Search results for 'Language acquisition' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  40
    Nick Chater & Morten H. Christiansen (2010). Language Acquisition Meets Language Evolution. Cognitive Science 34 (7):1131-1157.
    Recent research suggests that language evolution is a process of cultural change, in which linguistic structures are shaped through repeated cycles of learning and use by domain-general mechanisms. This paper draws out the implications of this viewpoint for understanding the problem of language acquisition, which is cast in a new, and much more tractable, form. In essence, the child faces a problem of induction, where the objective is to coordinate with others (C-induction), rather than to model the (...)
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  2.  62
    Alexander Clark & Shalom Lappin (2013). Complexity in Language Acquisition. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):89-110.
    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems—in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about (...)
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  3.  36
    Anne S. Hsu & Nick Chater (2010). The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition: A Probabilistic Perspective. Cognitive Science 34 (6):972-1016.
    Natural language is full of patterns that appear to fit with general linguistic rules but are ungrammatical. There has been much debate over how children acquire these “linguistic restrictions,” and whether innate language knowledge is needed. Recently, it has been shown that restrictions in language can be learned asymptotically via probabilistic inference using the minimum description length (MDL) principle. Here, we extend the MDL approach to give a simple and practical methodology for estimating how much linguistic data (...)
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  4.  45
    Aarre Laakso & Paco Calvo (2011). How Many Mechanisms Are Needed to Analyze Speech? A Connectionist Simulation of Structural Rule Learning in Artificial Language Acquisition. Cognitive Science 35 (7):1243-1281.
    Some empirical evidence in the artificial language acquisition literature has been taken to suggest that statistical learning mechanisms are insufficient for extracting structural information from an artificial language. According to the more than one mechanism (MOM) hypothesis, at least two mechanisms are required in order to acquire language from speech: (a) a statistical mechanism for speech segmentation; and (b) an additional rule-following mechanism in order to induce grammatical regularities. In this article, we present a set of (...)
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  5.  42
    David Ellerman, Four Ways From Universal to Particular: How Chomsky's Language-Acquisition Faculty is Not Selectionist.
    Following the development of the selectionist theory of the immune system, there was an attempt to characterize many biological mechanisms as being "selectionist" as juxtaposed to "instructionist." But this broad definition would group Darwinian evolution, the immune system, embryonic development, and Chomsky's language-acquisition mechanism as all being "selectionist." Yet Chomsky's mechanism (and embryonic development) are significantly different from the selectionist mechanisms of biological evolution or the immune system. Surprisingly, there is a very abstract way using two dual mathematical (...)
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  6.  17
    Steven Walczak (2002). A Context-Based Computational Model of Language Acquisition by Infants and Children. Foundations of Science 7 (4):393-411.
    This research attempts to understand howchildren learn to use language. Instead ofusing syntax-based grammar rules to model thedifferences between children''s language andadult language, as has been done in the past, anew model is proposed. In the new researchmodel, children acquire language by listeningto the examples of speech that they hear intheir environment and subsequently use thespeech examples that have been previously heardin similar contextual situations. A computermodel is generated to simulate this new modelof language (...). The MALL computerprogram will listen to examples of humanspeech, as would occur around a child, and thentry to use these examples in new situationsthat are similar to the contextual situationsin which the language examples were heard. This will provide a better understanding of howchildren learn to use language and howeducators can assist or improve the languagelearning process by providing required examplesof speech or by helping children to develop abetter understanding of similarities betweenvarious contexts. (shrink)
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  7.  1
    Lawrence Phillips & Lisa Pearl (2015). The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation. Cognitive Science 39 (8):1824-1854.
    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising (...)
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  8.  5
    Christina E. Erneling (1993). Understanding Language Acquisition: The Framework of Learning. State University of New York Press.
    She challenges the usefulness of the concept of a language of thought in explaining language acquisition, and draws on the later work of Wittgen.
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  9.  22
    Samuel David Epstein, Suzanne Flynn & Gita Martohardjono (1996). Second Language Acquisition: Theoretical and Experimental Issues in Contemporary Research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):677-714.
    To what extent, if any, does Universal Grammar (UG) constrain second language (L2) acquisition? This is not only an empirical question, but one which is currently investigable. In this context, L2 acquisition is emerging as an important new domain of psycholinguistic research. Three logical possibilities have been articulated regarding the role of UG in L2 acquisition: The first is the hypothesis that claims that no aspect of UG is available to the L2 learner. The second is (...)
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  10. Fiona Cowie (1997). The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. Synthese 111 (1):17-51.
    Arguments from the Logical Problem of Language Acquisition suggest that since linguistic experience provides few negative data that would falsify overgeneral grammatical hypotheses, innate knowledge of the principles of Universal Grammar must constrain learners hypothesis formulation. Although this argument indicates a need for domain-specific constraints, it does not support their innateness. Learning from mostly positive data proceeds unproblematically in virtually all domains. Since not every domain can plausibly be accorded its own special faculty, the probative value of the (...)
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  11. C. L. Baker & John J. Mccarthy (1981). The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  12.  3
    Maryia Fedzechkina, Elissa L. Newport & T. Florian Jaeger (2016). Balancing Effort and Information Transmission During Language Acquisition: Evidence From Word Order and Case Marking. Cognitive Science 40 (6):n/a-n/a.
    Across languages of the world, some grammatical patterns have been argued to be more common than expected by chance. These are sometimes referred to as language universals. One such universal is the correlation between constituent order freedom and the presence of a case system in a language. Here, we explore whether this correlation can be explained by a bias to balance production effort and informativity of cues to grammatical function. Two groups of learners were presented with miniature artificial (...)
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  13.  8
    Michael Ramscar & Daniel Yarlett (2007). Linguistic Self‐Correction in the Absence of Feedback: A New Approach to the Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. Cognitive Science 31 (6):927-960.
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  14.  2
    Jill Lany, Rebecca L. Gómez & Lou Ann Gerken (2007). The Role of Prior Experience in Language Acquisition. Cognitive Science 31 (3):481-507.
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  15.  19
    Stephen Crain (1991). Language Acquisition in the Absence of Experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):597-612.
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  16.  31
    Nathan Stemmer (1989). Empiricist Versus Prototype Theories of Language Acquisition. Mind and Language 4 (3):201-221.
  17.  25
    Eli Dresner (2002). Holism, Language Acquisition, and Algebraic Logic. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (4):419-452.
    In the first section of this paper I present a well known objection to meaning holism, according to which holism is inconsistent with natural language being learnable. Then I show that the objection fails if language acquisition includes stages of partial grasp of the meaning of at least some expressions, and I argue that standard model theoretic semantics cannot fully capture such stages. In the second section the above claims are supported through a review of current research (...)
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  18.  35
    Oren Kolodny, Arnon Lotem & Shimon Edelman (2014). Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process‐Level Model of Language Acquisition. Cognitive Science 38 (4):227-267.
    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed (...)
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  19. Dinah Baer‐Henney, Frank Kügler & Ruben Vijver (2015). The Interaction of Language‐Specific and Universal Factors During the Acquisition of Morphophonemic Alternations With Exceptions. Cognitive Science 39 (7):1537-1569.
    Using the artificial language paradigm, we studied the acquisition of morphophonemic alternations with exceptions by 160 German adult learners. We tested the acquisition of two types of alternations in two regularity conditions while additionally varying length of training. In the first alternation, a vowel harmony, backness of the stem vowel determines backness of the suffix. This process is grounded in substance, and this universal phonetic factor bolsters learning a generalization. In the second alternation, tenseness of the stem (...)
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  20.  1
    Candida C. Peterson Jay L. Garfield (2001). Social Cognition, Language Acquisition and The Development of the Theory of Mind. Mind and Language 16 (5):494-541.
    Theory of Mind is the cognitive achievement that enables us to report our propositional attitudes, to attribute such attitudes to others, and to use such postulated or observed mental states in the prediction and explanation of behavior. Most normally developing children acquire ToM between the ages of 3 and 5 years, but serious delays beyond this chronological and mental age have been observed in children with autism, as well as in those with severe sensory impairments. We examine data from studies (...)
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  21. Bettina Schmitz & Translated By Julia Jansen (2005). Homelessness or Symbolic Castration? Subjectivity, Language Acquisition, and Sociality in Julia Kristeva and Jacques Lacan. Hypatia 20 (2):69-87.
    How much violence can a society expect its members to accept? A comparison between the language theories of Julia Kristeva and Jacques Lacan is the starting point for answering this question. A look at the early stages of language acquisition exposes the sacrificial logic of patriarchal society. Are those forces that restrict the individual to be conceived in a martial imagery of castration or is it possible that an existing society critically questions those points of socialization that (...)
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  22.  93
    Christina Behme & Helene Deacon (2008). Language Learning in Infancy: Does the Empirical Evidence Support a Domain Specific Language Acquisition Device? Philosophical Psychology 21 (5):641 – 671.
    Poverty of the Stimulus Arguments have convinced many linguists and philosophers of language that a domain specific language acquisition device (LAD) is necessary to account for language learning. Here we review empirical evidence that casts doubt on the necessity of this domain specific device. We suggest that more attention needs to be paid to the early stages of language acquisition. Many seemingly innate language-related abilities have to be learned over the course of several (...)
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  23.  11
    Edith L. Bavin (2009). Widening the Field: The Process of Language Acquisition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):449-450.
    Evans & Levinson (E&L) argue against Universal Grammar on the basis of language diversity. A related and fundamental issue is whether the language input provides sufficient information for a child to acquire it. I briefly discuss the more integrated approaches to language acquisition which focus on the mechanisms, and research showing that input cues provide valuable information for the language learner.
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  24.  25
    Shimon Edelman, Some Tests of an Unsupervised Model of Language Acquisition.
    We outline an unsupervised language acquisition algorithm and offer some psycholinguistic support for a model based on it. Our approach resembles the Construction Grammar in its general philosophy, and the Tree Adjoining Grammar in its computational characteristics. The model is trained on a corpus of transcribed child-directed speech (CHILDES). The model’s ability to process novel inputs makes it capable of taking various standard tests of English that rely on forced-choice judgment and on magnitude estimation of linguistic acceptability. We (...)
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  25.  41
    Bettina Schmitz & tr Jansen, Julia (2005). Homelessness or Symbolic Castration? Subjectivity, Language Acquisition, and Sociality in Julia Kristeva and Jacques Lacan. Hypatia 20 (2):69-87.
    : How much violence can a society expect its members to accept? A comparison between the language theories of Julia Kristeva and Jacques Lacan is the starting point for answering this question. A look at the early stages of language acquisition exposes the sacrificial logic of patriarchal society. Are those forces that restrict the individual to be conceived in a martial imagery of castration or is it possible that an existing society critically questions those points of socialization (...)
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  26.  26
    Alexander Clark, Computational Learning Theory and Language Acquisition.
    Computational learning theory explores the limits of learnability. Studying language acquisition from this perspective involves identifying classes of languages that are learnable from the available data, within the limits of time and computational resources available to the learner. Different models of learning can yield radically different learnability results, where these depend on the assumptions of the model about the nature of the learning process, and the data, time, and resources that learners have access to. To the extent that (...)
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  27.  22
    Jerry H. Gill (1986). Metaphor and Language Acquisition: A View From the West Pole. Southern Journal of Philosophy 24 (2):219-233.
    The focus is on the crucial role played by metaphor in language acquisition, Following the insights of wittgenstein, Barfield, And polanyi. Emphasis is placed on the essentially informal and tacit dynamics involved in the mediation of meaning.
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  28.  19
    Peter F. Dominey (2004). Situation Alignment and Routinization in Language Acquisition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):195-195.
    Pickering & Garrod (P&G) describe a mechanism by which the situation models of dialog participants become progressively aligned via priming at different levels. This commentary attempts to characterize how alignment and routinization can be extended into the language acquisition domain by establishing links between alignment and joint attention, and between routinization and grammatical construction learning.
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  29.  12
    Teresa Satterfield (2008). Language Acquisition Recapitulates Language Evolution? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):532-533.
    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) focus solely on general-purpose cognitive processes in their elegant conceptualization of language evolution. However, numerous developmental facts attested in L1 acquisition confound C&C's subsequent claim that the logical problem of language acquisition now plausibly recapitulates that of language evolution. I argue that language acquisition should be viewed instead as a multi-layered construction involving the interplay of general and domain-specific learning mechanisms.
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  30.  10
    Chris Sinha, Lis A. Thorseng, Mariko Hayashi & Kim Plunkett (1994). Comparative Spatial Semantics and Language Acquisition: Evidence From Danish, English, and Japanese. Journal of Semantics 11 (4):253-287.
    Spatial relational meaning is typically predominantly expressed in English and related languages by die locative particle system. Even between closely related languages such as Danish and English, there are substantial differences with respect to both the semantics and the morphology of locative particles. Other languages (including Japanese), although they may use locative particles in spatial relational expression, distribute spatial relational meaning quite differendy between and within form classes. We investigate the consequences of these differences for the acquisition of spatial (...)
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  31.  3
    Chengjun Wang (2009). On Linguistic Environment for Foreign Language Acquisition. Asian Culture and History 1 (1):P58.
    It is clear that children acquire their first language without explicit learning. A foreign or second language is usually learned but to some degree may also be acquired or “picked up” depending on the environmental setting. So, this article mainly discusses the linguistic environmental setting for foreign language acquisition. It suggested that we should make an effective linguistic environment for foreign language acquisition in foreign language classroom.
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  32. Peter W. Culicover (1999). Syntactic Nuts: Hard Cases, Syntactic Theory, and Language Acquisition. Oxford University Press Uk.
    This book investigates the architecture of the language faculty by considering what the properties of language reveal about the mental abilities and processes involved in language acquisition. The language faculty, the author argues, must be able not only to accommodate what is general, exceptionless, and universal in language, but must also be capable of dealing with what is irregular, exceptional, and idiosyncratic. In Syntactic Nuts Peter Culicover shows that this is true not only of (...)
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  33. Stephen Crain & Paul M. Pietroski (2002). Why Language Acquisition is a Snap. Linguistic Review.
    Nativists inspired by Chomsky are apt to provide arguments with the following general form: languages exhibit interesting generalizations that are not suggested by casual (or even intensive) examination of what people actually say; correspondingly, adults (i.e., just about anyone above the age of four) know much more about language than they could plausibly have learned on the basis of their experience; so absent an alternative account of the relevant generalizations and speakers' (tacit) knowledge of them, one should conclude that (...)
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  34. Steven Pinker (1986). Productivity and Conservatism in Language Acquisition. In William Demopoulos (ed.), Language Learning and Concept Acquisition. Ablex 54--79.
     
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  35.  38
    Paul Pietrowski, Why Language Acquisition is a Snap.
    Nativists inspired by Chomsky are apt to provide arguments with the following general form: languages exhibit interesting generalizations that are not suggested by casual (or even intensive) examination of what people actually say; correspondingly, adults (i.e., just about anyone above the age of four) know much more about language than they could plausibly have learned on the basis of their experience; so absent an alternative account of the relevant generalizations and speakers' (tacit) knowledge of them, one should conclude that (...)
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  36.  23
    Shimon Edelman, Unsupervised Context Sensitive Language Acquisition From a Large Corpus.
    We describe a pattern acquisition algorithm that learns, in an unsupervised fashion, a streamlined representation of linguistic structures from a plain natural-language corpus. This paper addresses the issues of learning structured knowledge from a large-scale natural language data set, and of generalization to unseen text. The implemented algorithm represents sentences as paths on a graph whose vertices are words. Significant patterns, determined by recursive context-sensitive statistical inference, form new vertices. Linguistic constructions are represented by trees composed of (...)
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  37. Gary M. Olson (1973). Memory Development and Language Acquisition. In T. E. Moore (ed.), Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language. Academic
     
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  38.  5
    Leo Postman (1962). The Effects of Language Habits on the Acquisition and Retention of Verbal Associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (1):7.
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  39.  8
    Pierre Perruchet (2005). Statistical Approaches to Language Acquisition and the Self-Organizing Consciousness: A Reversal of Perspective. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung. Vol 69 (5-6):316-329.
  40.  17
    K. Cormier, A. Schembri, D. Vinson & E. Orfanidou (2012). First Language Acquisition Differs From Second Language Acquisition in Prelingually Deaf Signers: Evidence From Sensitivity to Grammaticality Judgement in British Sign Language. Cognition 124 (1):50-65.
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  41.  23
    Geoffrey Sampson (1989). Language Acquisition: Growth or Learning? Philosophical Papers 18 (3):203-240.
  42.  4
    Kim Plunkett & Virginia Marchman (1991). U-Shaped Learning and Frequency Effects in a Multi-Layered Perception: Implications for Child Language Acquisition. Cognition 38 (1):43-102.
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  43.  2
    Jacques Mehler, Peter Jusczyk, Ghislaine Lambertz, Nilofar Halsted, Josiane Bertoncini & Claudine Amiel-Tison (1988). A Precursor of Language Acquisition in Young Infants. Cognition 29 (2):143-178.
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  44. Cynthia Fisher (2002). The Role of Abstract Syntactic Knowledge in Language Acquisition: A Reply to Tomasello. Cognition 82 (3):259-278.
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  45.  71
    Jay L. Garfield, Candida C. Peterson & Tricia Perry (2001). Social Cognition, Language Acquisition and the Development of the Theory of Mind. Mind and Language 16 (5):494–541.
  46. Norbert Hornstein & David Lightfoot (1985). Explanation in Linguistics. The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 47 (2):338-338.
  47.  35
    Rebecca L. Gómez & LouAnn Gerken (2000). Infant Artificial Language Learning and Language Acquisition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (5):178-186.
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  48.  3
    L. A. Petitto (1987). On the Autonomy of Language and Gesture: Evidence From the Acquisition of Personal Pronouns in American Sign Language. Cognition 27 (1):1-52.
    Two central assumptions of current models of language acquisition were addressed in this study: (1) knowledge of linguistic structure is "mapped onto" earlier forms of non-linguistic knowledge; and (2) acquiring a language involves a continuous learning sequence from early gestural communication to linguistic expression. The acquisition of the first and second person pronouns ME and YOU was investigated in a longitudinal study of two deaf children of deaf parents learning American Sign Language (ASL) as a (...)
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  49.  10
    Steve Strand & Feyisa Demie (2005). English Language Acquisition and Educational Attainment at the End of Primary School. Educational Studies 31 (3):275-291.
    This paper analyses the national key stage 2 test results for 2300 11?year?old pupils in an inner London LEA. A range of concurrent pupil background data was also collected, including whether pupils spoke English as an additional language (EAL), and if so, their stage of fluency in English. EAL pupils at the early stages (1?3) of developing fluency had significantly lower KS2 test scores in all subjects than their monolingual peers. However, EAL pupils who were fully fluent in English (...)
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  50.  10
    Grays Hall Basement (1994). Language Acquisition: A Linguistic Introduction. By Helen Goodluck. Oxford & Cambridge, Ma: Blackwell, 1991. Pp. VIII, 224. Cloth $57.95, Paper $19.95. Reviewed by Cecile McKee, University of Washington, and Guy Modica, University of Washington and Nagoya Shoka Daigaku Many Linguists Will Appreciate Goodluck's Introductory Textbook on First. [REVIEW] In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press
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