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  1.  300 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (2000). Theory of Knowledge. Westview Press.
    In this impressive second edition of Theory of Knowledge, Keith Lehrer introduces students to the major traditional and contemporary accounts of knowing. Beginning with the traditional definition of knowledge as justified true belief, Lehrer explores the truth, belief, and justification conditions on the way to a thorough examination of foundation theories of knowledge,the work of Platinga, externalism and naturalized epistemologies, internalism and modern coherence theories, contextualism, and recent reliabilist and causal theories. Lehrer gives all views careful examination and concludes that (...)
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  2.  272 DLs
    Keith Lehrer & Thomas Paxson Jr (1969). Knowledge: Undefeated Justified True Belief. Journal of Philosophy 66 (8):225-237.
    The recently offered, Purported counter-Examples to justified, True belief analyses of knowledge are looked at with some care and all found to be either incoherent or inconclusive. It is argued that justified, True belief analyses are based on sound insight into the concept of knowledge. The distinction between having been justified in claiming to know something and actually having known it is used in an effort to get the discussion of knowledge back on the right track.
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  3.  171 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1976). When Rational Disagreement is Impossible. Noûs 10 (3):327-332.
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  4.  137 DLs
    Keith Lehrer & Stewart Cohen (1983). Justification, Truth, and Coherence. Synthese 55 (2):191 - 207.
    A central issue in epistemology concerns the connection between truth and justification. The burden of our paper is to explain this connection. Reliabilism, defended by Goldman, assumes that the connection is one of reliability. We argue that this assumption is too strong. We argue that foundational theories, such as those articulated by Pollock and Chisholm fail to elucidate the connection. We consider the potentiality of coherence theories to explain the truth connection by means of higher level convictions about probabilities, which (...)
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  5.  102 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (2005). Coherence and the Truth Connection. Erkenntnis 63 (3):413 - 423.
    There is an objection to coherence theories of knowledge to the effect that coherence is not connected with truth, so that when coherence leads to truth this is just a matter of luck. Coherence theories embrace falliblism, to be sure, but that does not sustain the objection. Coherence is connected with truth by principles of justified acceptance that explain the connection between coherence and truth. Coherence is connected with truth by explanatory principle, not just luck.
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  6.  92 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1960). Can We Know That We Have Free Will by Introspection? Journal of Philosophy 57 (March):145-156.
  7.  82 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1971). How Reasons Give Us Knowledge, or the Case of the Gypsy Lawyer. Journal of Philosophy 68 (10):311-313.
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  8.  79 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (2011). What Intentionality Is Like. Acta Analytica 26 (1):3-14.
    Intentionality is a mark of the mental, as Brentano (1874) noted. Any representation or conception of anything has the feature of intentionality, which informally put, is the feature of being about something that may or may not exist. Visual artworks are about something, whether something literal or abstract. The artwork is a mentalized physical object. Aesthetic experience of the artwork illustrates the nature of intentionality as we focus attention on the phenomenology of the sensory exemplar. This focus of attention on (...)
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  9.  78 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1965). Knowledge, Truth and Evidence. Analysis 25 (5):168 - 175.
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  10.  68 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1997). Freedom, Preference and Autonomy. Journal of Ethics 1 (1):3-25.
    Philosophers have advocated different kinds of freedom, but each has value and none should be neglected in a complete theory of freedom and responsibility. There are three kinds of freedom of preference and action that should be distinguished. A person S may fully prefer to do A at every level, and that is one kind of freedom. A person S may autonomously prefer to do A when S has the preference structure concerning doing A because S prefers to have that (...)
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  11.  65 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1968). Cans Without Ifs. Analysis 29 (1):29 - 32.
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  12.  64 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (2004). Representation in Painting and in Consciousness. Philosophical Studies 117 (1-2):1-14.
  13.  60 DLs
    Keith Lehrer & Richard Taylor (1965). Time, Truth and Modalities. Mind 74 (295):390-398.
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  14.  55 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (2000). Discursive Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (3):637-653.
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  15.  53 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1960). Ifs, Cans and Causes. Analysis 20 (6):122 - 124.
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  16.  52 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1970). Induction, Reason and Consistency. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 21 (1):103-114.
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  17.  50 DLs
    John Canfield & Keith Lehrer (1961). A Note on Prediction and Deduction. Philosophy of Science 28 (2):204-208.
    This paper argues against the deductive reconstruction of scientific prediction, that is, against the view that in prediction the predicted event follows deductively from the laws and initial conditions that are the basis of the prediction. The major argument of the paper is intended to show that the deductive reconstruction is an inaccurate reconstruction of actual scientific procedure. Our reason for maintaining that it is inaccurate is that if the deductive reconstruction were an accurate reconstruction, then scientific prediction would be (...)
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  18.  50 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (2001). Individualism, Communitarianism and Consensus. Journal of Ethics 5 (2):105-120.
    There is a contemporary conflict between individualistic andcommunitarian conceptions of rationality. Robert Goodin describes it asa conflict between an enlightenment individualistic conception of a``sovereign artificer'''' and ``a socially unencumbered self'''' ascontrasted with the communitarian conception of a ``socially embeddedself'''' whose identity is formed by his or her community. Should wejustify and explain rationality individualistically or socially? This isa false dilemma when consensus is reached by a model articulated byKeith Lehrer and Carl Wagner. According to this model, the consensusresults from the (...)
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  19.  50 DLs
    Adrienne Lehrer & Keith Lehrer (1982). Antonymy. Linguistics and Philosophy 5 (4):483 - 501.
  20.  47 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1973). Reasonable Acceptance and Explanatory Coherence: Wilfrid Sellars on Induction. Noûs 7 (2):81-103.
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  21.  46 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1999). Justification, Coherence and Knowledge. Erkenntnis 50 (2-3):243-258.
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  22.  44 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1997). Self-Trust: A Study of Reason, Knowledge, and Autonomy. Oxford University Press.
    The eminent philosopher Keith Lehrer offers an original and distinctively personal view of central aspects of the human condition, such as reason, knowledge, wisdom, autonomy, love, consensus, and consciousness. He argues that what is uniquely human is our capacity for evaluating our own mental states (such as beliefs and desires), and suggests that we have a system for such evaluation which allows the resolution of personal and interpersonal conflict. The keystone in this system is self-trust, on which reason, knowledge, and (...)
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  23.  43 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (2003). Chisholm on Perceptual Knowledge: Foundationalism Versus Coherentism. Metaphilosophy 34 (5):543-552.
  24.  42 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1964). 'Could' and Determinism. Analysis 24 (March):159-60.
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  25.  38 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (2002). Self-Presentation, Representation, and the Self. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 64 (2):412-430.
    Chisholm held that some states of ourselves are self-presenting and provide a stopping place in the quest for justification. The justification we have for accepting that we are in those states is transparent to us in a way that enables us to answer questions about justification. Representation enables us to apprehend such self-presenting states through themselves in a representational loop. It is a loop of exemplarization wherein the state is used as an exemplar to represent the kind of state it (...)
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  26.  38 DLs
    Keith Lehrer & Vann McGee (1991). An Epistemic Principle Which Solves Newcomb's Paradox. Grazer Philosophische Studien 40:197-217.
    If it is certain that performing an observation to determine whether P is true will in no way influence whether P is tme, then the proposition that the observation is performed ought to be probabilistically independent of P. Applying the notion of "observation" liberally, so that a wide variety of actions are treated as observations, this proposed new principle of belief revision yields the result that simple utihty maximization gives the correct solution to the Fisher smoking paradox and the two-box (...)
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  27.  35 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1990). Chisholm, Reid and the Problem of the Epistemic Surd. Philosophical Studies 60 (1-2):39 - 45.
  28.  35 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1992). Knowledge, Coherence and Skepticism. Philosophical Issues 2:171-192.
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  29.  34 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (2012). The Unity of the Manifest and Scientific Image by Self-Representation. Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies 21.
    Sellars (1963) distinguished in Empiricism and Philosophy of Mind between ordinary discourse, which expressed his “manifest image”, and scientific discourse, which articulated his “scientific image” of man-in-the-world in a way that is both central and problematic to the rest of his philosophy. Our contention is that the problematic feature of the distinction results from Sellars theory of inner episodes as theoretical entities. On the other hand, as Sellars attempted to account for our noninferential knowledge of such states, particularly in correspondence (...)
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  30.  31 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1999). Knowledge, Scepticism and Coherence. Philosophical Perspectives 13 (s13):131-139.
  31.  29 DLs
    Barbara Hannan & Keith Lehrer (1989). Compatibilism, Determinism, and the Identity Theory. Inquiry 32 (March):49-54.
    Two issues are raised with regard to Ted Honderich's A Theory of Determinism. First, regarding the relation between a token identity theory of mental and physical events and Honderich's ?psychoneural union theory?, it is suggested that a token identity theory would serve Honderich's purposes while securing a simpler ontology. Second, it is argued that there is a substantive philosophical issue dividing compatibilists and incompatibilists on the question of whether persons possess free will, contrary to Honderich's contention that the compatibilist and (...)
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  32.  29 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1986). The Coherence Theory of Knowledge. Philosophical Topics 14 (1):5-25.
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  33.  29 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1973). Evidence, Meaning and Conceptual Change: A Subjective Approach. In Glenn Pearce & Patrick Maynard (eds.), Conceptual Change. Boston,D. Reidel 94--122.
  34.  28 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1961). Cans and Conditionals: A Rejoinder. Analysis 22 (1):23 - 24.
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  35.  27 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1982). Skepticism and Prior Probabilities. Philosophia 11 (1-2):89-93.
  36.  26 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1964). Doing the Impossible. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 42 (May):86-97.
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  37.  25 DLs
    Pierre Jacob & Keith Lehrer (2000). Guest Editorial: French Analytic Philosophy Today. Philosophical Studies 100 (3):215-216.
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  38.  25 DLs
    Robert B. Brandom & Keith Lehrer (1988). Editorial. Philosophical Studies 54 (2):161-162.
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  39.  25 DLs
    Keith Lehrer & David G. Stern (2000). The "Dénouement" of "Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind". History of Philosophy Quarterly 17 (2):201 - 216.
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  40.  24 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (2003). Reason and Autonomy. Social Philosophy and Policy 20 (2):177-198.
    Reason has co-opted our conception of autonomy. My purpose is to set autonomy free. Here is the problem: some philosophers, Kant most notably, have said that governing your life by reason or by being responsive to reason is the source of autonomy. But there is a paradox concealed in these plausible claims. On the one hand, a person can be enslaved to reason and lack autonomy because of this kind of bondage. On the other hand, if reason has no influence, (...)
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  41.  24 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1988). Met Aknowledge: Undefeated Justification. Synthese 74 (3):329 - 347.
    Internalism and externalism are both false. What is needed to convert true belief into knowledge is the appropriate blend of subjective and objective factors to yield the appropriate sort of connection between mind and the world. The sort of knowledge explicated is calledmetaknowledge and is knowledge that involves the evaluation of incoming information in terms of a background system. It is proposed that knowledge is equivalent to undefeated justification which is justification on the basis of every system that eliminates or (...)
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  42.  24 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1987). Personal and Social Knowledge. Synthese 73 (1):87 - 107.
    This paper is an investigation of the relation between personal and social conditions of knowledge. A coherence theory of knowledge and justification is assumed, according to which incoming information is evaluated in terms of background information. The evaluation of incoming information in terms of background information is a higher order or metamental activity. Personal knowledge and justification is based on the coherent integration of individual information. Social knowledge and justification is based on the coherent aggregation of social information, that is, (...)
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  43.  24 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1968). Belief and Knowledge. Philosophical Review 77 (4):491-499.
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  44.  23 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1989). Conception Without Representation - Justification Without Inference: Reid's Theory. Noûs 23 (2):145-154.
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  45.  23 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1985). Consensus and the Ideal Observer. Synthese 62 (1):109 - 120.
    This is a defense of the theory of rational consensus articulated by k lehrer and c wagner; (1981, "rational consensus in science and society", D reidel, Dordrecht) based on iterated weighted averaging of utilities and probabilities against the criticisms of I levi, F f schmidt, D baird, J l kranuip, B loewer and r laddage. The defense is that the rational consensus in question would be accepted by an ideal observer.
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  46.  22 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1964). Doing the Impossible: A Second Try. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 42 (August):249-251.
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  47.  22 DLs
    Keith Lehrer & Kihyeon Kim (1990). The Fallibility Paradox. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:99-107.
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  48.  21 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1990). Obituary: Wilfrid S. Sellars. Philosophical Studies 58 (1-2):177 - 178.
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  49.  20 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1977). The Knowledge Cycle. Noûs 11 (1):17-25.
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  50.  20 DLs
    Keith Lehrer (1977). Social Information. The Monist 60 (4):473-487.
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