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  1. Truls I. Juritzen, Eivind Engebretsen & Kristin Heggen (2013). Subject to Empowerment: The Constitution of Power in an Educational Program for Health Professionals. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):443-455.
    Empowerment and user participation represents an ideal of power with a strong position in the health sector. In this article we use text analysis to investigate notions of power in a program plan for health workers focusing on empowerment. Issues addressed include: How are relationships of power between users and helpers described in the program plan? Which notions of user participation are embedded in the plan? The analysis is based on Foucault’s idea that power which is made subject to attempts (...)
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  2. Lisbeth Thoresen, Trygve Wyller & Kristin Heggen (2011). The Significance of Lifeworld and the Case of Hospice. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (3):257-263.
    Questions on what it means to live and die well are raised and discussed in the hospice movement. A phenomenological lifeworld perspective may help professionals to be aware of meaningful and important dimensions in the lives of persons close to death. Lifeworld is not an abstract philosophical term, but rather the opposite. Lifeworld is about everyday, common life in all its aspects. In the writings of Cicely Saunders, known as the founder of the modern hospice movement, facets of lifeworld are (...)
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  3. Marilys Guillemin & Kristin Heggen (2009). Rapport and Respect: Negotiating Ethical Relations Between Researcher and Participant. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (3):291-299.
    Qualitative research is largely dependent on building good interpersonal relations between researcher and participant. This is necessary for generating rich data, while at the same time ensuring respect is maintained between researcher and participant. We argue for a better understanding of researcher–participant relations in research practice. Codes of ethics, although important, do not address these kinds of ethical challenges. Negotiating the ethical relations between researcher and participant is paramount in maintaining ethical rigour in qualitative research. In this paper we propose (...)
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  4. Marit Helene Hem, Kristin Heggen & Knut W. Ruyter (2008). Creating Trust in an Acute Psychiatric Ward. Nursing Ethics 15 (6):777-788.
    The ideal of trust pervades nursing. This article uses empirical material from acute psychiatry that reveals that it is distrust rather than trust that is prevalent in this field. Our data analyses show how distrust is expressed in the therapeutic environment and in the relationship between nurse and patient. We point out how trust can nonetheless be created in an environment that is characterized by distrust. Both trust and distrust are exposed as `fragile' phenomena that can easily `tip over' towards (...)
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  5. Marit Helene Hem, Kristin Heggen & Knut W. Ruyter (2007). Questionable Requirement for Consent in Observational Research in Psychiatry. Nursing Ethics 14 (1):41-53.
    Informed consent represents a cornerstone of the endeavours to make health care research ethically acceptable. Based on experience of qualitative research on power dynamics in nursing care in acute psychiatry, we show that the requirement for informed consent may be practised in formalistic ways that legitimize the researcher's activities without taking the patient's changing perception of the situation sufficiently into account. The presentation of three patient case studies illustrates a diversity of issues that the researcher must consider in each situation. (...)
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