Male and female participants were instructed to produce an altered response pattern on an Implicit Association Test measure of gender identity by slowing performance in trials requiring the same response to stimuli designating own gender and self. Participants’ faking success was found to be predictable by a measure of slowing relative to unfaked performances. This combined task slowing (CTS) indicator was then applied in reanalyses of three experiments from other laboratories, two involving instructed faking and one involving possibly motivated faking. (...) Across all studies involving instructed faking, CTS correctly classiﬁed 75% of intentionally faking participants. Using the CTS index to adjust faked Implicit Association Test scores increased the correlation of CTS-adjusted measures with known group membership, relative to unadjusted (i.e., faked) measures. (shrink)
Current world capacity of hydrocarbon liquefaction is around 400 000 barrels per day, providing a marginal share of the global liquid fuel supply. This study performs a broad review of technical, economic, environmental and supply chain issues related to coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). We find three issues predominate. First, significant amounts of coal and gas would be required to obtain anything more than a marginal production of liquids. Second, the economics of CTL plants are clearly prohibitive, but are better (...) for GTL. Nevertheless, large-scale GTL plants still require very high upfront costs, and for three real-world GTL plants out of four, the final cost has been so far approximately three times that initially budgeted. Small-scale GTL holds potential for associated gas. Third, both CTL and GTL incur significant environmental impacts, ranging from increased greenhouse gas emissions (in the case of CTL) to water contamination. Environmental concerns may significantly affect growth of these projects until adequate solutions are found. (shrink)
Class consciousness and reification -- Historical necessity as self-activity -- The concept of imputed class consciousness -- Common sense and market rationality in sociological studies of class -- Being determines consciousness -- Consciousness overemphasized? -- Class experience, substitution, and false consciousness -- Imputed class consciousness in the development of the individual.
The air pressure dependence of the fatigue life of lead was determined at cycle frequencies of 64 and 500 cycles/min and at total strain amplitudes of ±0·092% and ±0·140%. The effect of changing the frequency and strain amplitude was to shift the air pressure dependence of the fatigue life curve on the life axis but not significantly on the pressure axis. These results are discussed in terms of the sorption of oxygen at the tip of a crack and the supply (...) of oxygen to the tip by either an equilibrium oxygen adsorption model or a kinetic supply model. The results are shown to be consistent with the adsorption model. (shrink)
I have argued elsewhere that the psychological criterion of personalidentity entails that a person is not an object, but a series ofpsychological events. As this is somewhat counter-intuitive,I consider whether the psychological theorist can argue that a person, while not a substance, exists in a way that is akin to theway that substances exist. I develop ten criteria that such a`quasi-substance' should meet, and I argue that a reasonablecase can be made to show that the psychological theorist's conception of a (...) person meets these criteria. (shrink)
This ar ti cle ex tends, from a philo soph i cal and an thro po log i cal point of view, the re cent dis - cus sions as to what is met a phoric. Lan guage phi - los o phers have con trib uted to the un der stand ing of the na ture and func tion of met a phors, but their com ments have been tra ..