experience, intentionality, and the form of representation -- Theories of art, and art as theory of the world -- Self-trust, disagreement, and reasonable acceptance -- Social reason, aggregation, and collective wisdom -- Knowledge, autonomy, and art in loop theory.
     
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  24.  33
    Keith Lehrer (1972). The Concept of Knowledge. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 69 (11):312-318.
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    Keith Lehrer (1968). Cans Without Ifs. Analysis 29 (1):29 - 32.
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  26. Keith Lehrer & Carl Wagner (1981). Rational Consensus in Science and Society a Philosophical and Mathematical Study.
     
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  27. Marjorie Clay & Keith Lehrer (eds.) (1989). Knowledge and Skepticism. Westview Press.
     
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  28. Keith Lehrer (1990). Metamind. Oxford University Press.
    In this collection of essays, Lehrer argues that freedom, rationality, consensus, and knowledge depend on "metamental" operations--thoughts about thoughts--and are impossible without them. Metamental operations provide for our optionality, plasticity, and most of all, for the evaluation and control of lower-level information. The human mind, he argues, is essentially a metamind.
     
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  29.  21
    Keith Lehrer & Joseph Richard (1975). Remembering Without Knowing. Grazer Philosophische Studien 1:121-126.
    Memory sometimes yields knowledge and sometimes does not. It is, however, natural to suppose that i f a man remembers that p, then he knows that p and formerly knew that p. Remembering something is plausibly construed as a f o rm of knowing something which one has not forgotten and which one knew previously. We argue, to the contrary, that this thesis is false. We present four counterexamples to the thesis that support a different analysis of remembering. We propose (...)
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  30. Keith Lehrer (2005). Coherence and the Truth Connection. Erkenntnis 63 (3):413 - 423.
    There is an objection to coherence theories of knowledge to the effect that coherence is not connected with truth, so that when coherence leads to truth this is just a matter of luck. Coherence theories embrace falliblism, to be sure, but that does not sustain the objection. Coherence is connected with truth by principles of justified acceptance that explain the connection between coherence and truth. Coherence is connected with truth by explanatory principle, not just luck.
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  31. Keith Lehrer (ed.) (1966). Freedom and Determinism. Random House.
  32.  10
    Keith Lehrer (2013). Thomas Reid on Common Sense and Morals. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 11 (2):109-130.
    Reid's philosophy of the moral faculty must be interpreted in the context of his philosophical theory concerning the human faculties and their connection with truth. One purpose of this paper is to offer an account of the development of our moral concepts that accords with a proposal of Esther Kroeker and also my own . Another is to explain how Reid combines an account of the objectivity of moral judgments with the denial of the existence of moral properties, the affirmation (...)
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  33. Jonathan L. Kvanvig, Laurence Bonjour, Earl Conee, Richard Feldman, Richard Foley, Peter Klein, Jonathan Kvanvig, Keith Lehrer, William Lycan, Peter Markie, George Pappas, Alvin Plantinga, Ernest Sosa, Marshall Swain & Bas van Fraassen (1996). Warrant in Contemporary Epistemology: Essays in Honor of Plantinga's Theory of Knowledge. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    In his widely influential two-volume work, Warrant: The Current Debate and Warrant and Proper Function, Alvin Plantinga argued that warrant is that which explains the difference between knowledge and true belief. Plantinga not only developed his own account of warrant but also mapped the terrain of epistemology. Motivated by Plantinga's work, fourteen prominent philosophers have written new essays investigating Plantingian warrant and its contribution to contemporary epistemology. The resulting collection, representing a broad array of views, not only gives readers a (...)
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  34.  56
    Keith Lehrer (2002). Self-Presentation, Representation, and the Self. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 64 (2):412-430.
    Chisholm held that some states of ourselves are self-presenting and provide a stopping place in the quest for justification. The justification we have for accepting that we are in those states is transparent to us in a way that enables us to answer questions about justification. Representation enables us to apprehend such self-presenting states through themselves in a representational loop. It is a loop of exemplarization wherein the state is used as an exemplar to represent the kind of state it (...)
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  35.  53
    John Canfield & Keith Lehrer (1961). A Note on Prediction and Deduction. Philosophy of Science 28 (2):204-208.
    This paper argues against the deductive reconstruction of scientific prediction, that is, against the view that in prediction the predicted event follows deductively from the laws and initial conditions that are the basis of the prediction. The major argument of the paper is intended to show that the deductive reconstruction is an inaccurate reconstruction of actual scientific procedure. Our reason for maintaining that it is inaccurate is that if the deductive reconstruction were an accurate reconstruction, then scientific prediction would be (...)
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    Keith Lehrer (1960). Ifs, Cans and Causes. Analysis 20 (6):122 - 124.
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  37. Keith Lehrer (1996). Knowledge, Teaching and Wisdom.
     
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  38. Anita Konzelmann Ziv, Keith Lehrer & Hans Bernhard Schmid (eds.) (2011). Self-Evaluation – Affective and Social Grounds of Intentionality. Springer.
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  39.  25
    Keith Lehrer (2008). Consciousness AND REGRESS. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 6 (1):45-57.
    Thomas Reid has a theory of consciousness that is central to his philosophy of mind but which raises a regress problem. I have two tasks in this paper. The first is to give an account of Reid's views on consciousness and the avoidance of the regress based on textual analysis. The second is to expand the theory of consciousness Reid gives to offer a deeper explanation of how the regress is avoided that is based on Reid's philosophy of mind but (...)
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    Keith Lehrer (1987). Preface. Grazer Philosophische Studien 30:1-1.
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    Keith Lehrer & Vann McGee (1991). An Epistemic Principle Which Solves Newcomb's Paradox. Grazer Philosophische Studien 40:197-217.
    If it is certain that performing an observation to determine whether P is true will in no way influence whether P is tme, then the proposition that the observation is performed ought to be probabilistically independent of P. Applying the notion of "observation" liberally, so that a wide variety of actions are treated as observations, this proposed new principle of belief revision yields the result that simple utihty maximization gives the correct solution to the Fisher smoking paradox and the two-box (...)
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    Keith Lehrer (2000). Reid, God and Epistemology. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 74 (3):357-372.
  43.  71
    Keith Lehrer (2001). Individualism, Communitarianism and Consensus. Journal of Ethics 5 (2):105-120.
    There is a contemporary conflict between individualistic andcommunitarian conceptions of rationality. Robert Goodin describes it asa conflict between an enlightenment individualistic conception of a``sovereign artificer'''' and ``a socially unencumbered self'''' ascontrasted with the communitarian conception of a ``socially embeddedself'''' whose identity is formed by his or her community. Should wejustify and explain rationality individualistically or socially? This isa false dilemma when consensus is reached by a model articulated byKeith Lehrer and Carl Wagner. According to this model, the consensusresults from the (...)
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    Keith Lehrer (1991). Reply to Daniel Schulthess. Grazer Philosophische Studien 40:148-149.
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  45. Keith Lehrer & Carl Wagner (1998). Reid, Hume and Common Sense. Reid Studies 2 (1):15-26.
  46. Keith Lehrer (2006). Testimony and Trustworthiness. In Jennifer Lackey & Ernest Sosa (eds.), The Epistemology of Testimony. Oxford University Press 145--159.
     
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  47.  69
    Keith Lehrer (1999). Justification, Coherence and Knowledge. Erkenntnis 50 (2-3):243-258.
  48.  40
    Keith Lehrer (1990). Chisholm, Reid and the Problem of the Epistemic Surd. Philosophical Studies 60 (1-2):39 - 45.
  49.  62
    Adrienne Lehrer & Keith Lehrer (1982). Antonymy. Linguistics and Philosophy 5 (4):483 - 501.
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    Keith Lehrer (1987). Personal and Social Knowledge. Synthese 73 (1):87 - 107.
    This paper is an investigation of the relation between personal and social conditions of knowledge. A coherence theory of knowledge and justification is assumed, according to which incoming information is evaluated in terms of background information. The evaluation of incoming information in terms of background information is a higher order or metamental activity. Personal knowledge and justification is based on the coherent integration of individual information. Social knowledge and justification is based on the coherent aggregation of social information, that is, (...)
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