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Profile: Lev Vaidman (Tel Aviv University)
  1.  77
    Lev Vaidman, Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The Many-Worlds Interpretation (MWI) is an approach to quantum mechanics according to which, in addition to the world we are aware of directly, there are many other similar worlds which exist in parallel at the same space and time. The existence of the other worlds makes it possible to remove randomness and action at a distance from quantum theory and thus from all physics.
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  2.  64
    Lev Vaidman (1998). On Schizophrenic Experiences of the Neutron or Why We Should Believe in the Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Theory. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 12 (3):245 – 261.
    This is a philosophical paper in favor of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum theory. The necessity of introducing many worlds is explained by analyzing a neutron interference experiment. The concept of the “measure of existence of a world” is introduced and some difficulties with the issue of probability in the framework of the MWI are resolved.
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  3.  6
    Lev Vaidman, Quantum Theory and Determinism.
    Historically, appearance of the quantum theory led to a prevailing view that Nature is indeterministic. The arguments for the indeterminism and proposals for indeterministic and deterministic approaches are reviewed. These include collapse theories, Bohmian Mechanics and the many-worlds interpretation. It is argued that ontic interpretations of the quantum wave function provide simpler and clearer physical explanation and that the many-worlds interpretation is the most attractive since it provides a deterministic and local theory for our physical Universe explaining the illusion of (...)
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  4. Berry Groisman, Na'ama Hallakoun & Lev Vaidman (2013). The Measure of Existence of a Quantum World and the Sleeping Beauty Problem. Analysis 73 (4):695-706.
    Next SectionAn attempt to resolve the controversy regarding the solution of the Sleeping Beauty Problem in the framework of the Many-Worlds Interpretation led to a new controversy regarding the Quantum Sleeping Beauty Problem. We apply the concept of a measure of existence of a world and reach the solution known as ‘thirder’ solution which differs from Peter Lewis’s ‘halfer’ assertion. We argue that this method provides a simple and powerful tool for analysing rational decision theory problems.
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  5.  12
    Lev Vaidman, Bell Inequality and Many-Worlds Interpretation.
    It is argued that the lesson we should learn from Bell's inequalities is not that quantum mechanics requires some kind of action at a distance, but that it leads us to believe in parallel worlds.
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  6.  82
    Lev Vaidman (1999). Time-Symmetrized Counterfactuals in Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 29 (5):755-765.
    Counterfactuals in quantum theory are briefly reviewed and it is argued that they are very different from counterfactuals considered in the general philosophical literature. The issue of time symmetry of quantum counterfactuals is considered and a novel time-symmetric definition of quantum counterfactuals is proposed. This definition is applied for analyzing several controversies related to quantum counterfactuals.
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  7.  7
    Lev Vaidman, REVIEW: David Wallace, The Emergent Multiverse: Quantum Theory According to the Everett Interpretation. [REVIEW]
    We have, then, a theory which is objectively causal and continuous, while at the same time subjectively probabilistic and discontinuous. It can lay claim to a certain completeness, since it applies to all systems, of whatever size, and is still capable of explaining the appearance of the macroscopic world. The price, however, is the abandonment of the concept of the uniqueness of the observer, with its somewhat disconcerting philosophical implications.
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  8.  11
    Avshalom C. Elitzur & Lev Vaidman (1993). Quantum Mechanical Interaction-Free Measurements. Foundations of Physics 23 (7):987-997.
    A novel manifestation of nonlocality of quantum mechanics is presented. It is shown that it is possible to ascertain the existence of an object in a given region of space without interacting with it. The method might have practical applications for delicate quantum experiments.
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  9.  54
    Lev Vaidman (1994). On the Paradoxical Aspects of New Quantum Experiments. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:211 - 217.
    Two recently proposed quantum experiments are analyzed. The first allows to find an object without "touching" it. The second allows to teleport quantum states, transmitting a very small amount of information. It is shown that in the standard approach these experiments are in conflict with the intuitive notions of causality and locality. It is argued that the situation is less paradoxical in the framework of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum theory.
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  10.  47
    Lev Vaidman (1999). Variations on the Theme of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Proof. Foundations of Physics 29 (4):615-630.
    Three arguments based on the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) proof of the nonexistence of local hidden variables are presented. The first is a description of a simple game which a team that uses the GHZ method will always win. The second uses counterfactuals in an attempt to show that quantum theory is nonlocal in a stronger sense than is implied by the nonexistence of local hidden variables and the third describes peculiar features of time-symmetrized counterfactuals in quantum theory.
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  11.  19
    Lev Vaidman (1996). Weak-Measurement Elements of Reality. Foundations of Physics 26 (7):895-906.
    A brief review of the attempts to define “elements of reality” in the framework of quantum theory is presented. It is noted that most definitions of elements of reality have in common the feature to be a definite outcome of some measurement. Elements of reality are extended to pre- and post- selected systems and to measurements which fulfill certain criteria of weakness of the coupling. Some features of the newly introduced concepts are discussed.
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  12.  8
    Lev Vaidman (2012). Probability in the Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. In Yemima Ben-Menahem & Meir Hemmo (eds.), Probability in Physics. Springer 299--311.
    It is argued that, although in the Many-Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics there is no ``probability'' for an outcome of a quantum experiment in the usual sense, we can understand why we have an illusion of probability. The explanation involves: a). A ``sleeping pill'' gedanken experiment which makes correspondence between an illegitimate question: ``What is the probability of an outcome of a quantum measurement?'' with a legitimate question: ``What is the probability that ``I'' am in the world corresponding to that (...)
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  13.  6
    Lev Vaidman, Byrne and Hall on Everett and Chalmers.
    It is argued that the criticism of Byrne and Hall of the argument of Chalmers in favor of the Everett-style interpretation is incorrect.
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  14.  6
    Lev Vaidman, Sleeping Beauty in Quantumland.
    It is argued that thirder resolution of the Lewis - Elga controversy about Sleeping Beauty is more clear when the coin toss is replaced by a quantum measurement and the analysis is performed in the framework of the Many-Worlds Interpretation.
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  15.  18
    Yakir Aharonov, Jeeva Anandan & Lev Vaidman (1996). The Meaning of Protective Measurements. Foundations of Physics 26 (1):117-126.
    Protective measurement, which we have introduced recently, allows one to observe properties of the state of a single quantum system and even the Schrödinger wave itself. These measurements require a protection, sometimes due to an additional procedure and sometimes due to the potential of the system itself The analysis of the protective measurements is presented and it is argued, contrary to recent claims, that they observe the quantum state and not the protective potential. Some other misunderstandings concerning our proposal are (...)
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  16.  22
    Lev Vaidman (2015). David Wallace the Emergent Multiverse: Quantum Theory According to the Everett Interpretation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (2):465-468.
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  17.  21
    Lev Vaidman (1999). The Meaning of Elements of Reality and Quantum Counterfactuals: Reply to Kastner. Foundations of Physics 29 (6):865-876.
    This paper is an answer to the preceding paper by Kastner, in which she continued the criticism of the counterfactual usage of the Aharonov-Bergman-Lebowitz rule in the framework of the time-symmetrized quantum theory, in particular, by analyzing the three-box “paradox.” It is argued that the criticism is not sound. Paradoxical features of the three-box example are discussed. It is explained that the elements of reality in the framework of time-symmetrized quantum theory are counterfactual statements, and therefore, even conflicting elements of (...)
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  18.  25
    Lev Vaidman (1991). A Quantum Time Machine. Foundations of Physics 21 (8):947-958.
    A novel description of quantum systems is employed for constructing a “time machine” capable of shifting in time the wave function of a quantum system. This device uses gravitational time dilations and a peculiar quantum interference effect due to preselection and postselection. In most trials this time machine fails to operate but when it does succeed it accomplishes tasks which no other machine can.
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  19.  18
    Lev Vaidman (2003). The Meaning of the Interaction-Free Measurements. Foundations of Physics 33 (3):491-510.
    Interaction-free measurements introduced by Elitzur and Vaidman [Found. Phys. 23, 987 (1993)] allow finding infinitely fragile objects without destroying them. Many experiments have been successfully performed showing that indeed, the original scheme and its modifications lead to reduction of the disturbance of the observed systems. However, there is a controversy about the validity of the term “interaction-free” for these experiments. Broad variety of such experiments are reviewed and the meaning of the interaction-free measurements is clarified.
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  20.  3
    Lev Vaidman, About Schizophrenic Experiences of The Neutron or Why We Should Believe in Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Theory.
    This is a philosophical paper in favor of the Many-Worlds Interpretation of quantum theory. The concept of the ``measure of existence of a world'' is introduced and some difficulties with the issue of probability in the framework of the MWI are resolved.
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  21.  43
    Lev Vaidman, Discussion: Time-Symmetric Quantum Counterfactuals.
    There is a trend to consider counterfactuals as invariably time-asymmetric. Recently, this trend manifested itself in the controversy about validity of counterfactual application of a time-symmetric quantum probability rule. Kastner (2003) analyzed this controversy and concluded that there are time-symmetric quantum counterfactuals which are consistent, but they turn out to be trivial. I correct Kastner's misquotation of my defense of time-symmetric quantum counterfactuals and explain their non-trivial aspects, thus contesting the claim that counterfactuals have to be time-asymmetric.
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  22.  37
    Lev Vaidman & Simon Saunders, On Sleeping Beauty Controversy.
    It is argued that Lewis's approach to Elga's Sleeping Beaty problem is untenable and, therefore, the universality of the betting approach to probability has not been breached.
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  23.  11
    Lev Vaidman (2005). The Reality in Bohmian Quantum Mechanics or Can You Kill with an Empty Wave Bullet? Foundations of Physics 35 (2):299-312.
    Several situations, in which an empty wave causes an observable effect, are reviewed. They include an experiment showing ‘‘surrealistic trajectories’’ proposed by Englert et al. and protective measurement of the density of the quantum state. Conditions for observable effects due to empty waves are derived. The possibility (in spite of the existence of these examples) of minimalistic interpretation of Bohmian quantum mechanics in which only Bohmian positions supervene on our experience is discussed.
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  24.  29
    Lev Vaidman (2010). Time Symmetry and the Many-Worlds Interpretation. In Simon Saunders, Jonathan Barrett, Adrian Kent & David Wallace (eds.), Many Worlds?: Everett, Quantum Theory, & Reality. OUP Oxford
    An attempt to solve the collapse problem in the framework of a time-symmetric quantum formalism is reviewed. Although the proposal does not look very attractive, its concept - a world defined by two quantum states, one evolving forwards and one evolving backwards in time - is found to be useful in modifying the many-worlds picture of Everett’s theory.
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  25.  2
    Lev Vaidman (1995). Nonlocal Measurements and Teleportation of Quantum States. In M. Ferrero & A. van der Merwe (eds.), Fundamental Problems in Quantum Physics. 347--356.
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