Search results for 'Language and languages' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Xinli Wang (2003). Presuppositional Languages and the Failure of Cross-Language Understanding. Dialogue 42 (01):53-77.
    Why is mutual understanding between two substantially different comprehensive language communities often problematic and even unattainable? To answer this question, the author first introduces a notion of presuppositional languages. Based on the semantic structure of a presuppositional language, the author identifies a significant condition necessary for effective understanding of a language: the interpreter is able to effectively understand a language only if he/she is able to recognize and comprehend its metaphysical presuppositions. The essential role of (...)
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  2.  45
    James R. Hurford (1998). The Evolution of Language and Languages. In [Book Chapter] (Unpublished).
    Human languages, such as French, Cantonese or American Sign Language, are socio- cultural entities. Knowledge of them (`competence') is acquired by exposure to the ap- propriate environment. Languages are maintained and transmitted by acts of speaking and writing; and this is also the means by which languages evolve. The utterances of one generation are processed by their children to form mental grammars, which in some sense summarize, or generalize over, the children's linguistic experiences. These grammars are (...)
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  3.  22
    Karen Emmorey (2005). Sign Languages Are Problematic for a Gestural Origins Theory of Language Evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):130-131.
    Sign languages exhibit all the complexities and evolutionary advantages of spoken languages. Consequently, sign languages are problematic for a theory of language evolution that assumes a gestural origin. There are no compelling arguments why the expanding spiral between protosign and protospeech proposed by Arbib would not have resulted in the evolutionary dominance of sign over speech.
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  4.  6
    Rw Ir Gibbs, C. Goddard, A. I. Goldman, I. Grady, D. Graff & M. Gullberg (2012). 356 Space and Time in Languages and Cultures: Language, Culture, and Cognition. In L. Filipovic & K. M. Jaszczolt (eds.), Space and Time in Languages and Cultures: Language, Culture, and Cognition. John Benjamins 355.
  5.  1
    Natural Semantic Metalanguage (2012). 360 Space and Time in Languages and Cultures: Language, Culture, and Cognition. In L. Filipovic & K. M. Jaszczolt (eds.), Space and Time in Languages and Cultures: Language, Culture, and Cognition. John Benjamins 359.
  6.  1
    I. Kim (2012). 356 Space and Time in Languages and Cultures: Language, Culture, and Cognition. In L. Filipovic & K. M. Jaszczolt (eds.), Space and Time in Languages and Cultures: Language, Culture, and Cognition. John Benjamins 37--60.
  7.  50
    Daniel Whiting (forthcoming). Languages, Language-Games, and Forms of Life. In H.-J. Glock & J. Hyman (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Wittgenstein. Wiley-Blackwell
    In this paper, after outlining the methodological role Wittgenstein's appeal to language-games is supposed to play, I examine the picture of language which his discussion of such games and their relations to what Wittgenstein calls forms of life suggests. It is a picture according to which language and its employment are inextricably connected to wider contexts—they are embedded in specific natural and social environments, they are tied to purposive activities serving provincial needs, and caught up in distinctive (...)
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  8.  3
    Magda Petrjánošová & Alicja Leix (2013). Languages of Borderlands, Borders of Languages: Native and Foreign Language Use in Intergroup Contact Between Czechs and Their Neighbours. Human Affairs 23 (4):658-679.
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  9.  7
    G. Tucker Childs (2014). Constraints on Violating Constraints: How Languages Reconcile the Twin Dicta of “Be Different” and “Be Recognizably Language”. Pragmatics and Society 5 (3):341-354.
    This paper examines the contradictory demands of using language expressively and still qualifying as language, proposing a functional explanation for the form of words in a linguistic word category. Being expressive requires expending more energy, emitting a more robust signal to convey additional information about the speaker, the perception of an event, etc. Doing so requires violating the common linguistic constraints of everyday language, yet to be recognized as language requires that one’s speech obey these same (...)
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  10. David Lewis (1975). Languages and Language. In Keith Gunderson (ed.), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science. University of Minnesota Press 3-35.
  11.  6
    James Higginbotham (2006). Languages and Idiolects: Their Language and Ours. In Barry C. Smith (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oxford University Press 140--50.
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  12.  48
    Christina Behme (2008). Languages as Evolving Organisms – the Solution to the Logical Problem of Language Evolution? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):512-513.
    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) argue persuasively that Universal Grammar (UG) could not have arisen through evolutionary processes. I provide additional suggestions to strengthen the argument against UG evolution. Further, I suggest that C&C's solution to the logical problem of language evolution faces several problems. Widening the focus to mechanisms of general cognition and inclusion of animal communication research might overcome these problems.
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  13.  33
    Aaron Sloman, Evolution of Language and Creativity: Evolutionary Precursors to Communicative Language: Internal Languages.
    At the end of the seminar, I suggested that most researchers on language and its evolution (including Derek Bickerton I suspect, though I've only read snippets of his work), mistakenly ignore a host of other competences that are present in far more species.
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  14.  15
    Shimon Edelman, Learn the Source and Target Languages: (A) Learn a Grammar GA for the Source Language (A). (B) Estimate a Structural Statistical Language Model SSLMA for (A). Given a Grammar (Consisting Of..). [REVIEW]
    (a) Learn a grammar GA for the source language (A). (b) Estimate a structural statistical language model SSLMA for (A). Given a grammar (consisting of terminals and nonterminals) and a partial sentence (sequence of terminals (t1 . . . ti)), an SSLM assigns probabilities to the possible choices of the next terminal ti+1.
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  15. Noam Chomsky (1967). 2.1 From Now on I Will Consider a Language to Be a Set (Finite or Infinite) of Sentences, Each Finite in Length and Constructed Out of a Finite Set of Elements. All Natural Languages in Their Spoken or Written Form Are Languages. [REVIEW] In Donald C. Hildum (ed.), Language and Thought: An Enduring Problem in Psychology. London,: Van Nostrand, 37--91.
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  16.  44
    Eran Guter (2004). Where Languages End: Ludwig Wittgenstein at the Crossroads of Music, Language, and the World. Dissertation, Boston University
    Most commentators have underplayed the philosophical importance of Wittgenstein's multifarious remarks on music, which are scattered throughout his Nachlass. In this dissertation I spell out the extent and depth of Wittgenstein's engagement with certain problems that are regarded today as central to the field of the aesthetics of music, such as musical temporality, expression and understanding. By considering musical expression in its relation to aspect-perception, I argue that Wittgenstein understands music in terms of a highly evolved, vertically complex physiognomic (...)-game, in which fine shades of behavior are logically (semantically) connected with the musical experiences themselves. A musical passage conjoins the multifarious language games that are presupposed in it and the emerging gesture that ultimately insinuates itself into our life. Wittgenstein conceives music as a mode of expression, a path leading from the world of our thoughts and feelings, which in itself is not yet music, toward a gesture which is no longer music, but which belongs to the world of thoughts and feelings. A melody can be located at this crossroads of music, language and the world, and is understood in reciprocal action with language. Musical gesture insinuates itself into our life, for, like a human face, it speaks of and reflects our "knowledge of mankind," and it is ultimately understood only against the background of "the bustle of life," as Wittgenstein calls it. I also argue that Wittgenstein's discussion of musical understanding suggests an important model, albeit not an exclusive one, for understanding language. The musicality of language points first and foremost at the way we use words in the vertically complex language game of expression, and at the intransitive understanding that goes with it. Throughout the dissertation I address a number of unique topics that have rarely, if ever, been investigated in this context. These include inter alia Wittgenstein's 1912-1913 experiments on the perception of rhythm, Oswald Spengler's influence on Wittgenstein's remarks on music, Wittgenstein's reaction to Heinrich Schenker's view of music, and the complex, elusive relation between Wittgenstein's later philosophical views and Arnold Schoenberg's dodecaphonic music. (shrink)
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  17. Susanna Goodin (2011). Language, Mind, and Nature: Artificial Languages in England From Bacon to Locke (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 49 (2):252-253.
  18. John Hawthorne (1990). A Note on 'Languages and Language'. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 68 (1):116 – 118.
  19.  25
    M. Fludernik & R. D. Sell (1995). The Fictions of Language and the Languages of Fiction: The Linguistic Representation of Speech and Consciousness. Journal of Pragmatics 24.
  20.  13
    Laura Ann Petitto, Siobhan Holowka, Lauren E. Sergio, Bronna Levy & David J. Ostry (2004). Baby Hands That Move to the Rhythm of Language: Hearing Babies Acquiring Sign Languages Babble Silently on the Hands. Cognition 93 (1):43-73.
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  21.  10
    James R. Douglass (2010). Language of Languages for Flexible Development. Complexity 3:1-1.
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  22.  8
    J. P. De Ruiter & Stephen C. Levinson (2008). Commentary/Christiansen & Chater: Language as Shaped A Biological Infrastructure for Communication Underlies the Cultural Evolution of Languages. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31:5.
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  23.  9
    Elizabeth Jackson (1911). A Mexican-Aryan Comparative Vocabulary. The Radicals of the Mexican or Navatl Language, with Their Cognates in the Aryan Languages of the Old World, Chiefly Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Germanic. By T. S. Denison, A.M., Author of Mexican in Aryan Phonology, The Primitive Aryans of America. 8vo. Pp. 110. Chicago (163, Randolph Street), T. M. Denison. 1909. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 25 (08):266-267.
  24.  28
    Evert W. Beth (1963). The Relationship Between Formalised Languages and Natural Language. Synthese 15 (1):1 - 16.
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  25.  3
    Samuel N. Rosenberg (1986). William W. Kibler, An Introduction to Old French. (Introductions to Older Languages, 3.) New York: Modern Language Association, 1984. Pp. Xxvii, 366. $27.50 (Cloth); $15 (Paper). [REVIEW] Speculum 61 (1):167-168.
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  26.  3
    Teresa Shawcross & Stephen Pax Leonard (2011). The Greek Language Georgakopoulou, Silk Standard Languages and Language Standards: Greek, Past and Present. Pp. Xxviii + 367, Figs. Farnham, Surrey and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2009. Cased, £65. ISBN: 978-0-7546-6437-6. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 61 (1):5-8.
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  27. Joseph S. Ullian (1968). Review: Noam Chomsky, George A. Miller, Introduction to the Formal Analysis of Natural Languages; Noam Chomsky, Formal Properties of Grammars; George A. Miller, Noam Chomsky, Finitary Models of Language Users. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (2):299-300.
     
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  28.  6
    J. R. H. (1910). Dr. Postgate on Flaws in Classical Research and Dead Language and Dead Languages. The Classical Review 24 (08):241-244.
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  29.  2
    Matthew Jones (2009). Language, Mind, and Nature: Artificial Languages in England From Bacon to Locke. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 100:159-160.
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  30.  3
    Irene Portis-Winner (1999). A (Culture) Text is a Mechanism Constituting a System of Heterogeneous Semiotic Spaces, in Whose Continuum the Message...(Is) Circulated. We Do Not Perceive This Message to Be the Manifestation of a Single Language: A Minimum of Two Languages is Required to Create It (Lotman 1994: 377).[(1981]). The Assumption is That All Communication is Through Signs, Verbal, Visual, Movements, Performances, Rituals, Etc. Peirce's Classic Definition of the Sign is the Following:“A Sign is Something Which Stands to ... [REVIEW] Sign Systems Studies 27:24-45.
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  31.  3
    Raymond D. Gumb (1996). Review: Robert W Floyd, Richard Beigel, The Language of Machines. An Introduction to Computability and Formal Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (2):701-703.
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  32.  8
    Michael Jeffreys (2011). (A.) Georgakopoulou and (M.S.) Silk Eds. Standard Languages and Language Standards: Greek, Past and Present (Publications of the Centre for Hellenic Studies, King's College London 12). Farnham: Ashgate, 2009. Pp: Xxviii + 367. £70. 9780754664376. [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 131:282-.
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  33.  14
    H. Stonert (1964). Languages and Theories Adequate to the Ontology of Scientific Language. Studia Logica 15 (1):76-77.
  34.  9
    Eleanor Dickey (2005). Aristophanic Language A. Willi: The Languages of Aristophanes. Aspects of Linguistic Variation in Classical Attic Greek . Pp. Xiv + 361. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Cased, £55. ISBN: 0-19-926264-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 55 (01):42-.
  35.  4
    Harm Pinkster (2004). LANGUAGES IN CONTACT J. N. Adams, M. Jase, S. Swain (Edd.): Bilingualism in Ancient Society. Language Contact and the Written Word . Pp. X + 483. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Cased, £65. ISBN: 0-19-924506-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 54 (01):134-.
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  36. Judy M. Iseke-Barnes (2004). Politics and Power of Languages: Indigenous Resistance to Colonizing Experiences of Language Dominance. Journal of Thought 39 (1):45-82.
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  37.  1
    Don A. Monson (2001). William D. Paden, An Introduction to Old Occitan.(Introductions to Older Languages, 4.) New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1998. Pp. Xxvi, 610; Black-and-White Frontispiece Facsimile, Black-and-White Figures, Tables, Musical Examples, 1 Map, and 1 Audio CD. $35. [REVIEW] Speculum 76 (1):215-217.
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  38.  1
    Brikena Xhaferi & Gezim Xhaferi (2013). Teachers' Attitudes and Understanding of Task-Based Language Teaching - A Study Conducted at the Faculty of Languages, Cultures and Communications at SEEU. Seeu Review 9 (2):43-60.
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  39.  1
    Kyo Kageura (2013). Reflecting on Human Language Through Computer Languages. Semiotica 2013 (195):409-414.
    Journal Name: Semiotica - Journal of the International Association for Semiotic Studies / Revue de l'Association Internationale de Sémiotique Volume: 2013 Issue: 195 Pages: 409-414.
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  40.  2
    Alexandra Jaffe (forthcoming). In Monolingual Contexts, Speakers Take Stances by Using a Variety of Linguistic Forms, Some of Which Are Sociolinguistically Salient. In Bilingual Contexts, Speakers Have an Added Stance Resource: Language Choice. The Significance of Language Choice is, of Course, Related to the Specifics of the Sociolinguistic Context, Including the Political Economy in Which the Two Languages Circulate as Well as Ideologies About Language. Stance: Sociolinguistic Perspectives: Sociolinguistic Perspectives.
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  41.  6
    Douglas D. Daye (1976). Language and the Languages of East-West Philosophy: An Introduction. Philosophy East and West 26 (2):113-115.
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  42.  1
    Christine Clark-Evans (1993). Charles de Brosses and Diderot: Eighteenth-Century Arguments Concerning Primitive Language, Particular Natural Languages and a National Language. History of European Ideas 16 (1-3):183-188.
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  43. Edward G. Belaga (forthcoming). Emergence and Evolution of Natural Languages: New Epistemological, Mathematical & Algorithmic Perspectives. LCC-2008–The International Conference on Language. Communication and Cognition. Brighton, Uk.
     
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  44. James Grant (1785). Essays on the Origin of Society, Language, Property, Government, Jurisdiction, Contracts, and Marriage. Interspersed with Illus. From the Greek and Galic Languages. G.G.J. And J. Robinson.
     
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  45. Willem L. Graff (1934). Language and Languages. Philosophical Review 43:220.
     
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  46. Perry Smith (1972). Review: John Myhill, Remarks on the Language of Physics; H. G. Bohnert, Remarks on Myhill's Remarks on Coordinate Languages. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (1):178-178.
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  47. Katharina Spalek, Noriko Hoshino, Yan Jing Wu, Markus Damian & Guillaume Thierry (2014). Speaking Two Languages at Once: Unconscious Native Word Form Access in Second Language Production. Cognition 133 (1):226-231.
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  48. Hilary Putnam (1975). Mind, Language, and Reality. Cambridge University Press.
    Professor Hilary Putnam has been one of the most influential and sharply original of recent American philosophers in a whole range of fields. His most important published work is collected here, together with several new and substantial studies, in two volumes. The first deals with the philosophy of mathematics and of science and the nature of philosophical and scientific enquiry; the second deals with the philosophy of language and mind. Volume one is now issued in a new edition, including (...)
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  49.  16
    M. J. Cresswell (1973). Logics and Languages. London,Methuen [Distributed in the U.S.A. By Harper & Row.
    Originally published in 1973, this book shows that methods developed for the semantics of systems of formal logic can be successfully applied to problems about the semantics of natural languages; and, moreover, that such methods can take account of features of natural language which have often been thought incapable of formal treatment, such as vagueness, context dependence and metaphorical meaning. Parts 1 and 2 set out a class of formal languages and their semantics. Parts 3 and 4 (...)
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  50. Sarah Sawyer (ed.) (2009). New Waves in Philosophy of Language. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Machine generated contents note: Notes on ContributorsLinguistic Puzzles and Semantic Pretence--B.Armour-Garb &--J.Woodbridge Minimal Semantics and the Nature of Psychological Evidence--E.BorgA Naturalistic Approach to the Philosophy of Language --J.Collins In Praise of our Linguistic Intuitions--A.EverettPhenomenal Continua and Secondary Properties--P.Greenough Semantic Oughts in Context--A.Hattiangadi Content, Force and Semantic Norms--M.KlbelLinguistic Competence and Propositional Knowledge--G.LongworthExpressives and Beyond--S.PredelliAnalyticity in Externalist Languages --G.Russell Names as Predicates--S.SawyerThe Epistemic Reading of Counterfactual Conditionals--K.Schulz Introduction, Transmission, and the Foundations of Meaning--J.SpeaksIndex.
     
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