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Leigh M. Van Valen [6]Leigh Van Valen [6]
  1. Leigh Van Valen (2009). How Ubiquitous is Adaptation? A Critique of the Epiphenomenist Program. Biology and Philosophy 24 (2):267-280.
    It is important to distinguish adaptation per se (adaptedness, or being adapted) from the more specific concept of adaptation for some function. Commonly used criteria for adaptation in either sense have limited applicability. There are, however, a number of widely applicable criteria for adaptation per se, such as several kinds of cost, low variation, the maintenance of integration, and the fitness distribution of mutations. Application of these criteria leads to the conclusion that adaptation is overwhelmingly prevalent for features of organisms. (...)
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  2. Leigh M. Van Valen (1991). Instinct and Innateness: Information in Causes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):351.
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  3. Leigh M. Van Valen & Virginia C. Maiorana (1986). Surrogate Resources, Cumulative Selection, and Fertility. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):209.
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  4. James T. Carlton, Leigh M. van Valen, Charles C. King & Karl Schurr (1984). Strategy, Strategem, Carrots, and Aristotle. BioScience 34 (10):602-603.
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  5. Leigh M. van Valen (1982). Biology of Fossil Plants Paleobotany: An Introduction to Fossil Plant Biology Thomas N. Taylor. BioScience 32 (8):695-695.
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  6. Leigh M. Van Valen (1982). Why is There More Than One Neurotransmitter? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (2):294.
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  7. Leigh M. van Valen (1980). One Man's View of Evolution Macroevolution: Pattern and Process Steven M. Stanley. BioScience 30 (9):620-620.
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  8. Leigh Van Valen (1978). The Control of Handedness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (2):320.
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  9. Leigh Van Valen (1976). Ecological Species, Multispecies, and Oaks. Taxon 25:233-239.
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  10. Leigh Van Valen (1976). Individualistic Classes. Philosophy of Science 43 (4):539-541.
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  11. Leigh Van Valen (1968). Zeno and Continuity. Mind 77 (307):429.
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  12. Leigh Van Valen (1963). On Evolutionary Theories. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 14 (54):146-152.
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