33 found
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  1.  39
    Fabrizio Cariani & Lance J. Rips (2016). Conditionals, Context, and the Suppression Effect. Cognitive Science 40 (3).
    Modus ponens is the argument from premises of the form If A, then B and A to the conclusion B. Nearly all participants agree that the modus ponens conclusion logically follows when the argument appears in this Basic form. However, adding a further premise can lower participants’ rate of agreement—an effect called suppression. We propose a theory of suppression that draws on contemporary ideas about conditional sentences in linguistics and philosophy. Semantically, the theory assumes that people interpret an indicative conditional (...)
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  2.  34
    Lance J. Rips, Amber Bloomfield & Jennifer Asmuth (2008). From Numerical Concepts to Concepts of Number. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):623-642.
    Many experiments with infants suggest that they possess quantitative abilities, and many experimentalists believe that these abilities set the stage for later mathematics: natural numbers and arithmetic. However, the connection between these early and later skills is far from obvious. We evaluate two possible routes to mathematics and argue that neither is sufficient: (1) We first sketch what we think is the most likely model for infant abilities in this domain, and we examine proposals for extrapolating the natural number concept (...)
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  3. Lance J. Rips (1994). The Psychology of Proof Deductive Reasoning in Human Thinking. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  4. Lance J. Rips (1989). The Psychology of Knights and Knaves. Cognition 31 (2):85-116.
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  5.  8
    Lance J. Rips, Jennifer Asmuth & Amber Bloomfield (2006). Giving the Boot to the Bootstrap: How Not to Learn the Natural Numbers. Cognition 101 (3):B51-B60.
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  6.  8
    Eyal Sagi & Lance J. Rips (2014). Identity, Causality, and Pronoun Ambiguity. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (4):663-680.
    This article looks at the way people determine the antecedent of a pronoun in sentence pairs, such as: Albert invited Ron to dinner. He spent hours cleaning the house. The experiment reported here is motivated by the idea that such judgments depend on reasoning about identity . Because the identity of an individual over time depends on the causal-historical path connecting the stages of the individual, the correct antecedent will also depend on causal connections. The experiment varied how likely it (...)
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  7.  6
    Lance J. Rips, Jennifer Asmuth & Amber Bloomfield (2008). Do Children Learn the Integers by Induction? Cognition 106 (2):940-951.
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  8.  8
    Edward E. Smith, Daniel N. Osherson, Lance J. Rips & Margaret Keane (1988). Combining Prototypes: A Selective Modification Model. Cognitive Science 12 (4):485-527.
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  9.  96
    Jonathan Eric Adler & Lance J. Rips (eds.) (2008). Reasoning: Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations. Cambridge University Press.
    This interdisciplinary work is a collection of major essays on reasoning: deductive, inductive, abductive, belief revision, defeasible (non-monotonic), cross cultural, conversational, and argumentative. They are each oriented toward contemporary empirical studies. The book focuses on foundational issues, including paradoxes, fallacies, and debates about the nature of rationality, the traditional modes of reasoning, as well as counterfactual and causal reasoning. It also includes chapters on the interface between reasoning and other forms of thought. In general, this last set of essays represents (...)
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  10.  1
    Lance J. Rips (2002). Reasoning. In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley
  11.  25
    Lance J. Rips (2010). Two Causal Theories of Counterfactual Conditionals. Cognitive Science 34 (2):175-221.
    Bayes nets are formal representations of causal systems that many psychologists have claimed as plausible mental representations. One purported advantage of Bayes nets is that they may provide a theory of counterfactual conditionals, such as If Calvin had been at the party, Miriam would have left early. This article compares two proposed Bayes net theories as models of people's understanding of counterfactuals. Experiments 1-3 show that neither theory makes correct predictions about backtracking counterfactuals (in which the event of the if-clause (...)
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  12.  4
    Lance J. Rips (2002). Circular Reasoning. Cognitive Science 26 (6):767-795.
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  13.  6
    Sarah K. Brem & Lance J. Rips (2000). Explanation and Evidence in Informal Argument. Cognitive Science 24 (4):573-604.
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  14.  14
    Lance J. Rips, Jennifer Asmuth & Amber Bloomfield (2013). Can Statistical Learning Bootstrap the Integers? Cognition 128 (3):320-330.
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  15.  22
    Douglas L. Medin & Lance J. Rips (2005). Concepts and Categories: Memory, Meaning, and Metaphysics. In K. Holyoak & B. Morrison (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge Univ Pr 37--72.
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  16. Lance J. Rips (2001). Necessity and Natural Categories. Psychological Bulletin 127:827-852.
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  17.  13
    Lance J. Rips, Susan J. Hespos & Susan Carey (2011). Rebooting the Bootstrap Argument: Two Puzzles for Bootstrap Theories of Concept Development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):145.
    The Origin of Concepts sets out an impressive defense of the view that children construct entirely new systems of concepts. We offer here two questions about this theory. First, why doesn't the bootstrapping process provide a pattern for translating between the old and new systems, contradicting their claimed incommensurability? Second, can the bootstrapping process properly distinguish meaning change from belief change?
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  18.  19
    Lance J. Rips (1995). The Current Status of Research on Concept Combination. Mind and Language 10 (1-2):72-104.
  19.  2
    Lance J. Rips & Allan Collins (1993). Categories and Resemblance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122 (4):468.
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  20.  2
    Lance J. Rips (1993). Qualities and Relations in Folk Theories of Mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):75.
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  21.  4
    Nick Leonard & Lance J. Rips (2015). Identifying and Counting Objects: The Role of Sortal Concepts. Cognition 145:89-103.
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  22.  4
    Steven A. Sloman & Lance J. Rips (1998). Similarity as an Explanatory Construct. Cognition 65 (2-3):87-101.
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  23.  22
    Lance J. Rips & Brian J. Edwards (2013). Inference and Explanation in Counterfactual Reasoning. Cognitive Science 37 (6):1107-1135.
    This article reports results from two studies of how people answer counterfactual questions about simple machines. Participants learned about devices that have a specific configuration of components, and they answered questions of the form “If component X had not operated [failed], would component Y have operated?” The data from these studies indicate that participants were sensitive to the way in which the antecedent state is described—whether component X “had not operated” or “had failed.” Answers also depended on whether the device (...)
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  24.  6
    Lance J. Rips (2011). Split Identity: Intransitive Judgments of the Identity of Objects. Cognition 119 (3):356-373.
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  25.  25
    George E. Newman, Sergey V. Blok & Lance J. Rips (2006). Beliefs in Afterlife as a by-Product of Persistence Judgments. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):480-481.
    We agree that supernatural beliefs are pervasive. However, we propose a more general account rooted in how people trace ordinary objects over time. Tracking identity involves attending to the causal history of an object, a process that may implicate hidden mechanisms. We discuss experiments in which participants exhibit the same “supernatural” beliefs when reasoning about the fates of cups and automobiles as those exhibited by Bering's participants when reasoning about spirits.
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  26.  21
    Lance J. Rips (1997). Goals for a Theory of Deduction: Reply to Johnson-Laird. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 7 (3):409-424.
  27.  4
    Gary S. Kahn & Lance J. Rips (1983). Norms, Competence, and the Explanation of Reasoning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):501.
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  28.  11
    Lance J. Rips, Amber Bloomfield & Jennifer Asmuth (2008). Dissonances in Theories of Number Understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):671-687.
    Traditional theories of how children learn the positive integers start from infants' abilities in detecting the quantity of physical objects. Our target article examined this view and found no plausible accounts of such development. Most of our commentators appear to agree that no adequate developmental theory is presently available, but they attempt to hold onto a role for early enumeration. Although some defend the traditional theories, others introduce new basic quantitative abilities, new methods of transformation, or new types of end (...)
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  29.  1
    Lance J. Rips (2009). Argumentative Thinking: An Introduction to the Special Issue on Psychology and Argumentation. Informal Logic 29 (4):327-336.
    This special issue of Informal Logic brings together a num-ber of traditions from the psychology and philosophy of argument. Psycho-logists’ interest in argument typically arises in understanding how indivi-duals form and change their beliefs. Thus, theories of argument can serve as models of the structure of justi-fications for belief, as methods of diagnosing errors in beliefs, and as prototypes for learning. The articles in this issue illustrate all three of these connections.
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  30.  1
    Lance J. Rips (1990). Paralogical Reasoning: Evans, Johnson-Laird, and Byrne on Liar and Truth-Teller Puzzles. Cognition 36 (3):291-314.
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  31. Jeremy Bailenson & Lance J. Rips, Claim Strength and Burden of Proof.
    In this paper, we report results from experiments in which people read conversational arguments and then judge the convincingness of each claim and the individual speakers' burden of proof. The results showed an "anti-primacy" effect: People judge the speaker who makes the first claim as having greater burden of proof. This effect persists even when each speaker's claims are rated equally convincing. We also find that people rate claims less convincing when they appear in the first part of an argument (...)
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  32. P. N. Johnson-Laird, Jane Oakhill, Josef Perner, Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini, Lance J. Rips, Jennifer A. Sanderson, Michael Siegal & Yohtaro Takano (1989). OCk, athryn, 163 Byrne, Ruth MJ, 61 Cosmides, Leda, 187 Garnham, Alan, 45, 117. Cognition 31:295.
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  33. Lance J. Rips (1989). LLI-PAL (Center for Cognitive Science. Cognition 31:293-294.
     
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