Search results for 'Leonard Goodwin' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Leonard Goodwin (1962). The Historical-Philosophical Basis for Uniting Social Science with Social Problem-Solving. Philosophy of Science 29 (4):377-392.score: 240.0
    Social scientific development has been greatly influenced by Galilean-Newtonian thought which emphasized formulation of abstract hypotheses valid throughout all time and space and independent of human characteristics. This influence has resulted in an artificial hiatus between social science and social problem-solving. Dissolution of certain Galilean-Newtonian assumptions has opened the way for integrating aspects of another stream of thought, the Hegelian-Marxian one, into the social scientific endeavor. Hegelian-Marxian thought emphasizes the individual becoming self-conscious of, and involved in, the social-historical process. The (...)
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  2. Leonard Goodwin (1991). Teaching Freshman to Think--Does Active Learning Work? BioScience 41 (10):719-22.score: 240.0
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  3. J. Goodwin (1994). Comments on Jeff Goodwin's" Toward a New Sociology of Revolutions": Rejoinder. Theory and Society 23:795-795.score: 180.0
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  4. Henry Leonard (1961). A Reply to Professor Wheatley's Note on Professor Leonard's Analysis of Interrogatives, Etc. Philosophy of Science 28 (January):55-64.score: 180.0
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  5. William Mark Goodwin (2009). Visual Representations in Science. Philosophy of Science 76 (3):372-390.score: 60.0
    This paper evaluates a general argument for the conclusion that visual representations in science must play the role of truth bearers if they are to figure as legitimate contributors to scientific arguments and explanations. The argument is found to be unsound. An alternative approach to assessing the role of visual representations in science is exemplified by an examination of the role of structural formulas in organic chemistry. Structural formulas are found not to play the role of truth bearers; nonetheless, they (...)
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  6. Charles Goodwin (1986). Between and Within: Alternative Sequential Treatments of Continuers and Assessments. [REVIEW] Human Studies 9 (2-3):205 - 217.score: 60.0
    Once assessments and continuers are focussed on as distinguishable phenomena it becomes clear that they differ from each other not just in the details of their sequential placement within an extended turn, but in other significant ways as well.First, though assessments can take the form of talk with clear lexical content (for example `Oh wow' and assessment adjectives such as ‘beautiful’), they can also be done with sounds such as ‘Ah:::’ whose main function seems to be the carrying of an (...)
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  7. Miriam Leonard (2005). Athens in Paris: Ancient Greece and the Political in Postwar French Thought. Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
    Classical Presences Series Editors: Lorna Hardwick, Professor of Classical Studies, Open University, and James I. Porter, Professor of Greek, Latin, and Comparative Literature, University of Michigan The texts, ideas, images, and material culture of ancient Greece and Rome have always been crucial to attempts to appropriate the past in order to authenticate the present. They underlie the mapping of change and the assertion and challenging of values and identities, old and new. Classical Presences brings the latest scholarship to bear on (...)
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  8. Barbara Goodwin (1992). Justice by Lottery. University of Chicago Press.score: 60.0
    In this imaginative and provocative book, Barbara Goodwin explores the question of how lottery systems can achieve egalitarian social justice in societies with seemingly ineradicable inequalities. She begins with the utopian fable of Aleatoria, a country not unlike our own in the not-too-distant-future, where most goods are distributed by lottery--even the right to have children. She then analyzes the philosophical arguments for and against lottery distribution and a comparison of "justice by lottery" with other contemporary theories of justice. (...) also applies her theory to practical problems in the real world which could be--or have been--justly resolved by the use of lotteries, such as military drafts, jury duty, and immigration eligibility. She demonstrates that in many areas, including that of political power, a regular and random reallocation of goods would be a fairer and more democratic method than the distributive systems found in liberal democracies today. (shrink)
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  9. Matt Leonard (2012). Burge's Contextual Theory of Truth and the Super-Liar Paradox. In Michal Pelis Vit Puncochar (ed.), The Logica Yearbook 2011. College Publications.score: 30.0
    One recently proposed solution to the Liar paradox is the contextual theory of truth. Tyler Burge (1979) argues that truth is an indexical notion and that the extension of the truth predicate shifts during Liar reasoning. A Liar sentence might be true in one context and false in another. To many, contextualism seems to capture our pre-theoretic intuitions about the semantic paradoxes; this is especially due to its reliance on the so-called Revenge phenomenon. I, however, show that Super-Liar sentences (where (...)
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  10. Henry S. Leonard & Nelson Goodman (1940). The Calculus of Individuals and its Uses. Journal of Symbolic Logic 5 (2):45-55.score: 30.0
  11. Geoffrey P. Goodwin & John M. Darley (2010). The Perceived Objectivity of Ethical Beliefs: Psychological Findings and Implications for Public Policy. [REVIEW] Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):161-188.score: 30.0
    Ethical disputes arise over differences in the content of the ethical beliefs people hold on either side of an issue. One person may believe that it is wrong to have an abortion for financial reasons, whereas another may believe it to be permissible. But, the magnitude and difficulty of such disputes may also depend on other properties of the ethical beliefs in question—in particular, how objective they are perceived to be. As a psychological property of moral belief, objectivity is relatively (...)
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  12. W. M. Goodwin (2008). Structural Formulas and Explanation in Organic Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):117-127.score: 30.0
    Organic chemists have been able to develop a robust, theoretical understanding of the phenomena they study; however, the primary theoretical devices employed in this field are not mathematical equations or laws, as is the case in most other physical sciences. Instead it is diagrams, and in particular structural formulas and potential energy diagrams, that carry the explanatory weight in the discipline. To understand how this is so, it is necessary to investigate both the nature of the diagrams employed in organic (...)
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  13. William Mark Goodwin (2010). Coffa's Kant and the Evolution of Accounts of Mathematical Necessity. Synthese 172 (3):361 - 379.score: 30.0
    According to Alberto Coffa in The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap, Kant’s account of mathematical judgment is built on a ‘semantic swamp’. Kant’s primitive semantics led him to appeal to pure intuition in an attempt to explain mathematical necessity. The appeal to pure intuition was, on Coffa’s line, a blunder from which philosophy was forced to spend the next 150 years trying to recover. This dismal assessment of Kant’s contributions to the evolution of accounts of mathematical necessity is fundamentally (...)
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  14. William Goodwin (2012). Sustaining a Controversy: The Non-Classical Ion Debate. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (4):axs025.score: 30.0
    This article examines a scientific controversy that raged for twenty years in physical organic chemistry during the second half of the twentieth century. After explaining what was at stake in the non-classical ion debate, I attempt—by examining the methodological reflections of some of the participants—a partial explanation of what sustained this controversy, particularly during its early stages. Instead of suggesting a breakdown of scientific method or the unavoidable historical contingency of scientific development, the endurance of this controversy instead reveals the (...)
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  15. William Goodwin (2010). How Do Structural Formulas Embody the Theory of Organic Chemistry? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (3):621-633.score: 30.0
    Organic chemistry provides fertile ground for scholars interested in understanding the role of non-linguistic representations in scientific thinking. In this discipline, it is not plausible to regard diagrams as simply heuristic aids for expressing or applying what is essentially a linguistic theory. Instead, it is more plausible to think of linguistic representation as supplementing theories whose principal expression is diagrammatic. Among the many sorts of diagrams employed by organic chemists, structural formulas are the most important. In this paper, by examining (...)
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  16. William Mark Goodwin, Diagrams and Explanation in Organic Chemistry.score: 30.0
    Organic chemists have been able to develop a robust, theoretical understanding of the phenomena they study; however, the primary theoretical devices employed in this field are not mathematical equations or laws, as is the case in most other physical sciences. Instead it is the diagram, and in particular the structural formula, that carries the explanatory weight in the discipline. To understand how this is so, it is necessary to investigate both the nature of the diagrams employed in organic chemistry and (...)
     
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  17. Margaret Anne Cleek & Sherry Lynn Leonard (1998). Can Corporate Codes of Ethics Influence Behavior? Journal of Business Ethics 17 (6):619 - 630.score: 30.0
    There is increasing public interest in understanding the nature of corporate ethics due to the knowledge that unethical decisions and activities frequently undermine the performance and abilities of many organizations. Of the current literature found on the topic of ways organizations can influence ethical behavior, a majority is found on the issue of corporate codes of ethics.Most discussions on codes of ethics evaluate the contents of the codes and offer opinions on their wording, content, and/or value. Unfortunately, very little research (...)
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  18. Ernest Leonard (1969). The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke. Journal of the History of Philosophy 7 (2):212-214.score: 30.0
  19. William Goodwin (2011). Structure, Function, and Protein Taxonomy. Biology and Philosophy 26 (4):533-545.score: 30.0
    This paper considers two recent arguments that structure should not be regarded as the fundamental individuating property of proteins. By clarifying both what it might mean for certain properties to play a fundamental role in a classification scheme and the extent to which structure plays such a role in protein classification, I argue that both arguments are unsound. Because of its robustness, its importance in laboratory practice, and its explanatory centrality, primary structure should be regarded as the fundamental distinguishing characteristic (...)
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  20. William Goodwin (2007). Scientific Understanding After the Ingold Revolution in Organic Chemistry. Philosophy of Science 74 (3):386-408.score: 30.0
    This paper characterizes the increase in ‘scientific understanding’ that resulted from the Ingold Revolution in organic chemistry. By describing both the sorts of explanations facilitated by Ingold’s Revolution and the sense in which organic chemistry was ‘unified’ by adopting these approaches to explanation, one can appreciate how this revolution led to a dramatic qualitative improvement in organic chemists’ understanding of the phenomena that they study. The explanatory unification responsible for this transformation in organic chemistry is contrasted with contemporary philosophical accounts (...)
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  21. Henry S. Leonard (1956). The Logic of Existence. Philosophical Studies 7 (4):49 - 64.score: 30.0
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  22. Brian Goodwin (1995). Consciousness in the Biological Sciences. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (4):373-373.score: 30.0
  23. William Mark Goodwin (2009). Scientific Understanding and Synthetic Design. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):271-301.score: 30.0
    Next SectionOne of the indisputable signs of the progress made in organic chemistry over the last two hundred years is the increased ability of chemists to manipulate, control, and design chemical reactions. The technological expertise manifest in contemporary synthetic organic chemistry is, at least in part, due to developments in the theory of organic chemistry. By appealing to a notable chemist's attempts to articulate and codify the heuristics of synthetic design, this paper investigates how understanding theoretical organic chemistry facilitates progress (...)
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  24. N. Y. Louis Lee, Geoffrey P. Goodwin & P. N. Johnson-Laird (2008). The Psychological Puzzle of Sudoku. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):342 – 364.score: 30.0
    Sudoku puzzles, which are popular worldwide, require individuals to infer the missing digits in a 9 9 array according to the general rule that every digit from 1 to 9 must occur once in each row, in each column, and in each of the 3-by-3 boxes in the array. We present a theory of how individuals solve these puzzles. It postulates that they rely solely on pure deductions, and that they spontaneously acquire various deductive tactics, which differ in their difficulty (...)
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  25. William Goodwin, Global Climate Modeling as Applied Science.score: 30.0
    In this paper I argue that the appropriate analogy for “understanding what makes simulation results reliable” in Global Climate Modeling is not with scientific experimentation or measurement, but—at least in the case of the use of global climate models for policy development—with the applications of science in engineering design problems. The prospects for using this analogy to argue for the quantitative reliability of GCMs are assessed and compared with other potential strategies.
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  26. Jean Goodwin (2011). Accounting for the Appeal to the Authority of Experts. Argumentation 25 (3):285-296.score: 30.0
    Work in Argumentation Studies (AS) and Studies in Expertise and Experience (SEE) has been proceeding on converging trajectories, moving from resistance to expert authority to a cautious acceptance of its legitimacy. The two projects are therefore also converging on the need to account for how, in the course of complex and confused civic deliberations, nonexpert citizens can figure out which statements from purported experts deserve their trust. Both projects recognize that nonexperts cannot assess expertise directly; instead, the nonexpert must judge (...)
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  27. William Goodwin (2009). How Does the Theologizing of Physics Contribute to Global Warming? Environmental Philosophy 6 (2):21-42.score: 30.0
    In this paper I examine the sorts of arguments that motivate skepticism about the predictive powers of global climate models. I contend that these arguments work by contrasting the development and testing of global climate models with an idealized image of science drawn largely from a theologized model of fundamental physics. A richer appreciation of the methodology of a full range of successful empirical predictions—particularly in practical fields that study complex systems––can dispel some of these skeptical worries about climate science. (...)
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  28. Donna L. Goodwin (2008). Self-Regulated Dependency: Ethical Reflections on Interdependence and Help in Adapted Physical Activity. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 2 (2):172 – 184.score: 30.0
    This article explores the ethical implications of the goal of functional independence for persons with disabilities. Central to independence is protection against the fear and uncertainty of future dependency and assurance of a level of social status. Moreover, independence reflects individualism, autonomy and control of decisions about one's life. Dependency, in contrast, implies the inability to do things for oneself and reliance on others to assist with tasks of everyday life. The ethics of independence are explored within the context of (...)
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  29. Josette Garon Léonard (1972). Meurtre du père. Dialogue 11 (01):109-114.score: 30.0
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  30. Brian C. Goodwin (2009). Genetic Epistemology and Constructionist Biology. Biological Theory 4 (2):115-124.score: 30.0
  31. S. Nassir Ghaemi & Frederick K. Goodwin (2007). The Ethics of Clinical Innovation in Psychopharmacology: Challenging Traditional Bioethics. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2 (1):26-.score: 30.0
    ObjectiveTo assess the scientific and ethical basis for clinical innovation in psychopharmacology.MethodsWe conducted a literature review, utilizing MEDLINE search and bibliographic cross-referencing, and historical evidence regarding the discovery and development of new medications in psychiatry. Clinical innovation was defined as use of treatments in a clinical setting which have not been well-proven in a research setting.ResultsEmpirical data regarding the impact of clinical innovation in psychopharmacology are lacking. A conceptual and historical assessment of this topic highlights the ethical and scientific importance (...)
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  32. N. C. A. Costdaa, David Harrah, Michael Tye, D. S. Clarke, Jeffrey Olen, Robert Young, Richard Campbell, Michael McKinsey, John Peterson, Alex C. Michalos, John Glucker, John T. Blackmore, Eileen Bagus & Barbara Goodwin (1985). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Philosophia 15 (1-2):279-281.score: 30.0
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  33. Jenny Goodwin & David Goodwin (1999). Ethical Judgments Across Cultures: A Comparison Between Business Students From Malaysia and New Zealand. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 18 (3):267 - 281.score: 30.0
    This study compares the attitudes to ethical dilemmas of first year business students in Malaysia and New Zealand by using a series of scenarios or vignettes. Between subject manipulations were made to the scenarios given, based on expected cultural differences suggested in the literature. In particular, Hofstede's (1980, 1983 and 1991) work was used as a framework to identify dimensions based on differences in national culture. The results indicated some differences in responses based on both nationality and ethnic origin. Differences (...)
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  34. William Goodwin (2009). Scientific Understanding and Synthetic Design. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):271-301.score: 30.0
    Next SectionOne of the indisputable signs of the progress made in organic chemistry over the last two hundred years is the increased ability of chemists to manipulate, control, and design chemical reactions. The technological expertise manifest in contemporary synthetic organic chemistry is, at least in part, due to developments in the theory of organic chemistry. By appealing to a notable chemist's attempts to articulate and codify the heuristics of synthetic design, this paper investigates how understanding theoretical organic chemistry facilitates progress (...)
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  35. Brian Goodwin (1993). Homology and a Generative Theory of Biological Form. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (4).score: 30.0
    Homology continues to be a concept of central importance in the study of phylogenetic relations, but its relation to ontogenetic processes remains problematical. A definition of homology in terms of equivalent morphogenetic processes is defined and applied to the comparative study of tetrapod limbs. This allows for a consistent treatment of relations of similarity and difference of appendage structure in vertebrates, and the distinction between fishes fins and tetrapod limbs in terms of the concept of equivalence is described. The role (...)
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  36. William Goodwin (2008). Implementation and Innovation in Total Synthesis. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):177-186.score: 30.0
    This article investigates how understanding the theory of organic chemistry facilitates the total synthesis of organic compounds. After locating the philosophical significance of this question within the methodology or epistemology of applied science, I summarize the results of previous work on this issue—roughly that theoretical organic chemistry underwrites a sequence of heuristic policies that help to isolate plausible synthetic routes from the array of possibilities provided by structural or descriptive organic chemistry. While this prior account makes a solid start, it (...)
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  37. Barbara Goodwin (2008). Taxation in Utopia. Utopian Studies 19 (2):313 - 331.score: 30.0
    Utopias of the right and the left offer different justifications for taxation and propose different tax systems. Here, utopian proposals are analysed and evaluated from two perspectives: the "ideal" form of taxation (visible, equitable, and non-avoidable), and the democratic perspective (would people willingly consent to it?). Pre-taxation, favoured by left-wing utopias, raises problems from a democratic standpoint while right-wing utopias assert that taxation must be voluntary but are over-confident that "voluntary government financing" would provide a safety-net for poorer members of (...)
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  38. Henry S. Leonard (1937). The Pragmatism and Scientific Metaphysics of C. S. Peirce:Collected Papers of C. S. Peirce. Vol. V. Pragmatism and Pragmaticism Charles Sanders Peirce, Charles Hartshorne, Paul Weiss; Collected Papers of C. S. Peirce. Vol. VI. Scientific Metaphysics Charles Sanders Peirce, Charles Hartshorne, Paul Weiss. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 4 (1):109-.score: 30.0
  39. Henry S. Leonard (1959). Interrogatives, Imperatives, Truth, Falsity and Lies. Philosophy of Science 26 (3):172-186.score: 30.0
    This paper aims to establish three major theses: (1) Not only declarative sentences, but also interrogatives and imperatives, may be classified as true or as false. (2) Declarative, imperative, and interrogative utterances may also be classified as honest or as dishonest. (3) Whether an utterance is honest or dishonest is logically independent of whether it is true or is false. The establishment of the above theses follows upon the adoption of a principle for identifying what is meant by any sentence, (...)
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  40. Thomas C. Leonard, Robert S. Goldfarb & Steven M. Suranovic (2000). New on Paternalism and Public Policy. Economics and Philosophy 16 (2):323-331.score: 30.0
    Bill New's (1999) thoughtful paper has performed the valuable service of clarifying the meaning and the policy implications of paternalism. His careful formulation delimits the domain of justified state paternalism. Having argued successfully, in our view, for a narrow ambit, New proceeds to identify situations that justify paternalism. This comment is written in the spirit of a friendly reformulation that refines and improves the specification of when paternalism is justified. Our argument is two-fold. First, we argue that New's formulation, properly (...)
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  41. William F. Goodwin (1957). Santayana's Naturalistic Reading of Indian Ontology and Axiology. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 18 (2):147-168.score: 30.0
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  42. P. N. Johnson-Laird, Geoffrey P. Goodwin & N. Y. Louis Lee (2011). The Psychological Puzzle of Sudoku. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):342-364.score: 30.0
    Sudoku puzzles, which are popular worldwide, require individuals to infer the missing digits in a 9 9 array according to the general rule that every digit from 1 to 9 must occur once in each row, in each column, and in each of the 3-by-3 boxes in the array. We present a theory of how individuals solve these puzzles. It postulates that they rely solely on pure deductions, and that they spontaneously acquire various deductive tactics, which differ in their difficulty (...)
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  43. John Leonard (1984). Public Versus Private Claims: Machiavellianism From Another Perspective. Political Theory 12 (4):491-506.score: 30.0
  44. Jean Goodwin (1998). Forms of Authority and the Real Ad Verecundiam. Argumentation 12 (2):267-280.score: 30.0
    This paper provides a typology of appeals to authority, identifying three distinct types: that which is based on a command; that which is based on expertise; and that which is based on dignity. Each type is distinguished with respect to the reaction that a failure to follow it ordinarily evokes. The rhetorical roots of Locke's ad verecundiam are traced to the rhetorical practices of ancient Rome.
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  45. Robert J. Leonard (1993). The Invisible Hand, Economic Equilibrium in the History of Science, Bruna Ingrao and Giorgio Israel. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991, 491 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 9 (01):178-.score: 30.0
  46. Kingsley Goodwin (2007). Postmodernism, Deep Ecology and the Idea of Wildness. Ethical Perspectives 14 (4):501-512.score: 30.0
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  47. Stephen T. Leonard (1989). How Not to Write About Political Theory: A Response to Wallach. Political Theory 17 (1):101-106.score: 30.0
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  48. Brian Goodwin (2008). Memories of Waddington. Biological Theory 3 (3):284-286.score: 30.0
  49. Robert E. Goodwin (1999). The Sustainability Ethic: Political, Not Just Moral. Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (3):247–254.score: 30.0
  50. Brian Goodwin (2000). Out of Control Into Participation. Emergence 2 (4):40-49.score: 30.0
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