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  1. Andrew J. B. Fugard & Keith Stenning (2013). Statistical Models as Cognitive Models of Individual Differences in Reasoning. Argument and Computation 4 (1):89 - 102.
    (2013). Statistical models as cognitive models of individual differences in reasoning. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 89-102. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2012.674061.
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  2. David McFarland, Keith Stenning & Maggie McGonigle (eds.) (2012). The Complex Mind. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Machine generated contents note: -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Notes on Contributors -- PART I: COMPLEXITY IN ANIMAL MINDS -- Introduction: M.McGonigle-Chalmers -- Relational and Absolute Discrimination Learning by Squirrel Monkeys: Establishing a Common Ground with Human Cognition; B.T.Jones -- Serial List Retention by Non-Human Primates: Complexity and Cognitive Continuity; F.R.Treichler -- The Use of Spatial Structure in Working Memory: A Comparative Standpoint; C.De Lillo -- The Emergence of Linear Sequencing in Children: A Continuity Account and a Formal Model; M.McGonigle-Chalmers&I.Kusel (...)
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  3. Keith Stenning (2012). To Naturalize or Not to Naturalize? An Issue for Cognitive Science as Well as Anthropology. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (3):413-419.
    Several of Beller, Bender, and Medin’s (2012) issues are as relevant within cognitive science as between it and anthropology. Knowledge-rich human mental processes impose hermeneutic tasks, both on subjects and researchers. Psychology's current philosophy of science is ill suited to analyzing these: Its demand for ‘‘stimulus control’’ needs to give way to ‘‘negotiation of mutual interpretation.’’ Cognitive science has ways to address these issues, as does anthropology. An example from my own work is about how defeasible logics are mathematical models (...)
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  4. Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen (2012). Language Evolution: Enlarging the Picture. In David McFarland, Keith Stenning & Maggie McGonigle (eds.), The Complex Mind. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  5. Theodora Achourioti, Andrew Fugard & Keith Stenning (2011). Throwing the Normative Baby Out with the Prescriptivist Bathwater. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):249-249.
    It is neither desirable nor possible to eliminate normative concerns from the psychology of reasoning. Norms define the most fundamental psychological questions: What are people trying to do, and how? Even if no one system of reasoning can be the norm, pure descriptivism is as undesirable and unobtainable in the psychology of reasoning as elsewhere in science.
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  6. Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen (2009). “Nonmonotonic” Does Not Mean “Probabilistic”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):102-103.
    Oaksford & Chater (O&C) advocate Bayesian probability as a way to deal formally with the pervasive nonmonotonicity of common sense reasoning. We show that some forms of nonmonotonicity cannot be treated by Bayesian methods.
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  7. Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen (2008). Interpretation, Representation, and Deductive Reasoning. In Jonathan Eric Adler & Lance J. Rips (eds.), Reasoning: Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations. Cambridge University Press.
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  8. Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen (2007). Logic in the Study of Psychiatric Disorders: Executive Function and Rule-Following. Topoi 26 (1):97-114.
    Executive function has become an important concept in explanations of psychiatric disorders, but we currently lack comprehensive models of normal executive function and of its malfunctions. Here we illustrate how defeasible logical analysis can aid progress in this area. We illustrate using autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as example disorders, and show how logical analysis reveals commonalities between linguistic and non-linguistic behaviours within each disorder, and how contrasting sub-components of executive function are involved across disorders. This analysis reveals (...)
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  9. Keith Stenning & Michiel Lambalgen (2005). Semantic Interpretation as Computation in Nonmonotonic Logic: The Real Meaning of the Suppression Task. Cognitive Science 29 (6):919-960.
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  10. Keith Stenning & Michiel Lambalgen (2004). A Little Logic Goes a Long Way: Basing Experiment on Semantic Theory in the Cognitive Science of Conditional Reasoning. Cognitive Science 28 (4):481-529.
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  11. Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen (2004). A Little Logic Goes a Long Way: Basing Experiment on Semantic Theory in the Cognitive Science of Conditional Reasoning. Cognitive Science 28 (4):481-529.
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  12. Keith Stenning (2002). Seeing Reason: Image and Language in Learning to Think. OUP Oxford.
    'A picture is worth a thousand words' Or is it? What difference does it make whether information is presented using illustrations or language? 'Seeing Reason' is an interdisciplinary study of a central topic in cognitive science: how does the mind respond to different kinds of representation of the same information, especially when learning, reasoning, and communicating. It uses philosophical, logical, linguistic, psychological, and educational methods to explore this topic, reporting theories, observations, and arguments developed during several years' research. Though the (...)
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  13. Keith Stenning (2001). Terry Regier, the Human Semantic Potential: Spatial Language and Constrained Connectionism. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (2):266-269.
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  14. Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen (2001). Semantics as a Foundation for Psychology: A Case Study of Wason's Selection Task. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (3):273-317.
    We review the various explanations that have been offered toaccount for subjects'' behaviour in Wason''s famous selection task. Weargue that one element that is lacking is a good understanding ofsubjects'' semantics for the key expressions involved, and anunderstanding of how this semantics is affected by the demands the taskputs upon the subject''s cognitive system. We make novel proposals inthese terms for explaining the major content effects of deonticmaterials. Throughout we illustrate with excerpts from tutorialdialogues which motivate the kinds of analysis (...)
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  15. Keith Stenning & Padraic Monaghan (2000). Cooperative Versus Adversarial Communication; Contextual Embedding Versus Disengagement. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):696-697.
    Subjects exhibiting logical competence choices, for example, in Wason's selection task, are exhibiting an important skill. We take issue with the idea that this skill is individualistic and must be selected for at some different level than System 1 skills. Our case redraws System 1/2 boundaries, and reconsiders the relationship of competence model to skill.
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  16. Keith Stenning (1999). Carroll Lewis (Pseudonym), Das Spiel der Logik, Germam Translation by Micheal Zöllner of 671, Edited and with an Afterword by Good Paul. Tropen Verlag, Cologne, and Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart, 1998, 199 Pp. Good Paul, Logik—Ein Spiel, Therein, Pp. 103–119. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (3):1368-1370.
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  17. Keith Stenning (1999). Review: Lewis Carroll, Michael Zollner, Paul Good, Das Spiel der Logik. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (3):1368-1370.
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  18. Keith Stenning & Oliver Lemon (1999). Aligning Logical and Psychological Perspectives on Diagrammatic Reasoning. Philosophical Explorations.
    We advance a theoretical framework which combines recent insights of research in logic, psychology, and formal semantics, on the nature of diagrammatic representation and reasoning. In particular, we wish to explain the varied efficacy of reasoning and representing with diagrams. In general we consider diagrammatic representations to be restricted in expressive power, and we wish to explain efficacy of reasoning with diagrams via the semantical and computational properties of such restricted `languages'. Connecting these foundational insights (from semantics and complexity theory) (...)
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  19. Corin Gurr, John Lee & Keith Stenning (1998). Theories of Diagrammatic Reasoning: Distinguishing Component Problems. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 8 (4):533-557.
    Theories of diagrams and diagrammatic reasoning typically seek to account for either the formal semantics of diagrams, or for the advantages which diagrammatic representations hold for the reasoner over other forms of representation. Regrettably, almost no theory exists which accounts for both of these issues together, nor how they affect one another. We do not attempt to provide such an account here. We do, however, seek to lay out larger context than is generally used for examining the processes of using (...)
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  20. Padraic Monaghan & Keith Stenning (1998). Effects of Representational Modality and Thinking Style on Learning to Solve Reasoning Problems. In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 716--721.
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  21. Keith Stenning & Jon Oberlander (1997). A Cognitive Theory of Graphical and Linguistic Reasoning: Logic and Implementation. Cognitive Science. Philosophical Explorations.
    We discuss external and internal graphical and linguistic representational systems. We argue that a cognitive theory of peoples' reasoning performance must account for (a) the logical equivalence of inferences expressed in graphical and linguistic form; and (b) the implementational differences that affect facility of inference. Our theory proposes that graphical representations limit abstraction and thereby aid processibility. We discuss the ideas of specificity and abstraction, and their cognitive relevance. Empirical support comes from tasks (i) involving and (ii) not involving the (...)
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  22. Keith Stenning & Peter Yule (1997). Image and Language in Human Reasoning: A Syllogistic Illustration. Philosophical Explorations.
    Existing accounts of syllogistic reasoning oppose rule-based and model-based methods. Stenning \& Oberlander (1995) show that the latter are isomorphic to well-known graphical methods, when these are correctly interpreted. We here extend these results by showing that equivalent sentential implementations exist, thus revealing that all these theories are members of a family of abstract {\it individual identification algorithms} variously implemented in diagrams or sentences. This abstract logical analysis suggests a novel {\it individual identification task} for observing syllogistic reasoning processes. Comparison (...)
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  23. Keith Stenning (1996). Episodic is What Apes Are Not. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):158.
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  24. Keith Stenning (1996). Embedding Logic in Communication: Lessons From the Logic Classroom. In J. F. A. K. van Benthem (ed.), Logic and Argumentation. North-Holland. 227--240.
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  25. Keith Stenning (1996). The Cognitive Impact of Diagrams. In J. Ezquerro A. Clark (ed.), Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Categories, Consciousness, and Reasoning. Kluwer. 181--196.
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  26. Keith Stenning & Robert Inder (1995). Applying Semantic Concepts to the Media Assigment Problem in Multi-Media Communication. In [Book Chapter].
    Our long term goal is an understanding of human communication in terms which would provide the basis for rational design. The kernel would be a theory of the cognitive consequences of allocating the same information to different media and modalities, based on the user's information processing characterised in computational terms. Our theory of the cognitive consequences of media/modality allocation starts from an analysis of differences in logical expressiveness of graphical and linguistic representations (Stenning \& Oberlander (1994, 1995)). This semantic approach (...)
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  27. Keith Stenning & Robert Inder (1995). [Book Chapter]. Springer Netherlands.
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  28. Keith Stenning & Jon Oberlander (1995). A Cognitive Theory of Graphical and Linguistic Reasoning: Logic and Implementation. Cognitive Science 19 (1):97-140.
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  29. Keith Stenning & Jon Oberlander (1993). Nonsentential Representation and Nonformality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):365.
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  30. Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater & Keith Stenning (1990). Connectionism, Classical Cognitive Science and Experimental Psychology. AI and Society 4 (1):73-90.
    Classical symbolic computational models of cognition are at variance with the empirical findings in the cognitive psychology of memory and inference. Standard symbolic computers are well suited to remembering arbitrary lists of symbols and performing logical inferences. In contrast, human performance on such tasks is extremely limited. Standard models donot easily capture content addressable memory or context sensitive defeasible inference, which are natural and effortless for people. We argue that Connectionism provides a more natural framework in which to model this (...)
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  31. Keith Stenning (1987). Applying Marr to Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):494.
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