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Kyle Johnson [18]Kyle E. Johnson [1]
  1. Kyle Johnson, Determiners,.
    talk presented at On Linguistic Interfaces, Ulster, June 2007.
     
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  2. Kyle Johnson, LCA+Alignment=RNR,.
    talk presented at the Workshop on Coordination, Subordination and Ellipsis, Tubingen, June 2007.
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  3. Sigrid Beck & Kyle Johnson, Double Objects Again.
    (1) a. Satoshi sent Thilo the Schw¨abische W¨orterbuch. b. Satoshi sent the Schw¨abische W¨orterbuch to Thilo. Many have entertained the notion that there is a rule that relates sentences such as these. This is suggested by the fact that it is possible to learn that a newly coined verb licenses one of them and automatically know that it licenses the other. Marantz (1984) argues for the existence of such a rule in this way, noting that once one has learned of (...)
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  4. Kyle Johnson, Clausal Edges and Their Effects on Scope.
    Clausal edges seem to have an effect on the scopes that arguments residing at those edges can have. In particular, they influence whether an argument may be interpreted at a lowered, or reconstructed, position within the clause. This is probably what is responsible for the difference between (1a) and (1b), which formed the focus for the debate in Stowell 1991 and Williams..
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  5. Kyle Johnson, Few Dogs Eat Whiskas or Cats Alpo.
    One of the interests in the Gapping construction is the headache it causes for those trying to get constituency structure right. On the assumption that Gapping, like other processes of sentence grammar, respects constituency, it is very hard to deliver the right constituents in cases such as (1). (1) a. Some consider him honest and others consider him pleasant. b. The faculty brought scotch to the party and the students brought beer to the party. c. The girls occasionally ate peanuts (...)
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  6. Kyle Johnson, How to Be Quiet.
    One job of the ellipsis theorist is to characterize the connection between the syntax of ellipsis and its semantics. And a central goal of that task is to explain where it is that ellipses are possible. The most thorough examination of what’s involved in meeting this goal is probably Lobeck (1995), where it is proposed that heads with certain properties license the ellipsis of their complements. Merchant (2001, section 2.2.1) amends this proposal with an explicit characterization of the semantics of (...)
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  7. Kyle Johnson, Pronouns Vs. Definite Descriptions.
    This paper looks at an approach to Principle C in which the disjoint reference effect triggered by definite description arises because there is a preference for using bound pronouns in those cases. Philippe Schlenker has linked this approach to the idea that the NP part of a definite description should be the most minimal in content relative to a certain communicative goal. On a popular view about what the syntax and semantics of a personal pronoun is, that should have the (...)
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  8. Kyle Johnson, Towards an Etiology of Adjunct Islands.
    In one approach to classifying island phenomena, there is a group that answers to the following description. (1) ADJUNCT ISLAND CONDITION If an XP is in an adjunct position, nothing may move out of it. In the influential approach to this condition in Huang (1982), “adjunct” position is defined in terms that reference argument structure and its reflection in phrasemarker geometry. This definition groups together subject phrases and modifying phrases, contrasting them with phrases in “complement” position. The subsequent bounding theories (...)
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  9. Kyle Johnson, Why Movement?
    There is a certain set of locality conditions that seem to hold just of movement operations. Some of the islands described in Ross (1967) appear to be of this kind.
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  10. Kyle Johnson, A Remerge Theory of Movement.
    We need a better theory of movement. e present theories harbor stipulations and give little traction on understanding why movement has the properties it does. A presently popular theory of movement has the following ingredients.
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  11. Kyle Johnson, Embedded Verb Second in Infinitival Clauses.
    Icelandic is the only Scandinavian language in which the verb always moves past negation, and other sentence adverbials, in embedded clauses. We follow everyone else and take this as evidence that Icelandic as opposed to the other Scandinavian languages has V°-to-I°1 movement (see, e.g., Kosmeijer 1986, Holmberg & Platzack 1990:101, Rohrbacher 1994:30-69, and Vikner 1994:118-127, 1995:ch.5). If we assume that negation and sentence adverbials mark the left edge of VP (they could be adjoined to VP or to TP, for example), (...)
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  12. Kyle Johnson, Gapping Isn't (VP) Ellipsis.
    Pseudogapping is no misnomer. Despite the many tempting similarities, Gapping and Pseudogapping are distinct constructions. Pseudogapping is a special instance of VP Ellipsis, while Gapping, I will argue, is a special instance of across-the-board movement. Squeezing Gapping into across-the-board movement has its own discomforts, however, which I will suggest can be remedied by re-tailoring our syntax to include string-based output constraints. I give a sketch of one such alteration that involves apparent Left Branch Condition violations.
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  13. Kyle Johnson, How Far Will Quantifiers Go?
    A method now popular for fixing the scopes of arguments involves a covert movement operation, named QR (for Quantifier Rule) by Robert May. May envisioned QR as a kind of adjunction operation, attaching the arguments so affected to phrases dominating that argument. From the surface representation in (1a), for instance, QR can fashion the representations in (1b) and (1c) by adjoining the object and/or subject argument to IP. (1) a. [IP Someone [VP loves everyone ]]. b. [IP everyone1 [IP someone (...)
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  14. Kyle Johnson, Restoring Exotic Coördinations to Normalcy.
    (1) a. Die Suppe1 wird der Hans [VP t1 essen] und [VP sich hinlegen]. (Topicalization) the soup will the Hans eat and self down-lie (The soup, Hans will eat and lie down.).
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  15. Kyle Johnson, Sluicing and Constraints on Quantifier Scope.
    One of the fascinations of Sluicing – one that figured in Ross’s (1969) original exploration of the construction – is that it seems to overcome many island effects. Most speakers find contrasts between the pairs of sentences in (1) and (2), for instance.
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  16. Kyle Johnson, The Copy Theory of Movement: Spell Out.
    ( ) Di erence in Semantic Displacement a. Total Reconstruction: Mary kaupir ikke skó. ¬ Mary kaupir skó b. Variable Binding: Which book Mary had read e set of propositions such that x Mary had read x, x a book. A guard stands before every bank x if x is a bank then a guard stands before x..
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  17. Kyle Johnson, Wh Movement and Qr: Deriving Their Differences.
    Some of α may be semantically interpreted in the position it is not pronounced in. illustration: Which story about her should none of the women forget? * Which story about her should someone who knows none of the women forget?
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  18. Kyle E. Johnson (2002). Glycogen Resynthesis and Recovery From Exercise: Effects of Very-Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme, a Dehydrogenase Deficiency. Inquiry 3.
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  19. Kyle Johnson (2001). What VP Ellipsis Can Do, and What It Can't, but Not Why. In Mark Baltin & Chris Collins (eds.), The Handbook of Contemporary Syntactic Theory. Blackwell. 439--479.