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Profile: L. S. Carrier (University of Miami)
  1. L. S. Carrier (2011). The Essential Tie Between Knowing and Believing: A Causal Account of Knowledge and Epistemic Reasons. Edwin Mellen Press.
    This book offers a causal-explanatory account of knowledge as true belief caused by the worldly state of affairs that explains its existence. It also defends a contextual account of epistemic reasons, arguing that both foundationalism and coherentism cannot provide a satisfactory account of such reasons. Skeptical arguments are answered against a historical background from Plato to the present day.
     
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  2. L. S. Carrier (2006). Aristotelian Materialism. Philosophia 34 (3):253-266.
    I argue that a modern gloss on Aristotle’s notions of Form and Matter not only allows us to escape a dualism of the psychological and the physical, but also results in a plausible sort of materialism. This is because Aristotle held that the essential nature of any psychological state, including perception and human thought, is to be some physical property. I also show that Hilary Putnam and Martha Nussbaum are mistaken in saying that Aristotle was not a materialist, but a (...)
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  3. Risto Hilpinen, Leonard Carrier, Howard Pospesel & Noah Lemos (2006). Ramon M. Lemos, 1927-2006. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 79 (5):129 - 130.
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  4. L. S. Carrier (1995). Blind Realism (Review). Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (3):715-719.
    I argue that Robert Almeder's "Blind Realism," although instructive, fails to show that recourse to completely justified belief defuses Gettier counterexamples. This is because Almeder's notion of complete justification involves conflating truth with "warranted assertibility," thus making truth relative to what was scientifically fashionable at the time.
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  5. L. S. Carrier (1995). Blind Realism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (3):715-719.
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  6. L. S. Carrier (1995). Skepticism About Epistemic Reasons. Iyyun, The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 44 (July):273-292.
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  7. L. S. Carrier (1994). Does Knowledge Entail Justification? International Philosophical Quarterly 34 (4):413-418.
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  8. L. S. Carrier (1994). On What We Know We Don't Know. Explanation, Theory, Linguistics, and How Questions Shape Them. Philosophical Books 35 (1):38-39.
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  9. Does Knowledge Entail Justification & Ls Carrier (1994). Nietzsche and Genealogy, Raymond Geuss. International Philosophical Quarterly 34 (3).
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  10. L. S. Carrier (1993). How to Define a Nonskeptical Fallibilism. Philosophia 22 (3-4):361-372.
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  11. L. S. Carrier (1993). The Impossibility of Massive Error. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (2):405-409.
    I argue that Davidson's anti-skeptical thesis can survive objections made against it by treating skepticism as logically possible, but not epistemically possible. That is, the skeptical hypothesis of massive error conflicts with what we must take ourselves to know if we are to have coherent thought and speech.
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  12. L. S. Carrier (1993). The Roots of Knowledge. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 74 (2):81-95.
    I defend the view that propositional knowledge can be defined as follows: A knows that p if and only if A believes that p because p. Spelling out the meaning of 'because' in this formula results in a causal-explanatory view of knowledge.
     
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  13. L. S. Carrier (1989). Review (of Herbert Hochberg's Logic, Ontology, and Language). Synthese 80 (3):433-446.
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  14. L. S. Carrier (1987). Out-Gunning Skepticism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17 (3):655 - 657.
  15. L. S. Carrier (1986). Free Will and Intentional Action. Philosophia 16 (December):355-364.
    I argue for the following analysis of a freely willed action: an act is done of one's own free will, if and only if, it is an intentional act performed by one acting as a rational agent from unobstructed reasons, and so situated that he or she has the capacity to forbear from performing it.
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  16. L. S. Carrier (1983). Skepticism Disarmed. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 13 (1):107 - 114.
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  17. Roderick M. Chisholm, John Corcoran, Jorge Gracia, L. S. Carrier, T. N. Pelegrinis, Alfred L. Ivry, D. S. Clarke, Leo Rauch, Robert Young, Michael J. Loux, Rita Nolan, Gerald Vision, E. D. Klemke, Ruth Anna Putnam, Edward S. Reed, Maurice Mandelbaum, John Wettersten & Rachel Shihor (1983). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Philosophia 13 (1-2):359-362.
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  18. Leonard S. Carrier (1981). Book Reviews and Critical Studies. [REVIEW] Philosophia 9 (3-4):379-389.
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  19. Leonard S. Carrier (1981). Experience And The Objects Of Perception. Washington: University Press Of America.
    This work argues for a Direct Realist view of the perception of public objects. It argues against the need for special intermediary sensory objects, or sense impressions, requiring only stages in a physical process beginning with events at the surface of a physical object, the resultant stimulation of one's sense organs, and finally the excitation of the sensory portions of one's brain.
     
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  20. Leonard S. Carrier (1981). Event Identity and a Significant Physicalism. Southern Journal of Philosophy 19 (2):171-180.
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  21. L. S. Carrier (1980). Perception and Animal Belief. Philosophy 55 (212):193 - 209.
    I argue that sentences ascribing beliefs to non-human animals have the same logical form as sentences of the "perceives that" variety. Pace D.M. Armstrong, I argue that animal belief sentences can be referentially opaque, just as perception sentences containing a propositional clause are. In both cases, referential opacity requires our assuming that the animal believer and the human perceiver has each identified the object of the belief or perception.
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  22. L. S. Carrier (1977). The Irreducibility of Knowledge. Logique Et Analyse 77 (Sommaire):167-176.
    In this article it is argued that it is impossible to give a reductive analysis of knowledge, given that knowledge is an "epistemic" concept with these marks: (1) like necessity, it is only partially truth-functional; and, (2) unlike necessity, it includes an "intentional" component (belief) which is completely non-truth-functional. a reductive analysis would have to contain at least one extensional component, one intentional component, and none that is itself epistemic. but any plausible analysis then turns out either to be non-reductive, (...)
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  23. Ls Carrier (1977). Having A'mixed Truth-Table'like (2) is Still Only a Neces-Sary Condition for Being an Epistemic Concept, Since KAp Shares This Same Truth-Table with the Concept of Logical Ne. Logique Et Analyse 77:167.
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  24. L. S. Carrier (1976). Perversity. Philosophical Quarterly 26 (104):229-242.
    I argue that there are perverse actions, in the sense that they are acts performed in the belief that they are wrong. They are also, however, acts done in the belief that they are right. What makes them perverse is, not only that they have conflicting motivations, but that the motivation that wins out is not in accord with reason. That is, a perverse act is one resulting from one's strongest motivation but not based on all one's available reasons.
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  25. L. S. Carrier (1976). The Causal Theory of Knowledge. Philosophia 6 (2):237-257.
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  26. L. S. Carrier (1975). Abortion and the Right to Life. Social Theory and Practice 3 (Fall):381-401.
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  27. L. S. Carrier (1975). Critical Review: Thought, by Gilbert Harman. Journal of Critical Analysis 5 (4).
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  28. L. S. Carrier (1975). Critical Review: Thought. Journal of Critical Analysis 5 (4):146-150.
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  29. L. S. Carrier (1974). Definitions and Disembodied Minds. Personalist Forum 55:334-43.
     
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  30. L. S. Carrier (1974). Skepticism Made Certain. Journal of Philosophy 71 (5):140-150.
  31. L. Carrier (1973). Professor Shaffer's Refutation of Behaviourism. Mind 80 (April):249-52.
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  32. L. S. Carrier (1972). Beliefs About Objects. Crítica, Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía 6 (16-17):99-119.
  33. L. S. Carrier (1972). Time-Gap Myopia. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 50 (May):55-57.
    I answer objections to my article, "The Time-Gap Argument," made by C. Daniels in his "Seeing Through a Time Gap.".
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  34. L. S. Carrier (1971). An Analysis of Empirical Knowledge. Southern Journal of Philosophy 9 (1):3-11.
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  35. L. S. Carrier (1971). Meaning and Proper Names. Southern Journal of Philosophy 9 (3):237-245.
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  36. L. S. Carrier (1969). Immediate and Mediate Perception. Journal of Philosophy 66 (July):391-403.
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  37. L. S. Carrier (1969). The Time-Gap Argument. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 47 (3):263-272.
    I argue that the time-gap argument poses no objection to Direct Realism. In the case of exploded stars many light years from us, what we see is no longer the star, but its light. I argue that in all cases of seeing we see light, but only when physical objects exist at the time of our seeing do we see them.
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  38. Leonard S. Carrier (1969). The Time-Gap Argument. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 47 (December):263-272.
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