Search results for 'Kristian Pollock' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Kristian Pollock (2012). Procedure Versus Process: Ethical Paradigms and the Conduct of Qualitative Research. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):25-.score: 240.0
    Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness (...)
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  2. Genevieve Pollock & Joseph Pearce (2010). Interview by Genevieve Pollock of ZENIT, with Newman Scholar Joseph Pearce. The Chesterton Review 36 (3-4):269-270.score: 180.0
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  3. Sheldon Pollock (2011). Sheldon Pollock: Crisis in the Classics. Social Research 78 (1).score: 180.0
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  4. Griselda Pollock (2007). Griselda Pollock 90. In Diarmuid Costello & Jonathan Vickery (eds.), Art: Key Contemporary Thinkers. Berg. 89.score: 180.0
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  5. John Pollock, Oscar: A Cognitive Architecture for Intelligent Agents.score: 60.0
    The “grand problem” of AI has always been to build artificial agents with human-like intelligence. That is the stuff of science fiction, but it is also the ultimate aspiration of AI. In retrospect, we can understand what a difficult problem this is, so since its inception AI has focused more on small manageable problems, with the hope that progress there will have useful implications for the grand problem. Now there is a resurgence of interest in tackling the grand problem head-on. (...)
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  6. S. Schweber, Alex Wellerstein, Ethan Pollock, Barton Bernstein & Michael Gordin (2011). Contingencies of the Early Nuclear Arms Race. Metascience 20 (3):443-465.score: 60.0
    Contingencies of the early nuclear arms race Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-23 DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9495-z Authors S. S. Schweber, Department of the History of Science, Harvard University, Science Center 371, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Alex Wellerstein, Department of the History of Science, Harvard University, Science Center 371, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Ethan Pollock, Department of History, Box N, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA Barton J. Bernstein, History Department, Building 200, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2024, USA Michael D. (...)
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  7. M. D. Pollock (2013). On the Entropy of Schwarzschild Space-Time. Foundations of Physics 43 (5):615-630.score: 60.0
    In a previous paper by Pollock and Singh, it was proven that the total entropy of de Sitter space-time is equal to zero in the spatially flat case K=0. This result derives from the fundamental property of classical thermodynamics that temperature and volume are not necessarily independent variables in curved space-time, and can be shown to hold for all three spatial curvatures K=0,±1. Here, we extend this approach to Schwarzschild space-time, by constructing a non-vacuum interior space with line element (...)
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  8. John L. Pollock (1995). Cognitive Carpentry. Mit Press.score: 60.0
    "A sequel to Pollock's How to Build a Person, this volume builds upon that theoretical groundwork for the implementation of rationality through artificial ...
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  9. John L. Pollock (1989). How to Build a Person: A Prolegomenon. MIT Press.score: 60.0
    Pollock describes an exciting theory of rationality and its partial implementation in OSCAR, a computer system whose descendants will literally be persons.
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  10. John L. Pollock (1990). Nomic Probability and the Foundations of Induction. Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
    In this book Pollock deals with the subject of probabilistic reasoning, making general philosophical sense of objective probabilities and exploring their ...
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  11. John Pollock (2006). Thinking About Acting: Logical Foundations for Rational Decision Making. Oxford University Press, Usa.score: 60.0
    Pollock argues that theories of ideal rationality are largely irrelevant to the decision making of real agents. Thinking about Acting aims to provide a theory of "real rationality.".
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  12. John L. Pollock, Problems for Bayesian Epistemology.score: 30.0
    In the past, few mainstream epistemologists have endorsed Bayesian epistemology, feeling that it fails to capture the complex structure of epistemic cognition. The defenders of Bayesian epistemology have tended to be probability theorists rather than epistemologists, and I have always suspected they were more attracted by its mathematical elegance than its epistemological realism. But recently Bayesian epistemology has gained a following among younger mainstream epistemologists. I think it is time to rehearse some of the simpler but still quite devastating objections (...)
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  13. John Pollock (1970/1975). Knowledge and Justification. Princeton University Press.score: 30.0
    Princeton University Press, 1974. This book is out of print, but can be downloaded as a pdf file (5 MB).
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  14. John L. Pollock (1987). Epistemic Norms. Synthese 71 (1):61 - 95.score: 30.0
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  15. John L. Pollock (1992). The Theory of Nomic Probability. Synthese 90 (2):263 - 299.score: 30.0
    This article sketches a theory of objective probability focusing on nomic probability, which is supposed to be the kind of probability figuring in statistical laws of nature. The theory is based upon a strengthened probability calculus and some epistemological principles that formulate a precise version of the statistical syllogism. It is shown that from this rather minimal basis it is possible to derive theorems comprising (1) a theory of direct inference, and (2) a theory of induction. The theory of induction (...)
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  16. John L. Pollock & Jenann Ismael (2006). So You Think You Exist? — In Defense of Nolipsism. In Thomas M. Crisp, Matthew Davidson & David Vander Laan (eds.), Knowledge and Reality: Essays in Honor of Alvin Plantinga. Springer.score: 30.0
    Human beings think of themselves in terms of a privileged non-descriptive designator — a mental “I”. Such thoughts are called “_de se_” thoughts. The mind/body problem is the problem of deciding what kind of thing I am, and it can be regarded as arising from the fact that we think of ourselves non-descriptively. Why do we think of ourselves in this way? We investigate the functional role of “I” (and also “here” and “now”) in cognition, arguing that the use of (...)
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  17. Joe Cruz & John Pollock (2004). The Chimerical Appeal of Epistemic Externalism. In Richard Schantz (ed.), The Externalist Challenge. De Gruyter. 125--42.score: 30.0
    Internalism in epistemology is the view that all the factors relevant to the justification of a belief are importantly internal to the believer, while externalism is the view that at least some of those factors are external. This extremely modest first approximation cries out for refinement (which we undertake below), but is enough to orient us in the right direction, namely that the debate between internalism and externalism is bound up with the controversy over the correct account of the distinction (...)
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  18. John L. Pollock (2008). Irrationality and Cognition. In Quentin Smith (ed.), Epistemology: New Essays. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    The strategy of this paper is to throw light on rational cognition and epistemic justification by examining irrationality. Epistemic irrationality is possible because we are reflexive cognizers, able to reason about and redirect some aspects of our own cognition. One consequence of this is that one cannot give a theory of epistemic rationality or epistemic justification without simultaneously giving a theory of practical rationality. A further consequence is that practical irrationality can affect our epistemic cognition. I argue that practical irrationality (...)
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  19. John Pollock, Logic: An Introduction to the Formal Study of Reasoning.score: 30.0
    This is a text for an introductory symbolic logic course. It is based upon an old text that I wrote in 1969, which is long out of print. But it modifies the approach of that book to reflect theoretical work that I have done on theorem proving in the..
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  20. John Pollock (1992). The Theory of Nomic Probability. Synthese 90 (2):263 - 299.score: 30.0
    This article sketches a theory of objective probability focusing on "nomic probability", which is supposed to be the kind of probability figuring in statistical laws of nature. The theory is based upon a strengthened probability calculus and some epistemological principles that formulate a precise version of the "statistical syllogism". It is shown that from this rather minimal basis it is possible to derive theorems comprising (1) a theory of direct inference, and (2) a theory of induction. The theory of induction (...)
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  21. John L. Pollock (2008). What Am I? Virtual Machines and the Mind/Body Problem. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 76 (2):237–309.score: 30.0
    When your word processor or email program is running on your computer, this creates a "virtual machine” that manipulates windows, files, text, etc. What is this virtual machine, and what are the virtual objects it manipulates? Many standard arguments in the philosophy of mind have exact analogues for virtual machines and virtual objects, but we do not want to draw the wild metaphysical conclusions that have sometimes tempted philosophers in the philosophy of mind. A computer file is not made of (...)
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  22. John L. Pollock & Anthony S. Gillies (2000). Belief Revision and Epistemology. Synthese 122 (1-2):69-92.score: 30.0
    Postulational approaches attempt to understand the dynamics of belief revision by appealing to no more than the set of beliefs held by an agent and the logical relations between them. It is argued there that such an approach cannot work. A proper account of belief revision must also appeal to the arguments supporting beliefs, and recognize that those arguments can be defeasible. If we begin with a mature epistemological theory that accommodates this, it can be seen that the belief revision (...)
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  23. John L. Pollock & Iris Oved (2005). Vision, Knowledge, and the Mystery Link. Noûs 39 (1):309-351.score: 30.0
    Imagine yourself sitting on your front porch, sipping your morning coffee and admiring the scene before you. You see trees, houses, people, automobiles; you see a cat running across the road, and a bee buzzing among the flowers. You see that the flowers are yellow, and blowing in the wind. You see that the people are moving about, many of them on bicycles. You see that the houses are painted different colors, mostly earth tones, and most are one-story but a (...)
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  24. John Pollock (1987). Defeasible Reasoning. Cognitive Science 11 (4):481-518.score: 30.0
    There was a long tradition in philosophy according to which good reasoning had to be deductively valid. However, that tradition began to be questioned in the 1960’s, and is now thoroughly discredited. What caused its downfall was the recognition that many familiar kinds of reasoning are not deductively valid, but clearly confer justification on their conclusions. Here are some simple examples.
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  25. John L. Pollock (1990). Understanding the Language of Thought. Philosophical Studies 58 (1-2):95-120.score: 30.0
    The author poses a question: when a person has a thought, what is it that determines what thought he is having? and, equivalently, what is it that determines what thought he is having. looking for an answer he sketches some general aspects of the problems involved in answering these questions, like the mind/body problem, for example. his conclusion is that the posed questions should be set against the background assumption that thoughts are just internal physical occurrences, and that thoughts are (...)
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  26. John L. Pollock (1991). Self-Defeating Arguments. Minds and Machines 1 (4):367-392.score: 30.0
    An argument is self-defeating when it contains defeaters for some of its own defeasible lines. It is shown that the obvious rules for defeat among arguments do not handle self-defeating arguments correctly. It turns out that they constitute a pervasive phenomenon that threatens to cripple defeasible reasoning, leading to almost all defeasible reasoning being defeated by unexpected interactions with self-defeating arguments. This leads to some important changes in the general theory of defeasible reasoning.
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  27. John L. Pollock (2010). A Resource-Bounded Agent Addresses the Newcomb Problem. Synthese 176 (1):57 - 82.score: 30.0
    In the Newcomb problem, the standard arguments for taking either one box or both boxes adduce what seem to be relevant considerations, but they are not complete arguments, and attempts to complete the arguments rely upon incorrect principles of rational decision making. It is argued that by considering how the predictor is making his prediction, we can generate a more complete argument, and this in turn supports a form of causal decision theory.
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  28. John L. Pollock (1984). Nomic Probability. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9 (1):177-204.score: 30.0
  29. John L. Pollock (1983). Epistemology and Probability. Noûs 17 (1):65-67.score: 30.0
    Probability is sometimes regarded as a universal panacea for epistemology. It has been supposed that the rationality of belief is almost entirely a matter of probabilities. Unfortunately, those philosophers who have thought about this most extensively have tended to be probability theorists first, and epistemologists only secondarily. In my estimation, this has tended to make them insensitive to the complexities exhibited by epistemic justification. In this paper I propose to turn the tables. I begin by laying out some rather simple (...)
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  30. Sheldon Pollock (2008). Is There an Indian Intellectual History? Introduction to “Theory and Method in Indian Intellectual History”. Journal of Indian Philosophy 36 (5-6):533-542.score: 30.0
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  31. John L. Pollock (2008). What Am I? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 76 (2):237-309.score: 30.0
    It’s morning. You sit down at your desk, cup of coffee in hand, and prepare to begin your day. First, you turn on your computer. Once it is running, you check your e-mail. Having decided it is all spam, you trash it. You close the window on your e-mail program, but leave the program running so that it will periodically check the mail server to see whether you have new mail. If it finds new mail it will alert you by (...)
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  32. Ian Evans, Don Fallis, Peter Gross, Terry Horgan, Jenann Ismael, John Pollock, Paul D. Thorn, Jacob N. Caton, Adam Arico, Daniel Sanderman, Orlin Vakerelov, Nathan Ballantyne, Matthew S. Bedke, Brian Fiala & Martin Fricke (2007). An Objectivist Argument for Thirdism. Analysis 68.score: 30.0
    Bayesians take “definite” or “single-case” probabilities to be basic. Definite probabilities attach to closed formulas or propositions. We write them here using small caps: PROB(P) and PROB(P/Q). Most objective probability theories begin instead with “indefinite” or “general” probabilities (sometimes called “statistical probabilities”). Indefinite probabilities attach to open formulas or propositions. We write indefinite probabilities using lower case “prob” and free variables: prob(Bx/Ax). The indefinite probability of an A being a B is not about any particular A, but rather about the (...)
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  33. John Pollock (2001). ``Defeasible Reasoning with Variable Degrees of Justification&Quot. Artificial Intelligence 133:233-282.score: 30.0
    The question addressed in this paper is how the degree of justification of a belief is determined. A conclusion may be supported by several different arguments, the arguments typically being defeasible, and there may also be arguments of varying strengths for defeaters for some of the supporting arguments. What is sought is a way of computing the “on sum” degree of justification of a conclusion in terms of the degrees of justification of all relevant premises and the strengths of all (...)
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  34. John Pollock, Epistemology, Rationality, and Cognition.score: 30.0
    Since Gettier, much of epistemology has focused on analyzing “S knows that P”, but that is not my interest. My general interest is in rational cognition — both in what it is to be rational, and in how rational cognition works. The traditional epistemological question, “How do you know?”, can be taken as addressing part of the more general problem of producing a theory of rational cognition. It is about specifically epistemic rationality. I interpret this question literally, as a question (...)
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  35. John L. Pollock (1986). The Paradox of the Preface. Philosophy of Science 53 (2):246-258.score: 30.0
    In a number of recent papers I have been developing the theory of "nomic probability," which is supposed to be the kind of probability involved in statistical laws of nature. One of the main principles of this theory is an acceptance rule explicitly designed to handle the lottery paradox. This paper shows that the rule can also handle the paradox of the preface. The solution proceeds in part by pointing out a surprising connection between the paradox of the preface and (...)
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  36. John L. Pollock (1997). Reasoning About Change and Persistence: A Solution to the Frame Problem. Noûs 31 (2):143-169.score: 30.0
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  37. Jan E. M. Houben & Sheldon Pollock (2008). Theory and Method in Indian Intellectual History. Journal of Indian Philosophy 36 (5-6):531-532.score: 30.0
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  38. John Pollock, Oscar: A Cognitive Architecture for Intelligent Agents.score: 30.0
    The “grand problem” of AI has always been to build artificial agents of human-level intelligence, capable of operating in environments of real-world complexity. OSCAR is a cognitive architecture for such agents, implemented in LISP. OSCAR is based on my extensive work in philosophy concerning both epistemology and rational decision making. This paper provides a detailed overview of OSCAR. The main conclusions are that such agents must be capablew of operating against a background of pervasive ignorance, because the real world is (...)
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  39. John Pollock (1976). Subjunctive Reasoning. Reidel.score: 30.0
    Reidel, 1976. This book is out of print, but can be downloaded as a pdf file (3.3 MB).
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  40. John Pollock, Rational Decision-Making in Resource-Bounded Agents.score: 30.0
    The objective of this paper is to construct an implementable theory of rational decision-making for cognitive agents subject to realistic resource constraints. It is argued that decision-making should select actions indirectly by selecting plans that prescribe them. It is also argued that although expected values provide the tool for evaluating plans, plans cannot be compared straightforwardly in terms of their expected values, and the objective of a realistic agent cannot be to find optimal plans. The theory of Locally Global planning (...)
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  41. John L. Pollock (1986/1987). Contemporary Theories of Knowledge. Hutchinson.score: 30.0
    This new edition of the classic Contemporary Theories of Knowledge has been significantly updated to include analyses of the recent literature in epistemology.
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  42. John L. Pollock (1984). The Foundations of Philosophical Semantics. Princeton University Press.score: 30.0
    Princeton University Press, 984. This book is out of print, but can be downloaded as a pdf file (3.9 MB).
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  43. John L. Pollock (1988). My Brother, the Machine. Noûs 22 (June):173-211.score: 30.0
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  44. Jenann Ismael & John L. Pollock, So You Think You Exist? — In Defense of Nolipsism.score: 30.0
    Human beings think of themselves in terms of a privileged non-descriptive designator — a mental “I”. Such thoughts are called “de se” thoughts. The mind/body problem is the problem of deciding what kind of thing I am, and it can be regarded as arising from the fact that we think of ourselves non-descriptively. Why do we think of ourselves in this way? We investigate the functional role of “I” (and also “here” and “now”) in cognition, arguing that the use of (...)
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  45. John L. Pollock, Epistemology: Five Questions.score: 30.0
    As a high school student, I rediscovered Hume’s problem of induction on my own. For a while, I was horrified. I thought, “We cannot know anything!” After a couple of weeks I calmed down and reasoned that there had to be something wrong with my thinking, and that led me quickly to the realization that good reasons need not be deductive, and to the discovery of defeasible reasoning. From there it was a short jump to a more general interest in (...)
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  46. John L. Pollock (1976). The 'Possible Worlds' Analysis of Counterfactuals. Philosophical Studies 29 (6):469 - 476.score: 30.0
  47. John L. Pollock (1982). Language and Thought. Princeton University Press.score: 30.0
    Princeton University Press, 1982. This book is out of print, but can be downloaded as a pdf file (5 MB).
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  48. W. J. Pollock (2007). An Argument Against Abortion on Demand. Ratio 20 (1):71–74.score: 30.0
    The paper presents a simple but novel argument against the idea of abortion on demand – i.e. the situation where a woman does not need to justify an abortion. Rather than arguing from a theory of the Right to Life of the foetus, which many would regard as controversial, the paper argues from the point of view that the foetus has a certain (intrinsic) value – simply because it is human. Since the destruction of something of value must be justified, (...)
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  49. John Pollock, Joint Probabilities.score: 30.0
    When combining information from multiple sources and attempting to estimate the probability of a conclusion, we often find ourselves in the position of knowing the probability of the conclusion conditional on each of the individual sources, but we have no direct information about the probability of the conclusion conditional on the combination of sources. The probability calculus provides no way of computing such joint probabilities. This paper introduces a new way of combining probabilistic information to estimate joint probabilities. It is (...)
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  50. John L. Pollock (1990). Philosophy and Artificial Intelligence. Philosophical Perspectives 4:461-498.score: 30.0
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