With some remarks on what I have personally contributed, this essay sketches the origins of the posthumous eff ort by which Schutz’s thought, which could have been forgotten, has become well-known internationally through the dedicated work in the United States, Germany, and Japan of a modest number of named students and followers in successive generations as well as his widow Ilse ans daughter Evelyn. How his thought connects with phenomenology, sociology, social psychology, and the theory of the cultural sciences is (...) touched on. Besides references to the two biographies and the annual, Schutzian Research, counts of editions of translations into a dozen languages and then lists of the Schutz Memorial Lectures, the archives in Germany, Japan, and the United States, the Werkausgabe, and the many conferences focused on Schutz are off ered. This is to make the case that the International Alfred Schutz Circle for Phenomenology and Interpretive Social Science is long overdue. (shrink)
La cultura tiene muchas dimensiones, por ejemplo, la del género; pero, ¿qué pasa con la cultura de una nación tomándola como un todo? ¿Se puede uno aproximar fenomenológicamente a este tema? Usando una pequeña nación como ejemplo y utilizando una historia popular, yo debato aquí, en primer lugar, sobre cómo los objetos culturales concretos son diferentes de los objetos naturalistas una vez que estos se abstraen de todas las funciones o, mejor, usos que tienen. A continuación, describo Taiwan de modo (...) naturalista: geográficamente, geológicamente, ecológicamente, etc., y, después, antropológicamente, con respecto a cómo ha sido poblada. Dejando de lado la abstracción, lo siguiente es evocar aspectos culturales de esta isla para sus ciudadanos, en términos de religión, cultura alta, sistema social, economía y política. Estos aspectos ciertamente son diferentes para otras culturas nacionales, pero todas ellas tienen aspectos de este tipo y partiendo de este ejemplo uno podría ir más allá, a la cultura nacional en general. (shrink)
Les phénoménologues se sont habituellement focalisés sur la perception lorsqu’il s’agissait de source de connaissance, mais qu’en est-il de la remémoration ? Qu'est-ce que la remémoration? Comment fonctionne-t-elle? Et peut-elle être également une source de connaissance ? On tente ici de répondre à cette question, avec l’aide de Dorion Cairns.
Schutz not only adapted Max Weber’s “ideal types” but also Edmund Husserl’s prepredicative “types,” which must have been “empirical types,” in hiswork. With care, these terms can be kept distinct. The former term refers to concepts used in common-sense thinking as well as cultural science, while the latterrefers to vague material universals or eidē. This essay studies how “type” is used in these two different ways by Schutz after he had read Husserl’s Erfahrung undUrteil by 1940.
Cairns presents a plausible two-part, step by step, approach seemingly developed in Husserl’s “workshop” to transcendental phenomenology that is independent of culture and history, refines a concept of knowledge and its references to worldly things, encounters a difficulty, and resolves it through recognition of a non-worldly apodictic core of consciousness distinct from being in the real temporal, spatial, and causal world.
This collection of more than two dozen essays by philosophy scholars of international repute traces the profound impact exerted by Husserl’s Meisterwerk, known in its shortened title as Ideen, whose first book was released in 1913. Published to coincide with the centenary of its original appearance, and fifty years after the second book went to print in 1952, the contributors offer a comprehensive array of perspectives on the ways in which Husserl’s concept of phenomenology influenced leading figures and movements of (...) the last century, including, among others, Ortega y Gassett, Edith Stein, Martin Heidegger, Aron Gurwitsch, Ludwig Landgrebe, Dorion Cairns, Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jacques Derrida and Giles Deleuze. -/- In addition to its documentation and analysis of the historical reception of these works, this volume also illustrates the ongoing relevance of the Ideen, offering scholarly discussion of the issues raised by his ideas as well as by the figures who took part in critical phenomenological dialogue with them. Among the topics discussed are autism, empathy, the nature of the emotions, the method and practice of phenomenology, the foundations of ethics, naturalism, intentionality, and human rights, to name but a few. Taken together, these specially commissioned original essays offer an unrivaled overview of the reception of Husserl‘s Ideen, and the expanding phenomenological enterprise it initiated. They show that the critical discussion of issues by phenomenologists continues to be relevant for the 21st century. (shrink)
Schutz is well-known for his social-psychological description of how an individual self relates to “consociates,” “contemporaries,” “predecessors,” and “successors,” but there are rudiments as well in his oeuvre of an account of groups or collectivities that can be developed analogously to show how groups can share space and time like consociates, share only time like contemporaries, and not share time (but could share space) like a group in relation to its dead predecessors and not-yet founded successors. This aspect deserves exploration (...) because individuals apart from their memberships in voluntary and existential groups are abstract and the concrete has of course ontological priority. (shrink)
So far as philosophizing is concerned with another's thoughts, it is criticizing. No true philosopher, as such, merely accepts or merely reproduces, another's thoughts. The true philosopher starts anew — independently, solitarily. But his understanding of the work done by others can make his own philosophizing surer and quicker. He must see for himself. But sometimes he can more easily avoid the pitfalls that others have discovered and marked. Thus, in the social history of philosophizing there can be not only (...) mere repetition and mere novelty, but also progress. Even the less able philosopher may improve on the results of a more able predecessor. (shrink)
This essay starts by outlining what the author considers to be the three general properties of the phenomenological approach. This approach is then taken to the question of what an academic discipline is and how one becomes a member of a discipline, with some positive and negative aspects that can develop considered. Demonstrating how phenomenological questions can be asked and answered, this approach invites attempts to confirm, correct and extend the account through more reflective analysis. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Volume (...) 10, Edition 2, October 2010: 5-9. (shrink)
There is a difference between the direct and the indirect encountering of things. The emphasis in the history of phenomenology, as in the rest of modern philosophy, has been on direct encountering. But at least in industrialized societies, there is acquaintance with vastly more things through indirect encountering. A clarification of what encountering is in general will first be attempted, some traditional doctrines will be objected to, and then the difference between direct and indirect encountering will be explored. The goal (...) is a modest phenomenological investigation that invites the reader to verify, correct, and extend it. Terminology, genre, and the secondary emphasis on thetic or positional components of believing, valuing, and willing are central to the reflective analysis. (shrink)
Recognition of phenomenological tendencies in several dozen disciplines beyond philosophy raises the question of how phenomenology in general might be defined prior to specification in terms of the agendas of the particular disciplines. After an attempt at an answer to this question, some observations concerning the possible benefits of interdisciplinary encounters, especially for philosophical phenomenology, are offered. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology , May 2010, Volume 10, Edition 1.
How modern economics is a social rather than historical cultural science, how it can produce adequate accounts in scientific constructs about common-sense constructs, can relate objectivistic accounts to subjective interpretations, how it can be theoretical, and how it hypothesizes marginal utility is all expounded in relation to Schutz’s theory of science, especially what he calls “postulates.”.
Les disciplines pratiques comme le nursing et la psychothérapie peuvent avoir leur fondation scientifique dans la psychologie sociale. Dans cet article, l’auteur s’efforce principalement d’expliquer ce qu’est, d’après Alfred Schutz, la sociologie en tant que psychologie sociale, avant d’examiner, en conclusion, comment elle peut contribuer à la fondation de telles disciplines.
Introduction Dans ses Prolegomena zur reinen Logik ( Logische Untersuchungen, 1900), Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) offre une analyse et un exemple assez mémorables de ce qu’est une norme (pour ceux qui n’y sont pas familiers, la traduction française du passage le plus significatif est reproduite dans l’Appendice 1 de cet essai). Dire « un guerrier doit être courageux » revient à dire : « Un guerrier courageux est bon. » À l’évidence, ceci transforme une norme en jugement de valeur. Husserl exprime (...) cette équivalence directement, c’est-à-dire qu’il ne décrit ni n’analyse la manière dont les normes sont constituées et justifiées. Je n’ai pas répertorié d’analyse réfléchie sur ce sujet dans le reste de ses publications et, s’il existe semblable analyse dans son Nachlass , je n’en ai pas connaissance . Le présent compte rendu n’est, en aucun cas, une interprétation des textes de Husserl mais une brève tentative visant à élaborer une phénoménologie constitutive dans la manière du Husserl de la maturité. Dans la première section ci-dessous, je tente de développer l’exemple de Husserl de façon dynamique. Dans la deuxième, je prends un référent purement possible de ses propositions comme indice relatif aux composantes de la situation où se constituent des cas de ce type. Dans la troisième section, j’examine brièvement la manière dont les normes peuvent être justifiées. La conduite à adopter lors d’un. (shrink)
To establish a starting point for a phenomenological theory of the science of primate ethology, this essay first reviews how the phenomenological philosophers Aron Gurwitsch and Maurice Merleau-Ponty made use of the Gestalt psychologist Wolfgang Köhler’s description of chimpanzee consciousness and its objects and then considers primate ethology in light of the theory of the cultural sciences in the work of Gurwitsch in addition to that of Alfred Schutz.
After a review of his revisions of Husserl's methodology, Cairns's new version of the procedure of Abbauor unbuilding is followed from the Objective world down to the primordial world and then from there down to the phantom world within which sensa fields can be analyzed. Then the abstractive epochēs by which lower strata were reached are successively relaxed in the Aufbau or upbuilding procedure and, most interestingly, the sense “psychophysical thing” originally constituted within primordial automaticity is found to be transferred (...) automatically and with presumptive certainty to everything in the Objective world. Any differences between “animate” and “inanimate” things are only constituted at a higher level and pertain then to culture and not nature. (shrink)
In the first part of this essay it is contended that Schutz''s project is best called the philosophical theory of the cultural sciences; in the last parts it is shown that he offers satisfactory rudiments of a theory of the historical sciences except where the differentia specifica of those sciences is concerned. The central part is devoted to women''s liberation as a case of contemporary history in relation to which Schutz''s thought about the historical sciences needs correction.
After addressing the question of whether Aron Gurwitsch (1901–1973) even had a theory of psychology, which is not obvious unless one collates the many dispersed remarks, a well-documented exposition of that theory is offered that clarifies the data, categories, field, methods, and topics of the versions of psychology he advocated.
Information from a book (by Lancaster and Stillman, 2002 – see later) about generational gaps and conflicts in American companies is used to show that there is a generational dimension to the socio-cultural lifeworld. In relation to that, some indications are offered about how attitudes toward one’s own as well as other generations can be reflectively analyzed. Other societies probably have similar differences between generations. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology , Volume 3, Edition 1, November 2003.
The historico-political category of 'Continental philosophy' arose in the United State and includes such figures as Adorno, Arendt, Beauvoir, Cairns, Carr, Cavailles, Deleuze, Derrida, Fink, Foucault, Funke, Gadamer, Gurwitsch, Habermas, Heidegger, Held, Ihde, Jaspers, Jonas, Kersten, Kristeva, Ingarden, Landgrebe, Levinas, Lyotard, Marcel, Marcuse, Marx, Merleau- Ponty, Mohanty, Natanson, Ortega y Gasset, Patoka, Reinach, Ricoeur, Sartre, Scheler, Schutz, Seebohm, Sokolowski, Spet, Stein, Stroeker, and Waldenfels. What these diverse figures share is (a) an early but not necessarily continued critical involvement with Husserl's (...) phenomenology and (b) subsequent intellectual interaction with others who also began that way. Some comments on relations with analytic philosophy are also included with this historical sketch. (shrink)
In this article, the author takes a reflective look at the past, present and future of phenomenology in a kind of Presidential ‘state of the science’ approach. The Encyclopedia of Phenomenology acts as the authoritative positional backdrop for this ground-breaking paper. Embree isolates several recognizable ‘stages’ in the development of phenomenology, and ponders whether its current growth (and permutations) is not leading us into a new stage. If so, this has implications for the way phenomenologically oriented scholars and philosophers approach (...) their discipline. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology , Volume1, Edition 1 April 2001. (shrink)