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  1.  76 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2005). A Utilitarian Justification of Desert in Distributive Justice. Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (2):147-170.
    We cannot conclude from the assumptions that justice is a virtue and desert is an ingredient in justice that desert claims themselves express a virtue. It could be that desert is morally neutral, or even immoral, and that there are other aspects of justice which make it all-in-all virtuous. We need, in other words, an independent moral justification of desert and desert-based emotions. In this paper I take on the challenge of articulating and defending a utilitarian justification of desert in (...)
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  2.  68 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2008). An Aristotelian Critique of Situationism. Philosophy 83 (1):55-76.
    Aristotle says that no human achievement has the stability of activities that express virtue. Ethical situationists consider this claim to be refutable by empirical evidence. If that is true, not only Aristotelianism, but folk psychology, contemporary virtue ethics and character education have all been seriously infirmed. The aim of this paper is threefold: to offer a systematic classification of the existing objections against situationism under four main headings: ‘the methodological objection’, ‘the moral dilemma objection’, ‘the bullet-biting objection’ and ‘the anti-behaviouristic (...)
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  3.  63 DLs
    Kristjan Kristjansson (1992). Social Freedom and the Test of Moral Responsibility. Ethics 103 (1):104-116.
    The responsibility view of social freedom views obstacles as constraints on freedom if and only if there is an agent morally responsible for the obstacle's existence or nonsuppression. However, the test of moral responsibility offered by S.I. Benn and W.L. Weinstein is too narrow, W.E. Connolly's is too broad and D. Miller's is either trivial or wrong depending on whether a permissive or narrow interpretation is adopted. A plausible definition assigns moral responsibility for nonsuppression of an obstacle when a reasonable (...)
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  4.  63 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2005). Parents and Children as Friends. Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (2):250–265.
  5.  62 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2010). Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy? Educational Philosophy and Theory 42 (4):397-409.
    In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a 'moral gap' has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian perspective. The moral-self solution relies upon an anti-realist conception of the self as 'identity', and I dissect its limitations. In its stead, I propose a Humean conception of the (...)
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  6.  55 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2013). Aristotelian Motivational Externalism. Philosophical Studies 164 (2):419-442.
    Recent virtue theorists in psychology implicitly assume the truth of motivational internalism, and this assumption restricts the force and scope of the message that they venture to offer as scientists. I aim to contrive a way out of their impasse by arguing for a version of Aristotelian motivational externalism and suggesting why these psychologists should adopt it. There is a more general problem, however. Although motivational externalism has strong intuitive appeal, at least for moral realists and ‘Humeans’ about motivation, it (...)
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  7.  52 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2012). Situationism and the Concept of a Situation. European Journal of Philosophy 20 (S1):E52-E72.
    Abstract: The concept of a situation underlying the debate between moral situationists and dispositionists conceals various underexplored complexities. Some of those issues have been engaged recently in the so-called psychology of situations, but they have been slow to receive attention in mainstream philosophy. I invoke various distinctions among situations, and show how situationists have selectively chosen certain types of situations that, for conceptual reasons, skew the argument in their favour. I introduce the concept of a ‘virtue-calibrated situation’, and argue that (...)
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  8.  47 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2010). The Trouble with Ambivalent Emotions. Philosophy 85 (4):485-510.
    Mixed or ambivalent emotions have long intrigued philosophers. I dissect various putative cases of emotional ambivalence and conclude that the alleged 'psychological problem' surrounding them admits of a solution. That problem has, however, often been conflated with 'moral problem' - of how one should react morally to such ambivalence — which remains active even after the psychological one has been solved. I discuss how the moral problem hits hardest at virtue ethics, old and new. I distinguish between particularist and generalist (...)
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  9.  36 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2002). Review: A Theory of Freedom: From the Psychology to the Politics of Agency. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (444):902-905.
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  10.  27 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2006). Emulation and the Use of Role Models in Moral Education. Journal of Moral Education 35 (1):37-49.
    This article is about (1) the ancient (Aristotelian) emotional virtue of emulation, (2) some current character?education inspired accounts of the use of role models in moral education and, most importantly, (3) the potential relevance of (1) for (2). The author argues that the strategy of role?modelling, as explicated by the character?education movement, is beset with three unsolved problems: an empirical problem of why this method is needed; a methodological problem of how students are to be inspired to emulation; and a (...)
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  11.  26 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2003). On the Very Idea of "Negative Emotions". Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 33 (4):351–364.
    Kristján Kristjánsson, On the Very Idea of Negative Emotions, pp. 351364 As attention has shifted towards the emotions in general, the notion of so-called negative emotions has come in for renewed interest. The author explores this notion and argues that its invocation cannot be done without cost to our understanding since it obscures all sorts of relevant complexities. There are thus no emotions around to which we can helpfully refer collectively as negative, although there are of course painful emotions, emotions (...)
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  12.  26 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2004). Review: Justice, Luck, and Knowledge. [REVIEW] Mind 113 (450):361-365.
  13.  25 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2005). Justice and Desert-Based Emotions. Philosophical Explorations 8 (1):53 – 68.
    A number of contemporary philosophers have pointed out that justice is not primarily an intellectual virtue, grounded in abstract, detached beliefs, but rather an emotional virtue, grounded in certain beliefs and desires that are compelling and deeply embedded in human nature. As a complex emotional virtue, justice seems to encompass, amongst other things, certain desert-based emotions that are developmentally and morally important for an understanding of justice. This article explores the philosophical reasons for the rising interest in desert-based emotions and (...)
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  14.  25 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (1998). Liberating Moral Traditions: Saga Morality and Aristotle's Megalopsychia. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (4):397-422.
    It is a matter for both surprise and disappointment that so little has been written from a philosophical perspective about the moral tradition enshrined in Europe''s oldest living literature, the Icelandic sagas. The main purpose of the present essay is to start to ameliorate this shortcoming by analysing and assessing the moral code bequeathed to us by the saga literature. To do so, I draw attention to the striking similarities between saga morality and what tends to be called an ''ancient (...)
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  15.  24 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (1998). Casual Sex Revisited. Journal of Social Philosophy 29 (2):97-108.
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  16.  22 DLs
    James Arthur, Kristján Kristjánsson, Liz Gulliford & Blaire Morgan, An Attitude for Gratitude: How Gratitude is Understood, Experienced and Valued by the British Public: Research Report.
    The subject of gratitude has gained traction in recent years in academic and popular circles. However, limited attention has been devoted to understanding what laypeople understand by the concept of gratitude; the meaning of which tends to have been assumed in the literature. Furthermore, while intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits of gratitude have been extolled in this growing body of research, there has been little assessment of the value laypeople place on gratitude themselves, or whether and how they think it might (...)
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  17.  21 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2007). Justified Self-Esteem. Journal of Philosophy of Education 41 (2):247–261.
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  18.  21 DLs
    Yen-Hsin Chen & Kristján Kristjánsson (2011). Private Feelings, Public Expressions: Professional Jealousy and the Moral Practice of Teaching. Journal of Moral Education 40 (3):349-358.
    This paper explores the issue of personal factors that impinge upon education. More specifically, it addresses professional jealousy among teachers and how it affects the moral practice of teaching. Our focus is teachers? emotions in general and teachers? jealousies in particular, in the context of the ideal of the moral teacher. We identify and criticise three common dichotomies that tend to mar explorations of teachers? emotions. We illustrate issues of professional jealousy as revealed in an interview with a headteacher in (...)
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  19.  20 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2000). Utilitarian Naturalism and the Moral Justification of Emotions. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (1):43-58.
    The virtue ethicist Rosalind Hursthouse has recently admitted that the commonly supposed link between a belief in the moral significance of human emotions and an adherence to virtue ethics may rest on a “historical accident,” and that utilitarians could, for instance, be equally concerned with emotions. The present essay takes up Hursthouse’s challenge and explores both what utilitarians have said and what they should say about the moral justification of emotions. Mill’s classical utilitarianism is rehearsed and applied to the emotions, (...)
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  20.  19 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2014). There is Something About Aristotle: The Pros and Cons of Aristotelianism in Contemporary Moral Education. Journal of Philosophy of Education 48 (1):48-68.
    The aim of this article is to pinpoint some of the features that do—or should—make Aristotelianism attractive to current moral educators. At the same time, it also identifies theoretical and practical shortcomings that contemporary Aristotelians have been overly cavalier about. Section II presents a brisk tour of ten of the ‘pros’: features that are attractive because they accommodate certain powerful and prevailing assumptions in current moral philosophy and moral psychology—applying them to moral education. Section III explores five versions of the (...)
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  21.  19 DLs
    Guðmundur Sæmundsson & Kristján Kristjánsson (2011). Hyped Virtues, Hidden Vices: The Ethics of Icelandic Sports Literature. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (4):379 - 395.
    Ideally, good sports literature illuminates the subtle moral contours of sports reality. We ask in this paper how modern Icelandic literature describes sport-related ethical issues and attitudes. Our findings indicate that, in stark contrast to the rampant egocentrism, individual vice and misconduct blighting Icelandic sports reality, modern Icelandic prose literature typically either ignores this reality or refers to sports as if they were in full harmony with idealised ancient virtues and morals. Our conclusion is that this discrepancy admits of four (...)
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  22.  19 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2013). An Aristotelian Virtue of Gratitude. Topoi:1-13.
    The aim of this paper is to offer a reconstruction of gratitude as an Aristotelian virtue. The account I propose is meant to be essentially Aristotelian although it is clearly not Aristotle’s own account. I start in section “Current Discourses on Gratitude” with an overview of recent discourses on gratitude in philosophy and psychology. I then proceed, in section “Putting the Aristotelian Pieces Together”, to spell out a formal characterisation of gratitude as an Aristotelian emotional virtue. Section “Reappraising Aristotle on (...)
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  23.  18 DLs
    Kristjan Kristjansson (2010). The Empathy Gap: Building Bridges to the Good Life and the Good Society. Journal of Moral Education 39 (2):241-243.
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  24.  17 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2003). Fortunes-of-Others Emotions and Justice. Journal of Philosophical Research 28:105-128.
    Despite the resurgent interest in the emotions, not much attention has focused specifically on those emotions that relate to others. deserved or undeserved fortunes. In this essay, I explore such emotions, logically and morally, with special emphasis on indignation and Schadenfreude. I argue that, when Aristotle.s treatment of this family of emotions is stripped of certain anomalies, it gives a logically satisfying and morally suggestive, if perhaps overly rigid, account of all the relevant emotions and their relations. I use those (...)
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  25.  17 DLs
    Kristjan Kristjansson (2004). Beyond Democratic Justice: A Further Misgiving About Citizenship Education. Journal of Philosophy of Education 38 (2):207–219.
  26.  17 DLs
    James Arthur, Kristján Kristjánsson, Sandra Cooke, Emma Brown & David Carr, The Good Teacher: Understanding Virtues in Practice: Research Report.
    This report describes research focusing on virtues and character in teaching, by which we mean the kind of personal qualities professional teachers need to facilitate learning and overall flourishing in young people that goes beyond preparing them for a life of tests. The ‘good’ teacher is someone who, alongside excellent subject knowledge and technical expertise, cares about students, upholds principles of honesty and integrity both towards knowledge and student–teacher relationships, and who does good work . In the Framework for Character (...)
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  27.  17 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2006). Agreeableness. Journal of Value Inquiry 40 (1):33-43.
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  28.  16 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (1992). What Is Wrong with Positive Liberty? Social Theory and Practice 18 (3):289-310.
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  29.  16 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2012). Virtue Development and Psychology's Fear of Normativity. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 32 (2):103-118.
    This paper explores the idea—rife in various recent theories in moral education—that virtue ethicists, psychologists, and educators interested in the cultivation of character should pool their resources in order to launch wide-ranging initiatives in virtue development. I uncover the roots of this idea and maintain that the reason why the desired cooperation has not yet come about lies primarily in psychology's failure to deliver the required empirical evidence about the ingredients of a morally good life. I trace the origin of (...)
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  30.  16 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2007). Measuring Self-Respect. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (3):225–242.
    Can “self-respect” supplant the now much-maligned “global self-esteem” in psychological research and therapy? The aim of the present paper is to examine this suggestion and develop it further. It is argued that there are two distinct philosophical concepts of self-respect abroad in the literature, Kantian and Aristotelian, between which psychologists need to choose. The main components of Aristotelian self-respect are then worked out. The paper concludes by exploring how, in order to make those components objectively measurable, certain methodological pitfalls must (...)
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  31.  15 DLs
    Liz Gulliford, Blaire Morgan & Kristján Kristjánsson (2013). Recent Work on the Concept of Gratitude in Philosophy and Psychology. Journal of Value Inquiry 47 (3):285-317.
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  32.  15 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (1998). Self‐Respect,Megalopsychia,and Moral Education. Journal of Moral Education 27 (1):5-17.
    Abstract Self?respect is widely and rightly considered an important value in moral education. There seems at first sight less agreement on what exactly constitutes self?respect. However, I show that once terminological differences have been set aside, there emerges a substantial concordance of opinion in philosophical circles on the specification of this concept. Unfortunately, this common specification is marred by two major shortcomings. I argue that both these shortcomings can be ameliorated through a synthesis of recent conceptions of self?respect and Aristotle's (...)
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  33.  14 DLs
    James Arthur, Kristján Kristjánsson, David Walker, Wouter Sanderse & Chantel Jones, Character Education in UK Schools: Research Report.
    The research project described in this report represents one of the most extensive studies of character education ever undertaken, including over 10,000 students and 255 teachers in schools across England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. Research techniques consisted of a mixture of surveys, moral dilemmas and semi-structured interviews. This report explores: - The current situation in character education, both in the UK and internationally - How developed British students are with respect to moral character and the extent to which they (...)
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  34.  14 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2013). Ten Myths About Character, Virtue and Virtue Education – Plus Three Well-Founded Misgivings. British Journal of Educational Studies 61 (3):269-287.
    ABSTRACT Initiatives to cultivate character and virtue in moral education at school continue to provoke sceptical responses. Most of those echo familiar misgivings about the notions of character, virtue and education in virtue ? as unclear, redundant, old-fashioned, religious, paternalistic, anti-democratic, conservative, individualistic, relative and situation dependent. I expose those misgivings as ?myths?, while at the same time acknowledging three better-founded historical, methodological and practical concerns about the notions in question.
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  35.  14 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2008). Hiltonism, Hedonism and the Self. Ethics and Education 3 (1):3-14.
    In her 2006 bestseller about the rise of 'raunch culture' and of such self-ascribed 'Female Chauvinist Pigs' as the tawdry socialite Paris Hilton, Ariel Levy describes these phenomena as being indicative of a drastic cultural shift. Serious concerns have been raised, most recently by the American Psychological Association, about the effects of this culture on young girls. Recent Web sources have coined a term for the self-concept embodied and projected by Paris Hilton and her admirers: 'Hiltonism'. In this paper, I (...)
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  36.  13 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2001). Pridefulness. Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (2):165-178.
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  37.  13 DLs
    Kristjan Kristjansson (2001). Justifying Emotions: Pride and Jealousy. Routledge.
    Kristjan Kristjansson challenges this common view and argues that emotions are central to moral excellence and that both pride and jealousy are indeed ingredients of a well-rounded virtuous life.
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  38.  12 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (1992). For a Concept of Negative Liberty—but Which Conception? Journal of Applied Philosophy 9 (2):221-231.
    ABSTRACT The present essay concurs with R. Beehler's recent contribution to this journal 1991) in deeming the concept of negative liberty fully adequate for political discourse. Thus, section 1 indicates a plausible line of reasoning by which the negative concept can be defended against some standard objections. However, sections 2 and 3 argue that, nevertheless, Beehler's traditional conception of negative liberty is inadequate. It does not account correctly for various paradigmatic cases of ‘unfreedom’, for instance, the curtailment of the liberty (...)
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  39.  12 DLs
    Kristjan Kristjansson (2005). Smoothing It: Some Aristotelian Misgivings About the Phronesis‐Praxis Perspective on Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory 37 (4):455-473.
    A kind of ‘neo‐Aristotelianism’ that connects educational reasoning and reflection to phronesis, and education itself to praxis, has gained considerable following in recent educational discourse. The author identifies four cardinal claims of this phronesis‐praxis perspective: that a) Aristotle's epistemology and methodology imply a stance that is essentially, with regard to practical philosophy, anti‐method and anti‐theory; b) ‘producing’, under the rubric of techné, as opposed to ‘acting’ under the rubric of phronesis, is an unproblematically codifiable process; c) phronesis must be given (...)
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  40.  11 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2001). Some Remaining Problems in Cognitive Theories of Emotion. International Philosophical Quarterly 41 (4):393-410.
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  41.  11 DLs
    Kristjan Kristjansson (2005). Can We Teach Justified Anger? Journal of Philosophy of Education 39 (4):671-689.
    The question of whether there is such a thing as teachable justified anger encompasses three distinct questions: the psychological question of whether the emotions in general, and anger in particular, are regulatable; the moral question of whether anger can ever be morally justified; and the educational question of whether we have any sound methods at our disposal for teaching justified anger. In this paper I weave Aristotelian responses to those questions together with insights from the current psychology literature on emotion (...)
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  42.  11 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2010). The Self and its Emotions. Cambridge University Press.
    Introduction -- What selves are -- Exploring selves -- The emotional self -- Self-concept : self-esteem and self-confidence -- The self as moral character -- Self-respect -- Multicultural selves -- Self-pathologies -- Self-change and self-education.
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  43.  10 DLs
    Kristjan Kristjansson (2006). "Emotional Intelligence" in the Classroom? An Aristotelian Critique. Educational Theory 56 (1):39-56.
    A recent trend in moral education, social and emotional learning, incorporates the mantra of emotional intelligence as a key element in an extensive program of character building. In making his famous claim that the good life would have to include appropriate emotions, Aristotle obviously considered the schooling of emotions to be an indispensable part of moral education. However, in this essay Kristján Kristjánsson casts doubt on the assumption that Aristotelians should approve of the clarion call for EI, as understood by (...)
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  44.  9 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2014). Is Shame an Ugly Emotion? Four Discourses—Two Contrasting Interpretations for Moral Education. Studies in Philosophy and Education 33 (5):495-511.
    This paper offers a sustained philosophical meditation on contrasting interpretations of the emotion of shame within four academic discourses—social psychology, psychological anthropology, educational psychology and Aristotelian scholarship—in order to elicit their implications for moral education. It turns out that within each of these discourses there is a mainstream interpretation which emphasises shame’s expendability or moral ugliness (and where shame is typically described as guilt’s ugly sister), but also a heterodox interpretation which seeks to retrieve and defend shame. As the heterodox (...)
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  45.  9 DLs
    Kristjan Kristjansson (2009). Putting Emotion Into the Self: A Response to the 2008 Journal of Moral Education Special Issue on Moral Functioning. Journal of Moral Education 38 (3):255-270.
    This paper takes as its starting point the Journal of Moral Education Special Issue (September, 2008, 37[3]) ?Towards an integrated model of moral reasoning?. Although explicitly post?Kohlbergian, the authors in this Special Issue do not, I argue, depart far enough from Kohlberg?s impoverished notion of the role of the affective in moral life?or when they do so depart, they incorporate emotions as mere intuitive thrusts in an essentially polarised two?system view of the moral self. Prior to that complaint, I sketch (...)
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  46.  9 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2008). Suicide Bombings and the Self. Journal of Global Ethics 4 (2):107 – 119.
    The failure to locate a unifying psychological profile of suicide bombers should prompt moves to a more extended and interdisciplinary front, availing itself of insights from disciplines such as sociology, philosophy and history of ideas, as well as from psychology. This paper aims in that direction by exploring 'traditional' versus 'western liberal' conceptions of the self, with special emphasis on their possible pathologies; and by integrating those pathologies with insights from Durkheimian suicidology. It is hypothesised that suicide bombers in the (...)
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  47.  9 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2008). Expendable Emotions. International Philosophical Quarterly 48 (1):5-22.
    Are there any morally expendable emotions? That is, are there any emotions that could ideally, from a moral point of view, be eradicated from human life? Aristotle may have subscribed to the view that there are no such emotions, and for that reason—though not only for that reason—it merits investigation. I first suggest certain revisions of the specifics of Aristotle’s non-expendability claim that render it less counter-intuitive. I then show that the plausibility of Aristotle’s claim turns largely on the question (...)
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  48.  9 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (2003). Justice, Desert, and Virtue Revisited. Social Theory and Practice 29 (1):39-63.
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  49.  8 DLs
    Kristján Kristjánsson (1996). Why Persons Need Jealousy. The Personalist Forum 12 (2):163-181.
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