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Profile: Kenneth Schaffner (University of Pittsburgh)
Profile: Kenneth Schaffner (University of Pittsburgh)
  1. Kenneth F. Schaffner (forthcoming). Ethical Considerations in Human Investigation Involving Paradigm Shifts: Organ Transplantation in the 1990s. Irb.
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  2. Kenneth F. Schaffner (forthcoming). Neuroethics: Reductionism, Emergence, and Decision-Making Capacities. Neuroethics: Mapping the Field.
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  3. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2012). A Philosophical Overview of the Problems of Validity for Psychiatric Disorders. In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oup Oxford. 169.
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  4. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2012). Coherentist Approaches to Scientific Progress in Psychiatry: Comments on Kendler. In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oup Oxford. 323.
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  5. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2012). Ernest Nagel and Reduction. Journal of Philosophy 109 (8-9):534-565.
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  6. Drozdstoj St Stoyanov, Peter K. Machamer & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2012). Rendering Clinical Psychology an Evidence‐Based Scientific Discipline: A Case Study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (1):149-154.
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  7. Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Peter K. Machamer, Kenneth F. Schaffner & Rayito Rivera‐Hernández (2012). The Challenge of Psychiatric Nosology and Diagnosis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (3):704-709.
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  8. Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Peter K. Machamer, Kenneth F. Schaffner & Rayito Rivera‐Hernández (2012). The Meta‐Language of Psychiatry as Cross‐Disciplinary Effort: In Response to Zachar (2012). Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (3):710-720.
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  9. Kenneth S. Kendler & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2011). Further Thoughts on the Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):73-75.
    We are gratified at the largely positive comments on our essay on the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia (DHS) by these two distinguished commentators from the fields of biological psychiatry (Dr. Tamminga) and the philosophy of psychiatry (Dr. Murphy). There is little that they have said with which we disagree. Rather, we want to expand briefly on their commentaries.We found Dr. Tamminga's reactions to be particularly fascinating because she has been an "insider" to the story of the DHS as it has (...)
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  10. Kenneth S. Kendler & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2011). The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia: An Historical and Philosophical Analysis. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):41-63.
    This essay selectively reviews, from an historical and philosophical perspective, the dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia (DHS; Table 1 lists the abbreviations used in this essay). Our goal is not to adjudicate the validity of the theory—although we arrive at a generally skeptical conclusion—but to focus on the process whereby the DHS has evolved over time and been evaluated. Since its inception, the DHS has been the most prominent etiologic theory in psychiatry and is still referred to widely in current (...)
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  11. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2011). Reduction in Biology and Medicine. In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier. 16--137.
  12. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2010). Interpretive Practices in Medicine. In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Interpretation: Ways of Thinking About the Sciences and the Arts. University of Pittsburgh Press.
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  13. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2008). Etiological Models in Psychiatry : Reductive and Nonreductive Approaches. In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry: Explanation, Phenomenology, and Nosology. Johns Hopkins University Press.
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  14. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2008). Theories, Models, and Equations in Biology: The Heuristic Search for Emergent Simplifications in Neurobiology. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):1008-1021.
    This article considers claims that biology should seek general theories similar to those found in physics but argues for an alternative framework for biological theories as collections of prototypical interlevel models that can be extrapolated by analogy to different organisms. This position is exemplified in the development of the Hodgkin‐Huxley giant squid model for action potentials, which uses equations in specialized ways. This model is viewed as an “emergent unifier.” Such unifiers, which require various simplifications, involve the types of heuristics (...)
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  15. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2007). Theories, Models, and Equations in Systems Biology. In Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr & Hans V. Westerhoff (eds.), Systems Biology: Philosophical Foundations. Elsevier. 145--162.
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  16. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2006). Reduction: The Cheshire Cat Problem and a Return to Roots. Synthese 151 (3):377 - 402.
    In this paper, I propose two theses, and then examine what the consequences of those theses are for discussions of reduction and emergence. The first thesis is that what have traditionally been seen as robust, reductions of one theory or one branch of science by another more fundamental one are a largely a myth. Although there are such reductions in the physical sciences, they are quite rare, and depend on special requirements. In the biological sciences, these prima facie sweeping reductions (...)
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  17. Kenneth F. Schaffner, Ullica Segerstrale, Paul E. Griffiths & Steven Pinker (2004). Liberals Ate My Genes? Metascience 13 (1):28-51.
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  18. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2001). Biopsychosocial Foundations. American Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):26 – 27.
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  19. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2001). Extrapolation From Animal Models. In MachamerPeter (ed.), Theory and Method in the Neurosciences. 200.
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  20. Manfred D. Laubichier & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2000). Philosophy of Biology, Psychology, and Neuroscience-The Organism in Philosophical Focus-Behavior at the Organismal and Molecular Levels: The Case of C. Elegans. Philosophy of Science 67 (3).
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  21. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2000). Biology and Epistemology: Emerging Themes. In Richard Creath & Jane Maienschein (eds.), Biology and Epistemology. Cambridge University Press. 287.
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  22. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2000). Behavior at the Organismal and Molecular Levels: The Case of C. Elegans. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):288.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a tiny worm that has become the focus of a large number of worldwide research projects examining its genetics, development, neuroscience, and behavior. Recently several groups of investigators have begun to tie together the behavior of the organism and the underlying genes, neural circuits, and molecular processes implemented in those circuits. Behavior is quintessentially organismal--it is the organism as a whole that moves and mates--but the explanations are devised at the molecular and neurocircuit levels, and (...)
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  23. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2000). Medical Informatics and the Concept of Disease. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (1):85-100.
    This paper attempts to address the general questionwhether information technologies, as applied in thearea of medicine and health care, have or are likelyto change fundamental concepts regarding disease andhealth. After a short excursion into the domain ofmedical informatics I provide a brief overview of someof the current theories of what a disease is from amore philosophical perspective, i.e. the ``valuefree'' and ``value laden'' view of disease. Next, Iconsider at some length, whether health careinformatics is currently modifying fundamentalconcepts of disease. To (...)
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  24. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1999). Coming Home to Hume: A Sociobiological Foundation for a Concept of 'Health' and Morality. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (4):365 – 375.
    Assessing the normative status of concepts of health and disease involves one in questions regarding the relationship between fact and value. Some have argued that Christopher Boorse's conception of health and disease lacks such a valuational element because it cannot account for types of harms which, while disvalued, do not have evolutionarily dysfunctional consequences. I take Boorse's account and incorporate some Humean-like sociobiological assumptions in order to respond to this challenge. The possession of moral sentiments, I argue, offers an evolutionary (...)
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  25. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1998). Genes, Behavior, and Developmental Emergentism: One Process, Indivisible? Philosophy of Science 65 (2):209-252.
    The question of the influence of genes on behavior raises difficult philosophical and social issues. In this paper I delineate what I call the Developmentalist Challenge (DC) to assertions of genetic influence on behavior, and then examine the DC through an indepth analysis of the behavioral genetics of the nematode, C. elegans, with some briefer references to work on Drosophila. I argue that eight "rules" relating genes and behavior through environmentally-influenced and tangled neural nets capture the results of developmental and (...)
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  26. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1998). Model Organisms and Behavioral Genetics: A Rejoinder. Philosophy of Science 65 (2):276-288.
    In this rejoinder to the three preceding comments, I provide some additional philosophical warrant for the biomedical sciences' focus on model organisms. I then relate the inquiries on model systems to the concept of 'deep homology', and indicate that the issues that appear to divide my commentators and myself are in part empirical ones. I cite recent work on model organisms, and especially C. elegans that supports my views. Finally, I briefly readdress some of the issues raised by Developmental Systems (...)
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  27. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1998). Paradigm Changes in Organ Transplantation: A Journey Toward Selflessness? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (5):425-440.
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  28. Kenneth F. Schaffner & H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr (1998). Medicine, Philosophy Of. In Craig Edward (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge. 264-269.
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  29. A. Mathew Thomas, Gene Cohen, Robert M. Cook-Deegan, Joan O'sullivan, Stephen G. Post, Allen D. Roses, Kenneth F. Schaffner & Ronald M. Green (1998). Alzheimer Testing at Silver Years. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (3):294-307.
    Early last year, the GenEthics Consortium (GEC) of the Washington Metropolitan Area convened at George Washington University to consider a complex case about genetic testing for Alzheimer disease (AD). The GEC consists of scientists, bioethicists, lawyers, genetic counselors, and consumers from a variety of institutions and affiliations. Four of the 8 co-authors of this paper delivered presentations on the case. Supplemented by additional ethical and legal observations, these presentations form the basis for the following discussion.
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  30. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1995). Response to Michael Ruse. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 16 (3):317-319.
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  31. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1994). Introduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (4):301-303.
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  32. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1994). Interactions Among Theory, Experiment, and Technology in Molecular Biology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:192 - 205.
    This article examines how a molecular "solution" to an important biological problem-how is antibody diversity generated? was obtained in the 1970s. After the primarily biological clonal selection theory (CST) was accepted by 1967, immunologists developed several different contrasting theories to complete the SCST. To choose among these theories, immunology had to turn to the new molecular biology, first to nucleic acid hybridization and then to recombinant DNA technology. The research programs of Tonegawa and Leder that led to the "solution" are (...)
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  33. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1993). Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine. University of Chicago Press.
    Kenneth F. Schaffner compares the practice of biological and medical research and shows how traditional topics in philosophy of science--such as the nature of theories and of explanation--can illuminate the life sciences. While Schaffner pays some attention to the conceptual questions of evolutionary biology, his chief focus is on the examples that immunology, human genetics, neuroscience, and internal medicine provide for examinations of the way scientists develop, examine, test, and apply theories. Although traditional philosophy of science has regarded scientific discovery--the (...)
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  34. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1993). Theory Structure, Reduction, and Disciplinary Integration in Biology. Biology and Philosophy 8 (3):319-347.
    This paper examines the nature of theory structure in biology and considers the implications of those theoretical structures for theory reduction. An account of biological theories as interlevel prototypes embodying causal sequences, and related to each other by strong analogies, is presented, and examples from the neurosciences are provided to illustrate these middle-range theories. I then go on to discuss several modifications of Nagel''s classical model of theory reduction, and indicate at what stages in the development of reductions these models (...)
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  35. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Molecular Genetics, Reductionism, and Disease Concepts in Psychiatry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (2):127-153.
    The study of mental illness by the methods of molecular genetics is still in its infancy, but the use of genetic markers in psychiatry may potentially lead to a Virchowian revolution in the conception of mental illness. Genetic markers may define novel clusters of patients having diverse clinical presentations but sharing a common genetic and mechanistic basis. Such clusters may differ radically from the conventional classification schemes of psychiatric illness. However, the reduction of even relatively simple Mendelian phenomena to molecular (...)
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  36. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Of Medicine. In Merrilee H. Salmon (ed.), Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Hackett Pub.. 310.
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  37. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Theory Change in Immunology Part I: Extended Theories and Scientific Progress. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (2).
    This two-part article examines the competition between the clonal selection theory and the instructive theory of the immune response from 1957–1967. In Part I the concept of a temporally extended theory is introduced, which requires attention to the hitherto largely ignored issue of theory individuation. Factors which influence the acceptability of such an extended theory at different temporal points are also embedded in a Bayesian framework, which is shown to provide a rational account of belief change in science. In Part (...)
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  38. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Theory Change in Immunology Part II: The Clonal Selection Theory. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (2).
    This two-part article examines the competition between the clonal selection theory and the instructive theory of the immune response from 1957–1967. In Part I the concept of a temporally extended theory is introduced, which requires attention to the hitherto largely ignored issue of theory individuation. Factors which influence the acceptability of such an extended theory at different temporal points are also embedded in a Bayesian framework, which is shown to provide a rational account of belief change in science. In Part (...)
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  39. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1989). Introduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (2):103-107.
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  40. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1986). Computerized Implementation of Biomedical Theory Structures: An Artificial Intelligence Approach. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:17 - 32.
    In this paper I discuss the nature of a broad class of biomedical theories which I have termed "middle-range theories." I define them and relate the nature of biomedical theorizing to other investigations, such as a recent inquiry by the National Academy of Sciences. I also suggest that some of the knowledge representation tools from artificial intelligence may give us a purchase on this type of biological theorizing, and try to show in a rather preliminary and exploratory manner by using (...)
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  41. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1986). Ethical Problems in Clinical Trials. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (4):297-315.
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  42. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1986). Exemplar Reasoning About Biological Models and Diseases: A Relation Between the Philosophy of Medicine and Philosophy of Science. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (1):63-80.
    the structure of medical science with a special focus on the role of generalizations and universals in medicine, and (2) philosophy of medicine's relation with the philosophy of science. I argue that a usually overlooked aspect of Kuhnian paradigms, namely, their characteristic of being "exemplars", is of considerable significance in the biomedical sciences. This significance rests on certain important differences from the physical sciences in the nature of theories in the basic and the clinical medical sciences. I describe those differences (...)
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  43. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1984). Introduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 9 (2):127-134.
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  44. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1983). Clinical Trials: The Validation of Theory and Therapy. In R. Cohen & L. Laudan (eds.), Physics, Philosophy, and Psychoanalysis. D. Reidel. 191--208.
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  45. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1982). The Historiography of Special Relativity: Comments on the Papers by John Earman, Clark Glymour, and Robert Rynasiewicz and by Arthur Miller. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:417 - 428.
    Two problems in the paper by EGR are considered. One is the lack of any direct confirmatory evidence for the elegant rational reconstruction. The second is a significant gap in the historical account, just at the critical point in Einstein's discovery process -- namely, the reanalysis of simultaneity. In addition, the EGR account appears in danger of being overly focused on the electrodynamical aspect of special relativity to the exclusion of optical null experiments, and in particular to the exclusion of (...)
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  46. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1981). Introduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 6 (2):93-100.
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  47. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1981). Modeling Medical Diagnosis: Logical and Computer Approaches. Synthese 47 (1):163 - 199.
    In the present article I have surveyed several approaches to modeling the clinical diagnostic process. I have argued that at this point of the field's development, logics which simulate the reasoning patterns and knowledge base of expert clinicians represent research programs that are most likely to succeed. No logic of diagnosis has yet attained the status of being definitive; in spite of striking progress much more research and testing is required. On the basis of various existing logics, I have attempted (...)
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  48. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1980). Theory Structure in the Biomedical Sciences. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 5 (1):57-97.
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  49. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1974). Einstein Versus Lorentz: Research Programmes and the Logic of Comparative Theory Evaluation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 25 (1):45-78.
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  50. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1974). Reductionism in Biology: Prospects and Problems. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1974:613 - 632.
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