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  1. Ken Gemes, Carnap-Confirmation, Content-Cutting, & Real Confirmation.
    The attempt to explicate the intuitive notions of confirmation and inductive support through use of the formal calculus of probability received its canonical formulation in Carnap's The Logical Foundations of Probability. It is a central part of modern Bayesianism as developed recently, for instance, by Paul Horwich and John Earman. Carnap places much emphasis on the identification of confirmation with the notion of probabilistic favorable relevance. Notoriously, the notion of confirmation as probabilistic favorable relevance violates the intuitive transmittability condition that (...)
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  2. Ken Gemes, Logical Content and Empirical Significance.
    Logical Positivism, could not be said to be au courant as a philosophical movement.1 Indeed not only is the movement no longer in existence, it's projects are no longer central to philosophical investigations, even to the investigations of those who specialize in the philosophy of science. If Positivism has been making a comeback it is primarily as an object of historical inquiry, perhaps as a means to answering the question of how we got from there (our forefathers' primary philosophical interests (...)
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  3. Ken Gemes, The Problem of Evil and its Solution.
    The problem of evil can be captured by the following four statements which taken together are inconsistent: 1) God made the world 2) God is a perfect being 3) A perfect being would not create a world containing evil 4) The world contains evil Traditional attempts to grapple with this problem typically center on rejecting (3). Thus Descartes, following Augustine, rejects (3), arguing that evil is the result of man’s exercise of his free will. However, given Descartes plausible claim that (...)
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  4. Ken Gemes, Life's Perspectives.
    Book synopsis: The diversity of Nietzsche's books, and the sheer range of his philosophical interests, have posed daunting challenges to his interpreters. This Oxford Handbook addresses this multiplicity by devoting each of its 32 essays to a focused topic, picked out by the book's systematic plan. The aim is to treat each topic at the best current level of philosophical scholarship on Nietzsche. The first group of papers treat selected biographical issues: his family relations, his relations to women, and his (...)
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  5. Ken Gemes & John Richardson (eds.) (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche. OUP Oxford.
    An international team of scholars offer a broad engagement with the thought of Friedrich Nietzsche. They discuss the main topics of his philosophy, under the headings of values, epistemology and metaphysics, and will to power. Other sections are devoted to his life, his relations to other philosophers, and his individual works.
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  6. Ken Gemes, Life-Denial Versus Life-Affirmation: Schopenhauer and Nietzsche on Pessimism and Asceticism.
    Book synopsis: A Companion to Schopenhauer provides a comprehensive guide to all the important facets of Schopenhauer’s philosophy. The volume contains 26 newly commissioned essays by prominent Schopenhauer scholars working in the field today.
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  7. Ken Gemes & Christoph Schuringa (2012). Nietzsche. In Tom Angier (ed.), Ethics: The Key Thinkers. Bloomsbury.
    Nietzsche never presented a worked-out normative ethical theory and appeared to regard any attempt to do so as woefully misguided. He poured scorn on the main contenders for such a theory in his day, and in ours – Kantian ethics and utilitarianism. Moreover, he repeatedly referred to himself as an 'immoralist' and gave one of his books the title Beyond Good and Evil, thus seeming only to confirm the impression that he was more interested in demolishing, and even abolishing morality (...)
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  8. Ken Gemes (2010). A Vindication of a Refutation of Global Scepticism, a Refutation of Global Perceptual Scepticism and a Refutation of Global Existential Scepticism. Analysis 70 (1):63-70.
    (No abstract is available for this citation).
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  9. Ken Gemes (2009). A Refutation of Global Scepticism. Analysis 69 (2):218-219.
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  10. Ken Gemes (2009). Freud and Nietzsche on Sublimation. Journal of Nietzsche Studies 38 (1):38-59.
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  11. Ken Gemes (2009). Janaway on Perspectivism. European Journal of Philosophy 17 (1):101-112.
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  12. Ken Gemes (2009). Nietzsche on Free Will, Autonomy, and the Sovereign Individual. In Ken Gemes & Simon May (eds.), Nietzsche on Freedom and Autonomy. Oxford University Press. 321-338.
    [Ken Gemes] In some texts Nietzsche vehemently denies the possibility of free will; in others he seems to positively countenance its existence. This paper distinguishes two different notions of free will. Agency free will is intrinsically tied to the question of agency, what constitutes an action as opposed to a mere doing. Deserts free will is intrinsically tied to the question of desert, of who does and does not merit punishment and reward. It is shown that we can render Nietzsche's (...)
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  13. Ken Gemes & Simon May (eds.) (2009). Nietzsche on Freedom and Autonomy. Oxford University Press.
    The principal aim of this volume is to elucidate what freedom, sovereignty, and autonomy mean for Nietzsche and what philosophical resources he gives us to re ...
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  14. Ken Gemes (2008). Nihilism and the Affirmation of Life: A Review of and Dialogue with Bernard Reginster. [REVIEW] European Journal of Philosophy 16 (3):459-466.
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  15. Ken Gemes, Explanation, Unification, & Content.
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  16. Ken Gemes, Epistemological Vs. Causal Explanation in Quine, Or, Quine: Sic Et Non.
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  17. Ken Gemes (2007). Irrelevance: Strengthening the Bayesian Requirements. Synthese 157 (2):161-166.
    Bayesians standardly identify irrelevance with probabilistic irrelevance. However, there are cases where e is probabilistically irrelevant to h but intuitively e is relevant to h. For instance, ‘Die A came up 1 and die B came up 1, 3, 5 or 6’ is probabilistically irrelevant to ‘Die A came up odd and die B came up even’, yet, intuitively, it is not, irrelevant to that claim, in the sense that ‘Sydney has a harbour Bridge’ is irrelevant to it. In the (...)
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  18. Ken Gemes, Strangers to Ourselves: Nietzsche on The Will to Truth, The Scientific Spirit, Free Will, and Genuine Selfhood.
    On the Genealogy of Morals contains the puzzling claim that the will to truth is the last expression of the ascetic ideal. Part I of this essay argues that Nietzsche’s claim is that our will to truth functions as a tool allowing us to take a passive stance to the world, leading us to repress and split off part of our nature. Part II deals with Nietzsche’s account of the sovereign individual and his related, novel, account of free will. Both (...)
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  19. Ken Gemes (2007). Verisimilitude and Content. Synthese 154 (2):293 - 306.
    Popper’s original definition of verisimilitude in terms of comparisons of truth content and falsity content has known counter-examples. More complicated approaches have met with mixed success. This paper uses a new account of logical content to develop a definition of verisimilitude that is close to Popper’s original account. It is claimed that Popper’s mistake was to couch his account of truth and falsity content in terms of true and false consequences. Comparison to a similar approach by Schurz and Wiengartner show (...)
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  20. Ken Gemes (2006). Bootstrapping and Content Parts. Erkenntnis 64 (3):345 - 370.
    Christensen [Philosophy of Science, 50: 471–481, 1983] and [Philosophy of Science, 57: 644–662, 1990] provides two sets of counter-examples to the versions of bootstrap confirmation for standard first-order languages presented in Glymour [Theory and Evidence, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1980] and [Philosophy of Science, 50: 626–629, 1983]. This paper responds to the counter-examples of Christensen [Philosophy of Science, 50: 471–481, 1983] by utilizing a new notion of content introduced in Gemes [Journal of Philosophical Logic, 26, 449–476, 1997]. It is (...)
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  21. Ken Gemes (2006). Content & Watkins's Account of Natural Axiomatizations. Dialectica 60 (1):85–92.
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  22. Ken Gemes (2006). Ken Gemes. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 80 (1):321–338.
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  23. Ken Gemes, We Remain of Necessity Strangers to Ourselves: The Key Message of Nietzsche's Genealogy.
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  24. Keith Ansell Pearson, Babette Babich, Eric Blondel, Daniel Conway, Ken Gemes, Jürgen Habermas, Salim Kemal, Paul S. Loeb, Mark Migotti, Wolfgang Müller-Lauter, Alexander Nehamas, David Owen, Robert Pippin, Aaron Ridley, Gary Shapiro, Alan Schrift, Tracy Strong, Christine Swanton & Yirmiyahu Yovel (2006). Nietzsche's on the Genealogy of Morals: Critical Essays. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  25. Ken Gemes, Confirmation and Compositionality.
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  26. Ken Gemes (2005). Hypothetico-Deductivism: Incomplete but Not Hopeless. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 63 (1):139 - 147.
    Alleged counter-examples deployed in Park (2004) [Erkenntnis 60: 229–240] against the account of selective hypothetico-deductive confirmation offered in Gemes (1998) [Erkenntnis 49: 1–20] are shown to be ineffective. Furthermore, the reservations expressed in Gemes (1998) [ibid] and (1993) [Philosophy of Science 62: 477–487] about hypothetico-deductivism (H-D) are retracted and replaced with the conclusion that H-D is a viable account of confirmation that captures much of the practice of working scientists. However, because it cannot capture cases of inference to (...)
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  27. Ken Gemes & Christopher Janaway (2005). Naturalism and Value in Nietzsche. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (3):729–740.
  28. Ken Gemes & Christopher Janaway (2005). Nietzsche on Morality by Brian Leiter. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (3):729-740.
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  29. Ken Gemes & Christopher Janaway (2005). Review: Naturalism and Value in Nietzsche. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (3):729 - 740.
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  30. Ken Gemes (2001). Postmodernism's Use and Abuse of Nietzsche. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 62 (2):337-360.
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  31. Ken Gemes (1998). Hypothetico-Deductivism: The Current State of Play; The Criterion of Empirical Significance: Endgame. Erkenntnis 49 (1):1 - 20.
    : Any precise version of H-D needs to handle various problems, most notably, the problem of selective confirmation: Precise formulations of H-D should not have the consequence that where S confirms T, for any T', S confirms T&T'. It is the perceived failure of H-D to solve such problems that has lead John Earman to recently conclude that H-D is "very nearly a dead horse". This suggests the following state of play: H-D is an intuitively plausible idea that breaks down (...)
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  32. Ken Gemes (1997). A New Theory of Content II: Model Theory and Some Alternatives. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 26 (4):449-476.
    This paper develops a semantical model - theoretic account of (logical) content complementing the syntactically specified account of content developed in "A New Theory of Content I", JPL 23: 596-620, 1994. Proofs of Completeness are given for both propositional and quantificational languages (without identity). Means for handling a quantificational language with identity are also explored. Finally, this new notion of content is compared, in respect of both logical properties and philosophical applications, to alternative partitions of the standard consequence class relation (...)
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  33. Ken Gemes (1997). Inductive Skepticism and the Probability Calculus I: Popper and Jeffreys on Induction and the Probability of Law-Like Universal Generalizations. Philosophy of Science 64 (1):113-130.
  34. Ken Gemes (1997). Inductive Skepticism and the Probability Calculus I: Popper and Earman on the Probability of Laws. Philosophy of Science 64:113-130.
  35. Ken Gemes (1994). A New Theory of Content I: Basic Content. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 23 (6):595 - 620.
    Philosophers of science as divergent as the inductivist Carnap and the deductivist Popper share the notion that the (logical) content of a proposition is given by its consequence class. I claim that this notion of content is (a) unintuitive and (b) inappropriate for many of the formal needs of philosophers of science. The basic problem is that given this notion of content, for any arbitrary p and q, [(p ∨ q)] will count as part of the content of both p (...)
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  36. Ken Gemes (1994). Explanation, Unification, and Content. Noûs 28 (2):225-240.
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  37. Ken Gemes (1994). Schurz on Hypothetico-Deductivism. Erkenntnis 41 (2):171 - 181.
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  38. Ken Gemes (1993). Hypothetico-Deductivism, Content, and the Natural Axiomatization of Theories. Philosophy of Science 60 (3):477-487.
    In Gemes (1990) I examined certain formal versions of hypothetico-deductivism (H-D) showing that they have the unacceptable consequence that "Abe is a white raven" confirms "All ravens are black"! In Gemes (1992) I developed a new notion of content that could save H-D from this bizarre consequence. In this paper, I argue that more traditional formulations of H-D also need recourse to this new notion of content. I present a new account of the vexing notion of the natural axiomatization of (...)
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  39. Ken Gemes (1992). Nietzsche's Critique of Truth. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (1):47-65.
    Article (Reprinted in "Oxford Readings in Philosophy: Nietzsche", edited by B. Leiter and J. Richardson, Oxford University Press, 2001.
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  40. Ken Gemes (1991). The Indeterminacy Thesis Reformulated. Journal of Philosophy 88 (2):91-108.
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  41. Ken Gemes (1990). Horwich, Hempel, and Hypothetico-Deductivism. Philosophy of Science 57 (4):699-702.
    In his paper, "Explanations of Irrelevance" (1983), Paul Horwich proposes an amended version of hypothetico-deductivism, (H-D * ). In this discussion note it is shown that (H-D * ) has the consequence that "A is a non-black raven" confirms "All ravens are black" relative to any tautology! It is noted that Horwich's (H-D * ) bears a strong resemblance to Hempel's prediction criterion of confirmation and that the prediction criterion faces the same obstacle. A related problem for hypothetico-deductivism in its (...)
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  42. Ken Gemes (1989). A Refutation of Popperian Inductive Scepticism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (2):183-184.
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  43. Ken Gemes (1987). The World in Itself: Neither Uniform nor Physical. Synthese 73 (2):301 - 318.
    Since Hume, philosophers of induction have debated the question of whether we have any reason for assuming that nature is uniform. This debate has always presumed that the uniformity hypothesis is itself coherent. In Part 1 of the following I argue that a proper appreciation of Nelson Goodman's so-called grue-green problem1 should lead us to the conclusion that the uniformity hypothesis, under its usual interpretation as a strictly ontological thesis, is incoherent. In Part 2 I argue that further consideration of (...)
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  44. Ken Gemes (1983). A Refutation of Inductive Scepticism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 61 (4):434 – 438.
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