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  1. Colin Klein, Idealization in Cognitive Psychology: A Case Study.
    develops themes from the dissertation. I argue that two models of prosopagnosia are best understood as idealizing models, and as such are subject to importantly different methodological constraints from non-idealized theories of face recognition.
     
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  2. Anthony Chemero, Colin Klein & William Cordeiro, Events as Changes in the Layout of Affordances.
    In a target article that appeared in this journal, Thomas Stoffregen 2000 questions the possibility of ecological event perception research. This paper describes an experiments performed to examine the perception of the disappearance of gap-crossing affordances, a variety of event as defined by Chemero 2000. We found that subjects reliably perceive both gap-crossing affordances and the disappearance of gap-crossing affordances. Our findings provide empirical evidence in favor of understanding events as changes in the layout of affordances, shoring up event perception (...)
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  3. Colin Klein, Experimental Philosophy and Individual Differences: Some Pitfalls.
    Reasonable individuals can disagree about philosophical questions. This disagreement sometimes takes the form of conflicting intuitions; the seminar room provides many examples. Experimental philosophers, who have devoted themselves to the systematic study of intuitions, have found empirical support for what anecdotes suggest. Their data often reveals that a significant minority of subjects have intuitions counter to those of the majority.1 A recent replication of [Knobe, 2003a] discovered three distinct subgroups of subjects with three distinct patterns of response. Only about one-third (...)
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  4. Colin Klein, Idealization is Simplification, Not Representation.
    The problem with idealization is not just that, when idealizing, scientists ask us to suppose false things. Many people do that. No, the puzzling thing about idealizers—unlike astrologers, spodomancers, and homeopaths—is that it is worth listening to them. Supposing that populations of rabbits are in- finite is useful for a variety of ecological explanations. Yet we are not up to our necks in rabbits; the puzzle is why it should be useful to suppose that we are.
     
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  5. Colin Klein, Spheres Are Not Multiply Realizable.
    Are spheres multiply realizable? A venerable tradition implies that they are. Putnam’s discussion of the peg and holes (in [Putnam, 1975]) is often taken to show that all volumetric shape properties are multiply realizable . The argument runs: (a) physics is the science of the “ultimate constituents” (Putnam’s phrase) of matter, and so (b) physics can only track the behavior of each of the simple constituents of a particular system, but (c) tediously tracking individual particles doesn’t make for a very (...)
     
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  6. Colin Klein, Significance, Evidence, and the Uncomfortable Science of fMRI.
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (or fMRI)1 is widely used to support hypotheses about brain function. Many find the images produced from fMRI data to be especially compelling evidence for scientific hypotheses [McCabe and Castel, 2008]. There are many problems with all of this; I want to start with two of them, and argue that they get us closer to an under-appreciated worry about many imaging experiments.
     
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  7. Colin Klein, What Pain Asymbolia Really Shows.
    Pains motivate us. Must they? Motivationalists about pain say yes: motivational force is an intrinsic property of pains. Many disagree. The debate is partly empirical. Find someone who is entirely unmoved by pain, and motivationalism is threatened. Fail repeatedly to find such a case, and motivationalism gains credence.
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  8. Dan Klein, Named Entity Recognition with Character-Level Models.
    We discuss two named-entity recognition models which use characters and character n-grams either exclusively or as an important part of their data representation. The first model is a character-level HMM with minimal context information, and the second model is a maximum-entropy conditional markov model with substantially richer context features. Our best model achieves an overall F1 of 86.07% on the English test data (92.31% on the development data). This number represents a 25% error reduction over the same model without word-internal (...)
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  9. Dan Klein & Chris Manning, Computing PageRank Using Power Extrapolation.
    Method by subtracting off the error along several nonprincipal eigenvectors from the current iterate of the Power Method, making use of known nonprincipal eigenvalues of the Web hyperlink matrix. Empirically, we show that using Power Extrapolation speeds up PageRank computation by 30% on a Web graph of 80 million nodes in realistic scenarios over the standard power method, in a way that is simple to understand and implement.
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  10. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, An Ç ´Ò¿ Μ Agenda-Based Chart Parser for Arbitrary Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars.
    While Ç ´Ò¿ µ methods for parsing probabilistic context-free grammars (PCFGs) are well known, a tabular parsing framework for arbitrary PCFGs which allows for botton-up, topdown, and other parsing strategies, has not yet been provided. This paper presents such an algorithm, and shows its correctness and advantages over prior work. The paper finishes by bringing out the connections between the algorithm and work on hypergraphs, which permits us to extend the presented Viterbi (best parse) algorithm to an inside (total probability) (...)
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  11. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, A Generative Constituent-Context Model for Improved Grammar Induction.
    We present a generative distributional model for the unsupervised induction of natural language syntax which explicitly models constituent yields and contexts. Parameter search with EM produces higher quality analyses than previously exhibited by unsupervised systems, giving the best published unsupervised parsing results on the ATIS corpus. Experiments on Penn treebank sentences of comparable length show an even higher F1 of 71% on nontrivial brackets. We compare distributionally induced and actual part-of-speech tags as input data, and examine extensions to the basic (...)
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  12. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, A∗ Parsing: Fast Exact Viterbi Parse Selection.
    A* PCFG parsing can dramatically reduce the time required to find the exact Viterbi parse by conservatively estimating outside Viterbi probabilities. We discuss various estimates and give efficient algorithms for computing them. On Penn treebank sentences, our most detailed estimate reduces the total number of edges processed to less than 3% of that required by exhaustive parsing, and even a simpler estimate which can be pre-computed in under a minute still reduces the work by a factor of 5. The algorithm (...)
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  13. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, Accurate Unlexicalized Parsing.
    We demonstrate that an unlexicalized PCFG can parse much more accurately than previously shown, by making use of simple, linguistically motivated state splits, which break down false independence assumptions latent in a vanilla treebank grammar. Indeed, its performance of 86.36% (LP/LR F1) is better than that of early lexicalized PCFG models, and surprisingly close to the current state-of-theart. This result has potential uses beyond establishing a strong lower bound on the maximum possible accuracy of unlexicalized models: an unlexicalized PCFG is (...)
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  14. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, Conditional Structure Versus Conditional Estimation in NLP Models.
    This paper separates conditional parameter estima- tion, which consistently raises test set accuracy on statistical NLP tasks, from conditional model struc- tures, such as the conditional Markov model used for maximum-entropy tagging, which tend to lower accuracy. Error analysis on part-of-speech tagging shows that the actual tagging errors made by the conditionally structured model derive not only from label bias, but also from other ways in which the independence assumptions of the conditional model structure are unsuited to linguistic sequences. The (...)
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  15. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, Distributional Phrase Structure Induction.
    Unsupervised grammar induction systems commonly judge potential constituents on the basis of their effects on the likelihood of the data. Linguistic justifications of constituency, on the other hand, rely on notions such as substitutability and varying external contexts. We describe two systems for distributional grammar induction which operate on such principles, using part-of-speech tags as the contextual features. The advantages and disadvantages of these systems are examined, including precision/recall trade-offs, error analysis, and extensibility.
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  16. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, Fast Exact Inference with a Factored Model for Natural Language Parsing.
    We present a novel generative model for natural language tree structures in which semantic (lexical dependency) and syntactic (PCFG) structures are scored with separate models. This factorization provides conceptual simplicity, straightforward opportunities for separately improving the component models, and a level of performance comparable to similar, non-factored models. Most importantly, unlike other modern parsing models, the factored model admits an extremely effective A* parsing algorithm, which enables efficient, exact inference.
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  17. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, From Instance-Level Constraints to Space-Level Constraints: Making the Most of Prior Knowledge in Data Clustering.
    We present an improved method for clustering in the presence of very limited supervisory information, given as pairwise instance constraints. By allowing instance-level constraints to have spacelevel inductive implications, we are able to successfully incorporate constraints for a wide range of data set types. Our method greatly improves on the previously studied constrained -means algorithm, generally requiring less than half as many constraints to achieve a given accuracy on a range of real-world data, while also being more robust when over-constrained. (...)
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  18. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, Interpreting and Extending Classical Agglomerative Clustering Algorithms Using a Model-Based Approach.
    erative clustering. First, we show formally that the common heuristic agglomerative clustering algorithms – Ward’s method, single-link, complete-link, and a variant of group-average – are each equivalent to a hierarchical model-based method. This interpretation gives a theoretical explanation of the empirical behavior of these algorithms, as well as a principled approach to resolving practical issues, such as number of clusters or the choice of method. Second, we show how a model-based viewpoint can suggest variations on these basic agglomerative algorithms. We (...)
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  19. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, Natural Language Grammar Induction Using a Constituent-Context Model.
    This paper presents a novel approach to the unsupervised learning of syntactic analyses of natural language text. Most previous work has focused on maximizing likelihood according to generative PCFG models. In contrast, we employ a simpler probabilistic model over trees based directly on constituent identity and linear context, and use an EM-like iterative procedure to induce structure. This method produces much higher quality analyses, giving the best published results on the ATIS dataset.
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  20. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, Parsing and Hypergraphs.
    While symbolic parsers can be viewed as deduction systems, this view is less natural for probabilistic parsers. We present a view of parsing as directed hypergraph analysis which naturally covers both symbolic and probabilistic parsing. We illustrate the approach by showing how a dynamic extension of Dijkstra’s algorithm can be used to construct a probabilistic chart parser with an Ç´Ò¿µ time bound for arbitrary PCFGs, while preserving as much of the flexibility of symbolic chart parsers as allowed by the inherent (...)
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  21. Dan Klein & Christopher D. Manning, Parsing with Treebank Grammars: Empirical Bounds, Theoretical Models, and the Structure of the Penn Treebank.
    This paper presents empirical studies and closely corresponding theoretical models of the performance of a chart parser exhaustively parsing the Penn Treebank with the Treebank’s own CFG grammar. We show how performance is dramatically affected by rule representation and tree transformations, but little by top-down vs. bottom-up strategies. We discuss grammatical saturation, including analysis of the strongly connected components of the phrasal nonterminals in the Treebank, and model how, as sentence length increases, the effective grammar rule size increases as regions (...)
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  22. Dan Klein, Christopher D. Manning & Kristina Toutanova, Combining Heterogeneous Classifiers for Word-Sense Disambiguation.
    This paper discusses ensembles of simple but heterogeneous classifiers for word-sense disambiguation, examining the Stanford-CS224N system entered in the SENSEVAL-2 English lexical sample task. First-order classifiers are combined by a second-order classifier, which variously uses majority voting, weighted voting, or a maximum entropy model. While individual first-order classifiers perform comparably to middle-scoring teams’ systems, the combination achieves high performance. We discuss trade-offs and empirical performance. Finally, we present an analysis of the combination, examining how ensemble performance depends on error independence (...)
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  23. Colin Klein, Aristotle on Functionalism.
  24. Colin Klein, Critical Notice: Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind by Robert Rupert.
    Robert Rupert is well-known as an vigorous opponent of the hypothesis of extended cognition (HEC). His Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind is a first-rate development of his “systems-based” approach to demarcating the mind. The results are impressive. Rupert’s account brings much-needed clarity to the often-frustrating debate over HEC: much more than just an attack on HEC, he gives a compelling picture of why the debate matters.
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  25. Colin Klein, Error, Reference, and the First Horn of Hempel's Dilemma.
    It would be nice if our definition of ‘physical’ incorporated the distinctive content of physics. Attempts at such a definition quickly run into what’s known as Hempel’s dilemma. Briefly: when we talk about ‘physics’, we refer either to current physics or to some idealized version of physics. Current physics is likely wrong and so an unsuitable basis for a definition. ‘Ideal physics’ can’t itself be cashed out except as the science which has completed an accurate survey of the physical; appeals (...)
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  26. Colin Klein, Phantom Limbs and the Imperative Account of Pain.
    Amputation of a limb can result in the persistent hallucination that the limb is still present [Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1998]. Distressingly, these socalled ‘phantom limbs’ are often quite painful. Of a friend whose arm had been amputated due to gas gangrene, W.K. Livingston writes: I once asked him why the sense of tenseness in the hand was so frequently emphasized among his complaints. He asked me to clench my fingers over my thumb, flex my wrist, and raise the arm into (...)
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  27. Colin Klein, Toward an Accurate Phenomenology of Pain.
     
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  28. B. Crandall, G. A. Klein & R. R. Hoffman (forthcoming). Working Minds : A Practitioner's Guide to Cognitive Task Analysis. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine.
    Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) helps researchers understand how cognitive skills and strategies make it possible for people to act effectively and get things done. CTA can yield information people needemployers faced with personnel issues, market researchers who want to understand the thought processes of consumers, trainers and others who design instructional systems, health care professionals who want to apply lessons learned from errors and accidents, systems analysts developing user specifications, and many other professionals. CTA can show what makes the workplace (...)
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  29. Alexander Klein (forthcoming). Science, Religion, and “The Will to Believe. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science:000-000.
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  30. Colin Klein (forthcoming). The Brain at Rest: What It Is Doing and Why That Matters. .
    Neuroimaging studies of the resting state continue to gather philosophical and scientific attention. Most discussions assume an identification between resting-state activity and activity in the so-called default mode network. I argue we should resist this identification, structuring my discussion around a dilemma first posed by Morcom and Fletcher. I offer an alternative view of rest as a state dominated by long-term processes and show how interaction effects might thereby let rest shed light on short-term changes in activation.
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  31. Daniel B. Klein & Charlotta Stern (forthcoming). Forthcoming. Narrow-Tent Democrats and Fringe Others: The Policy Views of Social Science Professors. Critical Review.
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  32. E. Klein (forthcoming). La Physique Quantique,(Michel MEYER). Revue Internationale de Philosophie.
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  33. George Klein (forthcoming). Deep Insight Section. Http://Atlasgeneticsoncology. Org.
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  34. J. T. Klein (forthcoming). A Conceptual Vocabulary of Interdisciplinary Science. Practising Interdisciplinarity:3--24.
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  35. Jacob Klein (forthcoming). The Problem With Truth. The New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy.
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  36. Peter Klein & John Turri (forthcoming). Infinitism. Oxford Bibliographies Online.
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  37. Stan Klein (forthcoming). Autonoetic Consciousness: Re-Considering the Role of Episodic Memory in Future-Oriented Self-Projection. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.
    Following the seminal work of Ingvar (1985. “Memory for the future”: An essay on the temporal organization of conscious awareness. Human Neurobiology, 4, 127–136), Suddendorf (1994. The discovery of the fourth dimension: Mental time travel and human evolution. Master’s thesis. University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand), and Tulving (1985. Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 26, 1–12), exploration of the ability to anticipate and prepare for future contingencies that cannot be known with certainty has grown into a thriving research enterprise. (...)
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  38. Stan Klein (forthcoming). The Feeling of Personal Ownership of One’s Mental States: A Conceptual Augment and Empirical Evidence for an Essential, but Underappreciated, Mechanism of Mind. Psychology of Consciousness: Research, Practice, and Theory.
    I argue that the feeling that one is the owner of his or her mental states is not an intrinsic property of those states. Rather, it consists in a contingent relation between consciousness and its intentional objects. As such, there are (a variety of) circumstances, varying in their interpretive clarity, in which this relation can come undone. When this happens, the content of consciousness still is apprehended, but the feeling that the content “belongs to me” no longer is secured. I (...)
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  39. Ursula Klein (forthcoming). A Revolution That Never Happened. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
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  40. Steffen Moritz, Claudia Cecile Hörmann, Johanna Schröder, Thomas Berger, Gitta A. Jacob, Björn Meyer, Emily A. Holmes, Christina Späth, Martin Hautzinger, Wolfgang Lutz, Matthias Rose & Jan Philipp Klein (forthcoming). Beyond Words: Sensory Properties of Depressive Thoughts. Cognition and Emotion:1-10.
  41. Stan Klein (2015). A Defense of Experiential Realism: The Need to Take Phenomenological Reality on its Own Terms in the Study of the Mind. Psychology of Cosnciousness: Theory, Practice and Research 2 (1):41-56.
    In this paper I argue for the importance of treating mental experience on its own terms. In defense of “experiential realism” I offer a critique of modern psychology’s all-too-frequent attempts to effect an objectification and quantification of personal subjectivity. The question is “What can we learn about experiential reality from indices that, in the service of scientific objectification, transform the qualitative properties of experience into quantitative indices?” I conclude that such treatment is neither necessary for realizing, nor sufficient for capturing, (...)
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  42. Stan Klein (2015). What Memory Is. WIREs Cognitive Science 6 (1):1-38.
    I argue that our current practice of ascribing the term “memory” to mental states and processes lacks epistemic warrant. Memory, according to the “received view”, is any state or process that results from the sequential stages of encoding, storage and retrieval. By these criteria, memory, or its footprint, can be seen in virtually every mental state we are capable of having. This, I argue, stretches the term to the breaking point. I draw on phenomenological, historical and conceptual considerations to make (...)
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  43. Terrance Klein (2015). Icons of Hope: The ‘Last Things’ in Catholic Imagination. By John E. Thiel. Pp. Xiii, 223, University of Notre Dame Press, 2013, $31.50. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 56 (1):160-161.
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  44. Sailee Shikhare, Stefan Heim, Elise Klein, Stefan Huber & Klaus Willmes (2015). Processing of Numerical and Proportional Quantifiers. Cognitive Science 39 (2):n/a-n/a.
    Quantifier expressions like “many” and “at least” are part of a rich repository of words in language representing magnitude information. The role of numerical processing in comprehending quantifiers was studied in a semantic truth value judgment task, asking adults to quickly verify sentences about visual displays using numerical or proportional quantifiers. The visual displays were composed of systematically varied proportions of yellow and blue circles. The results demonstrated that numerical estimation and numerical reference information are fundamental in encoding the meaning (...)
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  45. Cristina Foroni Consani & Joel Thiago Klein (2014). Condorcet E Kant: A Esperança Como Horizonte Do Projeto Político. Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia 55 (129):111-131.
    Este trabalho analisa o conceito de esperança nas obras de Condorcet e Kant. Defende-se que o conceito de esperança no progresso da humanidade é de fundamental importância para a compreensão da filosofia política de ambos os autores. Por um lado, esperança oferece um horizonte de sentido que protege suas propostas políticas de visões de mundo antagônicas; por outro, ela se incorpora no próprio projeto político tendo ao mesmo tempo a função de motivação e de criação de instituições políticas com caráter (...)
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  46. Burt Hopkins, Steven Crowell, Parvis Emad, John Sallis, Carlo Ierna, Filip Matterns, Dieter Lohmar, Benjamin D. Crowe, Jacob Klein & Ka-Wing Leung (2014). The New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy: Volume 6. Routledge.
    "The New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy Volume VI" includes important contributions by both established and emerging scholars working in the phenomenological tradition, together with first-time English translations of texts and documents whose phenomenological relevance transcends their considerable historical significance.
     
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  47. Anke M. Klein, Geraldine Titulaer, Carlijn Simons, Esther Allart, Erwin de Gier, Susan M. Bögels, Eni S. Becker & Mike Rinck (2014). Biased Interpretation and Memory in Children with Varying Levels of Spider Fear. Cognition and Emotion 28 (1):182-192.
  48. Colin Klein (2014). The Penumbral Theory of Masochistic Pleasure. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (1):41-55.
    Being whipped, getting a deep-tissue massage, eating hot chili peppers, running marathons, and getting tattooed are all painful. Sometimes they are also pleasant—or so many people claim. Masochistic pleasure consists in finding such experiences pleasant in addition to, and because of, the pain. Masochistic pleasure presents a philosophical puzzle. Pains hurt, they feel bad, and are aversive. Pleasures do the opposite. Thus many assume that the idea of a pleasant pain is downright unintelligible. I disagree. I claim that cases of (...)
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  49. Dominik Klein & Eric Pacuit (2014). Changing Types: Information Dynamics for Qualitative Type Spaces. Studia Logica 102 (2):297-319.
    Many different approaches to describing the players’ knowledge and beliefs can be found in the literature on the epistemic foundations of game theory. We focus here on non-probabilistic approaches. The two most prominent are the so-called Kripkeor Aumann- structures and knowledge structures (non-probabilistic variants of Harsanyi type spaces). Much of the recent work on Kripke structures has focused on dynamic extensions and simple ways of incorporating these. We argue that many of these ideas can be applied to knowledge structures as (...)
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  50. Jacob Klein (2014). Of Archery and Virtue: Ancient and Modern Conceptions of Value. Philosophers' Imprint 14 (19).
    I argue that comparisons of Stoic virtue to stochastic skills — now standard in the secondary literature on Stoicism — are based on a misreading of the sources and distort the Stoic position in two respects. In paradigmatic stochastic skills such as archery, medicine, or navigation the value of the skill’s external end justifies the existence and practice of the skill and constitutes an appropriate focus of rational motivation. Neither claim applies to virtue as the Stoics understand it. The stochastic (...)
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