Search results for 'Language and languages Sex differences' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. R. Wood (2006). Sex Differences in Answers to English Language Comprehension Items. Educational Studies 4 (2):157-165.score: 615.0
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  2. Heiko Motschenbacher (2010). Language, Gender and Sexual Identity: Poststructuralist Perspectives. John Benjamins Pub. Co..score: 544.0
    chapter Introduction Poststructuralist perspectives on language, gender and sexual identity Since the inception of the field of language and gender in the, ...
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  3. Deborah Cates David P. Corina, Laurel A. Lawyer (2012). Cross-Linguistic Differences in the Neural Representation of Human Language: Evidence From Users of Signed Languages. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 522.0
    Studies of deaf individuals who are users of signed languages have provided profound insight into the neural representation of human language. Case studies of deaf signers who have incurred left- and right-hemisphere damage have shown that left-hemisphere resources are a necessary component of sign language processing. These data suggest that, despite frank differences in the input and output modality of language,; core left perisylvian regions universally serve linguistic function. Neuroimaging studies of deaf signers have generally (...)
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  4. Sally McConnell-Ginet (2010). Gender, Sexuality, and Meaning: Linguistic Practice and Politics. Oxford University Press.score: 444.0
    Preface and acknowledgments -- Prelude -- 1. Gender, sexuality, and meaning: An overview -- Part I. Politics and scholarship: 2. Language and gender -- 3. Feminism in linguistics -- 4. Difference and language: A linguist's perspective -- Part II. Social practice, social meanings, and selves: 5. Communities of practice: Where language, gender, and power all live -- 6. Intonation in a man's world -- 7. Constructing meaning, constructing selves: Snapshots of language, gender, and class from Belten (...)
     
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  5. David P. Corina, Laurel A. Lawyer & Deborah Cates (2012). Cross-Linguistic Differences in the Neural Representation of Human Language: Evidence From Users of Signed Languages. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 405.0
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  6. Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells, Ulrike Kramer, Urbano Lorenzo-Seva, Julia Festman & Thomas F. Münte (2012). Self-Assessment of Individual Differences in Language Switching. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 372.0
    Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual persons. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient and flexible process which seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. Here we aimed to characterize individual differences in language switching psychometrically and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a Bilingual Switching Questionnaire (BSWQ). As a working hypothesis and based on the previous literature on code switching (...)
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  7. Xiaomei Yang (2011). Do Differences in Grammatical Form Between Languages Explain Differences in Ontology Between Different Philosophical Traditions?: A Critique of the Mass-Noun Hypothesis. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (2):149-166.score: 351.0
    It is an assumed view in Chinese philosophy that the grammatical differences between English or Indo-European languages and classical Chinese explain some of the differences between the Western and Chinese philosophical discourses. Although some philosophers have expressed doubts about the general link between classical Chinese philosophy and syntactic form of classical Chinese, I discuss a specific hypothesis, i.e., the mass-noun hypothesis, in this essay. The mass-noun hypothesis assumes that a linguistic distinction such as between the singular terms (...)
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  8. Jennifer Fugate, Harold Gouzoules & Lisa Feldman Barrett (2009). Separating Production From Perception: Perceiver-Based Explanations for Sex Differences in Emotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):394-395.score: 348.0
    In this commentary, we review evidence that production-based (perceiver-independent) measures reveal few consistent sex differences in emotion. Further, sex differences in perceiver-based measures can be attributed to retrospective or dispositional biases. We end by discussing an alternative view that women might appear to be more emotional because they are more facile with emotion language.
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  9. Jennifer B. Misyak, Morten H. Christiansen & J. Bruce Tomblin (2010). On-Line Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Language Processing. Frontiers in Psychology 1:31-31.score: 344.0
    Considerable individual differences in language ability exist among normally developing children and adults. Whereas past research have attributed such differences to variations in verbal working memory or experience with language, we test the hypothesis that individual differences in statistical learning may be associated with differential language performance. We employ a novel paradigm for studying statistical learning on-line, combining a serial-reaction time task with artificial grammar learning. This task offers insights into both the timecourse of (...)
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  10. Roberta Bivins (2000). Sex Cells: Gender and the Language of Bacterial Genetics. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (1):113 - 139.score: 344.0
    Between 1946 and 1960, a new phenomenon emerged in the field of bacteriology. "Bacterial sex," as it was called, revolutionized the study of genetics, largely by making available a whole new class of cheap, fast-growing, and easily manipulated organisms. But what was "bacterial sex?" How could single-celled organisms have "sex" or even be sexually differentiated? The technical language used in the scientific press -- the public and inalienable face of 20th century science -- to describe this apparently neuter organism (...)
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  11. Albert Costa Marco Calabria, Mireia Hernández, Francesca M. Branzi (2011). Qualitative Differences Between Bilingual Language Control and Executive Control: Evidence From Task-Switching. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 342.0
    Previous research has shown that highly-proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2), the so called ‘symmetrical switch cost’ effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch (...)
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  12. Andrew Stivers & Andrew Valls (2007). Same-Sex Marriage and the Regulation of Language. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 6 (2):237-253.score: 340.0
    Oregon State University, USA, andrew.valls{at}oregonstate.edu ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> In this article, we draw an analogy between the regulation of market language (including official definitions of `organic', `ice cream', and `diamond') and the regulation of the social and legal label `marriage'. Many of the issues raised in the debate over same-sex marriage are less about access to material benefits than about the social and cultural meaning of `marriage'. After reviewing the issues in this (...)
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  13. Anna Wierzbicka (2005). Empirical Universals of Language as a Basis for the Study of Other Human Universals and as a Tool for Exploring Cross‐Cultural Differences. Ethos 33 (2):256-291.score: 327.0
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  14. Stéphanie Cummings Isabelle Peretz, Sébastien Nguyen (2011). Tone Language Fluency Impairs Pitch Discrimination. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 273.0
    Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval). They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more (...)
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  15. David P. Schmitt (2005). Sociosexuality From Argentina to Zimbabwe: A 48-Nation Study of Sex, Culture, and Strategies of Human Mating. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):247-275.score: 263.0
    The Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI; Simpson & Gangestad 1991) is a self-report measure of individual differences in human mating strategies. Low SOI scores signify that a person is sociosexually restricted, or follows a more monogamous mating strategy. High SOI scores indicate that an individual is unrestricted, or has a more promiscuous mating strategy. As part of the International Sexuality Description Project (ISDP), the SOI was translated from English into 25 additional languages and administered to a total sample of (...)
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  16. Jeroen G. W. Raaijmakers & Richard M. Shiffrin (2003). Models Versus Descriptions: Real Differences and Language Differences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):753-753.score: 258.0
    We argue that an approach that treats short-term memory as activated long-term memory is not inherently in conflict with information recycling in a limited-capacity or working-memory store, or with long-term storage based on the processing in such a store. Language differences aside, real model differences can only be assessed when the contrasting models are formulated precisely.
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  17. Jochen Laubrock & Sven Hohenstein (2012). Orthographic Consistency and Parafoveal Preview Benefit: A Resource-Sharing Account of Language Differences in Processing of Phonological and Semantic Codes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):30-31.score: 258.0
    Parafoveal preview benefit (PB) is an implicit measure of lexical activation in reading. PB has been demonstrated for orthographic and phonological but not for semantically related information in English. In contrast, semantic PB is obtained in German and Chinese. We propose that these language differences reveal differential resource demands and timing of phonological and semantic decoding in different orthographic systems.
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  18. Jeffrey Heinz & William Idsardi (2013). What Complexity Differences Reveal About Domains in Language. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):111-131.score: 250.0
    An important distinction between phonology and syntax has been overlooked. All phonological patterns belong to the regular region of the Chomsky Hierarchy, but not all syntactic patterns do. We argue that the hypothesis that humans employ distinct learning mechanisms for phonology and syntax currently offers the best explanation for this difference.
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  19. Robin I. M. Dunbar, Anna Marriott & Neil D. C. Duncan (1997). Human Conversational Behavior. Human Nature 8 (3):231-246.score: 246.0
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  20. Xinli Wang (2003). Presuppositional Languages and the Failure of Cross-Language Understanding. Dialogue 42 (01):53-77.score: 239.0
    Why is mutual understanding between two substantially different comprehensive language communities often problematic and even unattainable? To answer this question, the author first introduces a notion of presuppositional languages. Based on the semantic structure of a presuppositional language, the author identifies a significant condition necessary for effective understanding of a language: the interpreter is able to effectively understand a language only if he/she is able to recognize and comprehend its metaphysical presuppositions. The essential role of (...)
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  21. David William Green (2011). Language Control in Different Contexts: The Behavioral Ecology of Bilingual Speakers. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 239.0
    This paper proposes that different experimental contexts (single or dual language contexts) permit different neural loci at which words in the target language can be selected. However, in order to develop a fuller understanding of the neural circuit mediating language control we need to consider the community context in which bilingual speakers typically use their two languages (the behavioural ecology of bilingual speakers). The contrast between speakers from code-switching and non-code switching communities offers a way to (...)
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  22. Agnes Verbiest (1995). Woman and the Gift of Reason. Argumentation 9 (5):821-836.score: 238.0
    An incidental extension of the central domain of argumentation theory with non-classical ways of constructing arguments seems to automatically raise a question that is otherwise rarely posed, namely whether or not it is useful to consider the sex of the arguer. This question is usually posed with regard to argumentation by women in particular. Do women rely more, or differently than men do on non-canonical modes of reasoning stemming from the realm of the emotional, physical and intuitive, instead of the (...)
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  23. John C. Moore (1995). John W. Baldwin, The Language of Sex: Five Voices From Northern France Around 1200 (Chicago Series on Sexuality, History, and Society.) Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1994. Pp. Xxviii, 331; 2 Tables. [REVIEW] Speculum 70 (4):871-873.score: 232.5
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  24. Jane Marie Todd, Roman Frydman & Andrzej Rapaczynski (1995). John W. Baldwin The Language of Sex: Five Voices From Northern France Around 1200 (The University of Chicago Press 1994), Xxviii+ 331 Pp.,£ 29.95/$43.25 HB Roderick Beaton, An Introduction to Modern Greek Literature (Oxford University Press. [REVIEW] History of European Ideas 21 (1):161-163.score: 232.5
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  25. Hermann Ackermann Susanne Maria Reiterer, Xiaochen Hu, Michael Erb, Giuseppina Rota, Davide Nardo, Wolfgang Grodd, Susanne Winkler (2011). Individual Differences in Audio-Vocal Speech Imitation Aptitude in Late Bilinguals: Functional Neuro-Imaging and Brain Morphology. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 228.0
    An unanswered question in adult language learning or late bi- and multilingualism is why individuals show marked differences in their ability to imitate foreign accents. While recent research acknowledges that more adults than previously assumed can still acquire a “native” foreign accent, very little is known about the neuro-cognitive correlates of this special ability. We investigated 140 German speaking individuals displaying varying degrees of “mimicking” capacity, based on natural language text, sentence and word imitations either in their (...)
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  26. Paul W. Andrews, Steven W. Gangestad, Geoffrey F. Miller, Martie G. Haselton, Randy Thornhill & Michael C. Neale (2008). Sex Differences in Detecting Sexual Infidelity. Human Nature 19 (4):347-373.score: 216.0
    Despite the importance of extrapair copulation (EPC) in human evolution, almost nothing is known about the design features of EPC detection mechanisms. We tested for sex differences in EPC inference-making mechanisms in a sample of 203 young couples. Men made more accurate inferences (φmen = 0.66, φwomen = 0.46), and the ratio of positive errors to negative errors was higher for men than for women (1.22 vs. 0.18). Since some may have been reluctant to admit EPC behavior, we modeled (...)
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  27. [deleted]Kathrin Ohla & Johan N. Lundström (2013). Sex Differences in Chemosensation: Sensory or Emotional? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 216.0
    Although the first sex-dependent differences for chemosensory processing were reported in the scientific literature over 60 years ago, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Generally, more pronounced sex-dependent differences are noted with increased task difficulty or with increased levels of intranasal irritation produced by the stimulus. Whether differences between the sexes arise from differences in chemosensory sensitivity of the two intranasal sensory systems involved or from differences in cognitive processing associated with emotional evaluation of the (...)
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  28. Deborah S. Mower (2009). Sex Differences in Moral Interests: The Role of Kinship and the Nature of Reciprocity. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (1):111-119.score: 216.0
    Although moral psychologists and feminist moral theorists emphasize males’ interest in justice or fairness and females’ interest in care or empathy, recent work in evolutionary psychology links females’ interests in care and empathy for others with interests in fairness and equality. In an important work on sex differences in cognitive abilities, David Geary (1998) argues that the evolutionary mechanism of sexual selection drives the evolution of particular cognitive abilities and selection for particular interests. I mount two main challenges to (...)
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  29. John Archer (2009). Does Sexual Selection Explain Human Sex Differences in Aggression? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):249-266.score: 216.0
    I argue that the magnitude and nature of sex differences in aggression, their development, causation, and variability, can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial version of social role theory. Thus, sex differences in physical aggression increase with the degree of risk, occur early in life, peak in young adulthood, and are likely to be mediated by greater male impulsiveness, and greater female fear of physical danger. Male variability in physical aggression is consistent with (...)
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  30. Judith A. Easton & Todd K. Shackelford (2009). Morbid Jealousy and Sex Differences in Partner-Directed Violence. Human Nature 20 (3):342-350.score: 216.0
    Previous research suggests that individuals diagnosed with morbid jealousy have jealousy mechanisms that are activated at lower thresholds than individuals with normal jealousy, but that these mechanisms produce behavior that is similar to individuals with normal jealousy. We extended previous research documenting these similarities by investigating sex differences in partner-directed violence committed by individuals diagnosed with morbid jealousy. The results support some of our predictions. For example, a greater percentage of men than women diagnosed with morbid jealousy used physical (...)
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  31. Daniel J. Kruger & Randolph M. Nesse (2006). An Evolutionary Life-History Framework for Understanding Sex Differences in Human Mortality Rates. Human Nature 17 (1):74-97.score: 216.0
    Sex differences in mortality rates stem from genetic, physiological, behavioral, and social causes that are best understood when integrated in an evolutionary life history framework. This paper investigates the Male-to-Female Mortality Ratio (M:F MR) from external and internal causes and across contexts to illustrate how sex differences shaped by sexual selection interact with the environment to yield a pattern with some consistency, but also with expected variations due to socioeconomic and other factors.
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  32. Dario Maestripieri & Suzanne Pelka (2002). Sex Differences in Interest in Infants Across the Lifespan. Human Nature 13 (3):327-344.score: 216.0
    This study investigated sex differences in interest in infants among children, adolescents, young adults, and older individuals. Interest in infants was assessed with responses to images depicting animal and human infants versus adults, and with verbal responses to questionnaires. Clear sex differences, irrespective of age, emerged in all visual and verbal tests, with females being more interested in infants than males. Male interest in infants remained fairly stable across the four age groups, whereas female interest in infants was (...)
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  33. Jacob Miguel Vigil (2009). A Socio-Relational Framework of Sex Differences in the Expression of Emotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):375.score: 216.0
    Despite a staggering body of research demonstrating sex differences in expressed emotion, very few theoretical models (evolutionary or non-evolutionary) offer a critical examination of the adaptive nature of such differences. From the perspective of a socio-relational framework, emotive behaviors evolved to promote the attraction and aversion of different types of relationships by advertising the two most parsimonious properties of reciprocity potential, or perceived attractiveness as a prospective social partner. These are the individual's (a) perceived capacity or ability to (...)
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  34. Joseph M. Kaufert & Robert W. Putsch (1996). Communication Through Interpreters in Healthcare: Ethical Dilemmas Arising From Differences in Class, Culture, Language, and Power. Journal of Clinical Ethics 8 (1):71-87.score: 215.0
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  35. S. Pinker (2007). Dating, Swearing, Sex and Language: A Conversation with Questions Between Steven Pinker and Ian McEwan. Areté: The Arts Tri-Quarterly, 24, Winter 2007 24.score: 215.0
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  36. Javier Alegre (2012). Proposals and Pragmatic Differences on Language as Institution: Wittgenstein and Habermas. Discusiones Filosóficas 13 (21):207 - 224.score: 215.0
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  37. P. Perniss, R. L. Thompson & G. Vigliocco (2009). Iconicity as a General Property of Language: Evidence From Spoken and Signed Languages. Frontiers in Psychology 1:227-227.score: 215.0
    Current views about language are dominated by the idea of arbitrary connections between linguistic form and meaning. However, if we look beyond the more familiar Indo-European languages and also include both spoken and signed language modalities, we find that motivated, iconic form-meaning mappings are, in fact, pervasive in language. In this paper, we review the different types of iconic mappings that characterize languages in both modalities, including the predominantly visually iconic mappings in signed languages. (...)
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  38. Steven Pinker & Ian McEwan (2007). Dating, Swearing, Sex and Language: A Conversation with Questions. Areté: The Arts Tri-Quarterly 24:81-100.score: 215.0
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  39. Jon A. Willits, Mark S. Seidenberg & Jenny R. Saffran (2014). Distributional Structure in Language: Contributions to Noun–Verb Difficulty Differences in Infant Word Recognition. Cognition 132 (3):429-436.score: 215.0
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  40. Sterling Hutchinson & Max Louwerse (2013). Language Statistics and Individual Differences in Processing Primary Metaphors. Cognitive Linguistics 24 (4):667-687.score: 215.0
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  41. Richard O'Kearney & Mark Dadds (2004). Developmental and Gender Differences in the Language for Emotions Across the Adolescent Years. Cognition and Emotion 18 (7):913-938.score: 215.0
  42. Robert C. Powell & Julia D. Batters (1985). Pupils' Perceptions of Foreign Language Learning at 12+: Some Gender Differences. Educational Studies 11 (1):11-23.score: 215.0
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  43. Priti Shah & Akira Miyake (1996). The Separability of Working Memory Resources for Spatial Thinking and Language Processing: An Individual Differences Approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 125 (1):4.score: 215.0
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  44. Eva Stehle (2009). Weaving Truth: Essays on Language and the Female in Greek Thought, And: The Feminine Matrix of Sex and Gender in Classical Athens (Review). American Journal of Philology 130 (4):635-640.score: 215.0
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  45. Denise Baker (2005). Diane Watt, Amoral Gower: Language, Sex, and Politics. (Medieval Cultures, 38.) Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2003. Pp. Xviii, 221; 5 Black-and-White Figures. $60.95 (Cloth); $21.95 (Paper). [REVIEW] Speculum 80 (4):1395-1397.score: 215.0
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  46. Mark C. Baker (2003). Linguistic Differences and Language Design. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (8):349-353.score: 215.0
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  47. Marco Calabria, Mireia Hernández, Francesca M. Branzi & Albert Costa (2011). Qualitative Differences Between Bilingual Language Control and Executive Control: Evidence From Task-Switching. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 215.0
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  48. J. Canestri (2005). On the Contribution of the Most Recent Research on Language Applied to Psychoanalytic Practice, with Regard to Regional Differences. In P. Gampieri-Deutsch (ed.), Psychoanalysis as an Empirical, Interdisciplinary Science. Austrian Academy of Sciences.score: 215.0
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  49. G. Tucker Childs (2014). Constraints on Violating Constraints: How Languages Reconcile the Twin Dicta of “Be Different” and “Be Recognizably Language”. Pragmatics and Society 5 (3):341-354.score: 215.0
    This paper examines the contradictory demands of using language expressively and still qualifying as language, proposing a functional explanation for the form of words in a linguistic word category. Being expressive requires expending more energy, emitting a more robust signal to convey additional information about the speaker, the perception of an event, etc. Doing so requires violating the common linguistic constraints of everyday language, yet to be recognized as language requires that one’s speech obey these same (...)
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  50. María K. Jónsdóttir, Tim Shallice & Richard Wise (1996). Phonological Mediation and the Graphemic Buffer Disorder in Spelling: Cross-Language Differences? Cognition 59 (2):169-197.score: 215.0
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