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  1. Kirstin Borgerson (2014). Redundant, Secretive, and Isolated: When Are Clinical Trials Scientifically Valid? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (4):385-411.
    Clinical research has at least three problematic features: it tends to be redundant, secretive, and isolated.1 Research with these features not only wastes resources and causes harm, it also fails to meet a basic ethical requirement of research: scientific validity. As bioethicists, we should be asking why, if research with these three features is ethically unjustified, it has been so routinely approved by research ethics committees over the past half century. In what follows, I provide one answer to this question. (...)
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  2. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Jonathan Fuller, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Kirstin Borgerson, Maya J. Goldenberg & Elselijn Kingma (2014). Philosophy, Medicine and Health Care – Where We Have Come From and Where We Are Going. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20:902-907.
  3. Kirstin Borgerson (2013). Are Explanatory Trials Ethical? Shifting the Burden of Justification in Clinical Trial Design. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):293-308.
    Most phase III clinical trials today are explanatory. Because explanatory, or efficacy, trials test hypotheses under “ideal” conditions, they are not well suited to providing guidance on decisions made in most clinical care contexts. Pragmatic trials, which test hypotheses under “usual” conditions, are often better suited to this task. Yet, pragmatic, or effectiveness, trials are infrequently carried out. This mismatch between the design of clinical trials and the needs of health care professionals is frustrating for everyone involved, and explains some (...)
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  4. Kirstin Borgerson (2013). Resistance is Not Futile, but Neither is It Always Justified. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):559-561.
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  5. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Drozdstoj S. Stoyanov, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Kirstin Borgerson, Maya J. Goldenberg & Elselijn Kingma (2013). Explanation, Understanding, Objectivity and Experience. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):415-421.
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  6. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson, Vikki Entwistle & Elselijn Kingma (2012). Reason and Value: Making Reasoning Fit for Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):929-937.
    Editors' introduction to 3rd thematic issue on philosophy of medicine.
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  7. Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson (2011). Evidence-Based Medicine. In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier.
  8. Kirstin Borgerson (2011). Amending and Defending Critical Contextual Empiricism. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):435-449.
    In Science as Social Knowledge in 1990 and The Fate of Knowledge in 2002, Helen Longino develops an epistemological theory known as Critical Contextual Empiricism (CCE). Knowledge production, she argues, is an active, value-laden practice, evidence is context dependent and relies on background assumptions, and science is a social inquiry that, under certain conditions, produces social knowledge with contextual objectivity. While Longino’s work has been generally well-received, there have been a number of criticisms of CCE raised in the philosophical literature (...)
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  9. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson & Vikki Entwistle (2011). Virtue, Progress and Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):839-846.
  10. Kirstin Borgerson (2010). Harold Kincaid and Jennifer McKitrick (Eds): Establishing Medical Reality: Essays in the Metaphysics and Epistemology of Biomedical Science. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (2):171-174.
  11. Kirstin Borgerson & Joseph Millum (2010). A Third Way: Ethics Guidance as Evidence-Informed Provisional Rules. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):20-22.
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  12. Michael Loughlin, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson (2010). Philosophy, Ethics, Medicine and Health Care: The Urgent Need for Critical Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):249-259.
  13. Kirstin Borgerson (2009). In Biology and Medicine on Evidence-Based Medicine. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (2).
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  14. Kirstin Borgerson (2009). Why Reading the Title Isn't Good Enough: An Evaluation of the 4S Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (2):152-175.
  15. Kirstin Borgerson (2009). Valuing Evidence: Bias and the Evidence Hierarchy of Evidence-Based Medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):218-233.
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  16. Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson & Robyn Bluhm (2009). The Nature of Evidence in Evidence-Based Medicine: Guest Editors' Introduction. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):164-167.
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  17. Kirstin Borgerson (2005). Evidence-Based Alternative Medicine? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):502-515.
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  18. Kirstin Borgerson & Robyn Bluhm (2005). Evidence Based Medicine: Editors' Overview and Introduction. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):475-476.
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