Search results for 'Kristian Pollock' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  16
    Kristian Pollock (2012). Procedure Versus Process: Ethical Paradigms and the Conduct of Qualitative Research. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):25-.
    Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness (...)
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  2.  14
    Genevieve Pollock & Joseph Pearce (2010). Interview by Genevieve Pollock of ZENIT, with Newman Scholar Joseph Pearce. The Chesterton Review 36 (3-4):269-270.
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  3.  1
    Sheldon Pollock (2011). Sheldon Pollock: Crisis in the Classics. Social Research 78 (1).
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  4. Griselda Pollock (2007). Griselda Pollock 90. In Diarmuid Costello & Jonathan Vickery (eds.), Art: Key Contemporary Thinkers. Berg 89.
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  5. John L. Pollock (1995). Cognitive Carpentry a Blueprint for How to Build a Person. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  6.  15
    John L. Pollock (1995). Cognitive Carpentry. MIT Press.
    "A sequel to Pollock's How to Build a Person, this volume builds upon that theoretical groundwork for the implementation of rationality through artificial ...
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  7.  9
    John L. Pollock (1989). How to Build a Person: A Prolegomenon. MIT Press.
    Pollock describes an exciting theory of rationality and its partial implementation in OSCAR, a computer system whose descendants will literally be persons.
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  8.  8
    John Pollock (2006). Thinking About Acting: Logical Foundations for Rational Decision Making. Oxford University Press, Usa.
    Pollock argues that theories of ideal rationality are largely irrelevant to the decision making of real agents. Thinking about Acting aims to provide a theory of "real rationality.".
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  9.  11
    John L. Pollock (1990). Nomic Probability and the Foundations of Induction. Oxford University Press.
    In this book Pollock deals with the subject of probabilistic reasoning, making general philosophical sense of objective probabilities and exploring their ...
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  10. Ethan Pollock (2008). Stalin and the Soviet Science Wars. Princeton University Press.
    Between 1945 and 1953, while the Soviet Union confronted postwar reconstruction and Cold War crises, its unchallenged leader Joseph Stalin carved out time to study scientific disputes and dictate academic solutions. He spearheaded a discussion of "scientific" Marxist-Leninist philosophy, edited reports on genetics and physiology, adjudicated controversies about modern physics, and wrote essays on linguistics and political economy. Historians have been tempted to dismiss all this as the megalomaniacal ravings of a dying dictator. But in Stalin and the Soviet Science (...)
     
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  11. William Kingdon Clifford, Frederick Pollock & Leslie Stephen (eds.) (1968). Lectures and Essays. Macmillan.
    A fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and of the Royal Society, William Clifford made his reputation in applied mathematics, but his interests ranged far more widely, encompassing ethics, evolution, metaphysics and philosophy of mind. This posthumously collected two-volume work, first published in 1879, bears witness to the dexterity and eclecticism of this Victorian thinker, whose commitment to the most abstract principles of mathematics and the most concrete details of human experience resulted in vivid and often unexpected arguments. Volume 1 includes (...)
     
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  12. John Pollock, Oscar: A Cognitive Architecture for Intelligent Agents.
    The “grand problem” of AI has always been to build artificial agents with human-like intelligence. That is the stuff of science fiction, but it is also the ultimate aspiration of AI. In retrospect, we can understand what a difficult problem this is, so since its inception AI has focused more on small manageable problems, with the hope that progress there will have useful implications for the grand problem. Now there is a resurgence of interest in tackling the grand problem head-on. (...)
     
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  13.  13
    M. D. Pollock (2013). On the Entropy of Schwarzschild Space-Time. Foundations of Physics 43 (5):615-630.
    In a previous paper by Pollock and Singh, it was proven that the total entropy of de Sitter space-time is equal to zero in the spatially flat case K=0. This result derives from the fundamental property of classical thermodynamics that temperature and volume are not necessarily independent variables in curved space-time, and can be shown to hold for all three spatial curvatures K=0,±1. Here, we extend this approach to Schwarzschild space-time, by constructing a non-vacuum interior space with line element (...)
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  14.  14
    S. Schweber, Alex Wellerstein, Ethan Pollock, Barton Bernstein & Michael Gordin (2011). Contingencies of the Early Nuclear Arms Race. Metascience 20 (3):443-465.
    Contingencies of the early nuclear arms race Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-23 DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9495-z Authors S. S. Schweber, Department of the History of Science, Harvard University, Science Center 371, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Alex Wellerstein, Department of the History of Science, Harvard University, Science Center 371, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Ethan Pollock, Department of History, Box N, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA Barton J. Bernstein, History Department, Building 200, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2024, USA Michael D. Gordin, (...)
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  15. Sheldon Pollock (2016). A Rasa Reader: Classical Indian Aesthetics. Cup.
    From the early years of the Common Era to 1700, Indian intellectuals explored with unparalleled subtlety the place of emotion in art. Their investigations led to the deconstruction of art's formal structures and broader inquiries into the pleasure of tragic tales. _Rasa_, or taste, was the word they chose to describe art's aesthetics, and their passionate effort to pin down these phenomena became its own remarkable act of creation. This book is the first in any language to follow the evolution (...)
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  16. G. Pollock (2007). Liquid Modernity and Cultural Analysis: An Introduction to a Transdisciplinary Encounter. Theory, Culture and Society 24 (1):111-116.
    This extended introductory article sets the scene for consideration of liquid modernity and Bauman’s recent work in general. His ideas are placed against Pollock’s concept of the ‘trans-disciplinary’. The ramifications of Bauman’s work for cultural analysis are discussed, particularly his ideas about migration, tourism, borders and the impact of global social trends on citizenship and agency. One central theme is deterritorialization - both in terms of academic disciplines and the shift from solid, defined, localized, territorialized, nation-bound modernity to the (...)
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  17. Leslie Stephen & Frederick Pollock (eds.) (2011). Lectures and Essays 2 Volume Paperback Set. Cambridge University Press.
    A fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and of the Royal Society, William Clifford made his reputation in applied mathematics, but his interests ranged far more widely, encompassing ethics, evolution, metaphysics and philosophy of mind. This posthumously collected two-volume work, first published in 1879, bears witness to the dexterity and eclecticism of this Victorian thinker, whose commitment to the most abstract principles of mathematics and the most concrete details of human experience resulted in vivid and often unexpected arguments. Edited by Leslie (...)
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  18. Leslie Stephen & Frederick Pollock (eds.) (2012). Lectures and Essays: Volume 1. Cambridge University Press.
    A fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and of the Royal Society, William Clifford made his reputation in applied mathematics, but his interests ranged far more widely, encompassing ethics, evolution, metaphysics and philosophy of mind. This posthumously collected two-volume work, first published in 1879, bears witness to the dexterity and eclecticism of this Victorian thinker, whose commitment to the most abstract principles of mathematics and the most concrete details of human experience resulted in vivid and often unexpected arguments. Volume 1 includes (...)
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  19.  56
    John L. Pollock (1986). Contemporary Theories of Knowledge. Hutchinson.
    This new edition of the classic Contemporary Theories of Knowledge has been significantly updated to include analyses of the recent literature in epistemology.
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  20.  91
    John Pollock (1987). Defeasible Reasoning. Cognitive Science 11 (4):481-518.
    There was a long tradition in philosophy according to which good reasoning had to be deductively valid. However, that tradition began to be questioned in the 1960’s, and is now thoroughly discredited. What caused its downfall was the recognition that many familiar kinds of reasoning are not deductively valid, but clearly confer justification on their conclusions. Here are some simple examples.
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  21. Griselda Pollock (2011). The Lessons of Janina Bauman: Cultural Memory From the Holocaust. Thesis Eleven 107 (1):81-93.
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  22. John Pollock (1970). Knowledge and Justification. Princeton University Press.
    Princeton University Press, 1974. This book is out of print, but can be downloaded as a pdf file (5 MB).
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  23. Richard Fumerton, Laurence Bonjour, John L. Pollock & Alvin Plantinga (2000). Resurrecting Old-Fashioned Foundationalism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The contributions in this volume make an important effort to resurrect a rather old fashioned form of foundationalism. They defend the position that there are some beliefs that are justified, and are not themselves justified by any further beliefs. This epistemic foundationalism has been the subject of rigorous attack by a wide range of theorists in recent years, leading to the impression that foundationalism is a thing of the past. DePaul argues that it is precisely the volume and virulence of (...)
     
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  24.  42
    John Pollock (1976). Subjunctive Reasoning. Reidel.
    Reidel, 1976. This book is out of print, but can be downloaded as a pdf file (3.3 MB).
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  25.  91
    Allan Hazlett, Robin Mckenna & Joey Pollock (2012). The Unity of Linguistic Meaning, by John Collins. Oxford: Oxford. Mind 121:483.
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  26. John L. Pollock & Iris Oved (2005). Vision, Knowledge, and the Mystery Link. Noûs 39 (1):309-351.
    Imagine yourself sitting on your front porch, sipping your morning coffee and admiring the scene before you. You see trees, houses, people, automobiles; you see a cat running across the road, and a bee buzzing among the flowers. You see that the flowers are yellow, and blowing in the wind. You see that the people are moving about, many of them on bicycles. You see that the houses are painted different colors, mostly earth tones, and most are one-story but a (...)
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  27. John L. Pollock, Problems for Bayesian Epistemology.
    In the past, few mainstream epistemologists have endorsed Bayesian epistemology, feeling that it fails to capture the complex structure of epistemic cognition. The defenders of Bayesian epistemology have tended to be probability theorists rather than epistemologists, and I have always suspected they were more attracted by its mathematical elegance than its epistemological realism. But recently Bayesian epistemology has gained a following among younger mainstream epistemologists. I think it is time to rehearse some of the simpler but still quite devastating objections (...)
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  28. John L. Pollock (1987). Epistemic Norms. Synthese 71 (1):61 - 95.
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  29. John L. Pollock (1992). The Theory of Nomic Probability. Synthese 90 (2):263 - 299.
    This article sketches a theory of objective probability focusing on nomic probability, which is supposed to be the kind of probability figuring in statistical laws of nature. The theory is based upon a strengthened probability calculus and some epistemological principles that formulate a precise version of the statistical syllogism. It is shown that from this rather minimal basis it is possible to derive theorems comprising (1) a theory of direct inference, and (2) a theory of induction. The theory of induction (...)
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  30. John L. Pollock (1990). Philosophy and Artificial Intelligence. Philosophical Perspectives 4:461-498.
  31. John Pollock (2001). ``Defeasible Reasoning with Variable Degrees of Justification&Quot. Artificial Intelligence 133:233-282.
    The question addressed in this paper is how the degree of justification of a belief is determined. A conclusion may be supported by several different arguments, the arguments typically being defeasible, and there may also be arguments of varying strengths for defeaters for some of the supporting arguments. What is sought is a way of computing the “on sum” degree of justification of a conclusion in terms of the degrees of justification of all relevant premises and the strengths of all (...)
     
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  32.  29
    Robert Pollock (1940). The Development of Social Thought. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 15 (3):557-558.
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  33.  96
    Joe Cruz & John Pollock (2004). The Chimerical Appeal of Epistemic Externalism. In Richard Schantz (ed.), The Externalist Challenge. De Gruyter 125--42.
    Internalism in epistemology is the view that all the factors relevant to the justification of a belief are importantly internal to the believer, while externalism is the view that at least some of those factors are external. This extremely modest first approximation cries out for refinement (which we undertake below), but is enough to orient us in the right direction, namely that the debate between internalism and externalism is bound up with the controversy over the correct account of the distinction (...)
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  34.  59
    Ryan Pollock (2014). Evaluating the State of Nature Through Gameplay. Teaching Philosophy 37 (1):57-72.
    In this paper I present an in-class game designed to simulate the dynamics of the state of nature. I first explain the mechanics of the game, and how to administer it in the classroom. Then I address how the game can help introduce students to a number of important topics in political philosophy. In broad terms, the game serves to generate discussion regarding to main questions. (1) How does civil society come about? (2) Is the state of nature and the (...)
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  35.  25
    Joey Pollock (2015). Social Externalism and the Problem of Communication. Philosophical Studies 172 (12):3229-3251.
    Social externalism must allow that subjects can misunderstand the content of their own thoughts. I argue that we can exploit this commitment to create a dilemma for the view’s account of communication. To arrive at the first horn of the dilemma, I argue that, on social externalism, it is understanding which is the measure of communicative success. This would be a highly revisionary account of communication. The only way that the social externalist can salvage the claim that mental content is (...)
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  36.  42
    John L. Pollock (2002). Rational Choice and Action Omnipotence. Philosophical Review 111 (1):1-23.
    Counterexamples are constructed for the theory of rational choice that results from a direct application of classical decision theory to ordinary actions. These counterexamples turn on the fact that an agent may be unable to perform an action, and may even be unable to try to perform an action. An alternative theory of rational choice is proposed that evaluates actions using a more complex measure, and then it is shown that this is equivalent to applying classical decision theory to "conditional (...)
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  37.  46
    Frederick Pollock (1876). The Uniformity of Nature. Mind 1 (3):425-426.
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  38.  48
    John Pollock (2009). Brain in a Vat. In Susan Schneider (ed.), Science Fiction and Philosophy: From Time Travel to Superintelligence. Wiley-Blackwell 17--19.
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  39. John L. Pollock (1984). Nomic Probability. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9 (1):177-204.
  40.  5
    Donald Pollock (2016). Drugged Subjectivity, Intoxicating Alterity. Anthropology of Consciousness 27 (1):28-50.
    This article explores the use of intoxicants by a community of Kulina Indians in western Brazil. I suggest that Kulina intoxication through alcohol, tobacco, and ayahuasca is best understood as a form of semiotic appropriation of the identity of cosmological “others,” including animal spirits, creator beings, other Indian groups, and Brazilians. I consider how embodying practices, such as song and physical movement, enhance the experience of being an “alter,” facilitated by the alterations in consciousness produced by intoxicants.
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  41.  25
    Sheldon Pollock (2011). Crisis in the Classics. Social Research: An International Quarterly 78 (1):22-48.
    With the loss of knowledge of its historical languages, India stands to lose access to three thousand years of some of the most accomplished thought ever produced. In this essay I reflect on how this cultural ecocide came about, why it should be deemed a threat worthy of our most serious attention, and what might be done to reverse it.
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  42.  21
    Robert C. Pollock (1950). Essays in the History of Ideas. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 25 (1):147-149.
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  43.  57
    John Pollock, Probable Probabilities.
    In concrete applications of probability, statistical investigation gives us knowledge of some probabilities, but we generally want to know many others that are not directly revealed by our data. For instance, we may know prob(P/Q) (the probability of P given Q) and prob(P/R), but what we really want is prob(P/Q&R), and we may not have the data required to assess that directly. The probability calculus is of no help here. Given prob(P/Q) and prob(P/R), it is consistent with the probability calculus (...)
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  44.  7
    Sheldon Pollock (2009). Future Philology? The Fate of a Soft Science in a Hard World. Critical Inquiry 35 (4):931-961.
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  45. Griselda Pollock (1987). Vision, Voice and Power-Feminist Art-History and Marxism. Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 29 (1):66-76.
  46.  38
    John L. Pollock (1984). Reliability and Justified Belief. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14 (1):103 - 114.
    Reliabilist theories propose to analyse epistemic justification in terms of reliability. This paper argues that if we pay attention to the details of probability theory we find that there is no concept of reliability that can possibly play the role required by reliabilist theories. A distinction is drawn between the general reliability of a process and the single case reliability of an individual belief, And it is argued that neither notion can serve the reliabilist adequately.
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  47.  19
    Robert C. Pollock (1945). The Origin of Dewey's Instrumentalism. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 20 (1):162-163.
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  48.  20
    Robert C. Pollock (1942). As William James Said. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 17 (4):750-750.
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  49.  4
    Ryan Pollock (2016). Hume and the Problem of Paternalism: When is Humanity Sufficient? Southern Journal of Philosophy 54 (1):107-128.
    Hume states that if a group of powerless, rational creatures lived amongst human beings, then humans would be required to treat this species with humanity but not with justice. Michael Ridge has argued that this implies humans would be required to engage in a morally dubious form of paternalism toward this imagined species. I argue that a proper understanding of why this imagined species is excluded from the scope of justice shows Hume has a plausible moral reason for requiring paternalism (...)
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  50.  68
    John L. Pollock (1991). Self-Defeating Arguments. Minds and Machines 1 (4):367-392.
    An argument is self-defeating when it contains defeaters for some of its own defeasible lines. It is shown that the obvious rules for defeat among arguments do not handle self-defeating arguments correctly. It turns out that they constitute a pervasive phenomenon that threatens to cripple defeasible reasoning, leading to almost all defeasible reasoning being defeated by unexpected interactions with self-defeating arguments. This leads to some important changes in the general theory of defeasible reasoning.
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