Search results for 'Level' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Nicholas Silins (2013). The Significance of High-Level Content. Philosophical Studies 162 (1):13-33.score: 24.0
    This paper is an essay in counterfactual epistemology. What if experience have high-level contents, to the effect that something is a lemon or that someone is sad? I survey the consequences for epistemology of such a scenario, and conclude that many of the striking consequences could be reached even if our experiences don't have high-level contents.
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  2. Indrek Reiland (2014). On Experiencing High-Level Properties. American Philosophical Quarterly 51:177-187.score: 24.0
    Tim Bayne and Susanna Siegel have recently offered interesting arguments in favor of the view that we can experience high-level properties like being a pine tree or being a stethoscope (Bayne 2009, Siegel 2006, 2011). We argue first that Bayne’s simpler argument fails. However, our main aim in this paper is to show that Siegel’s more sophisticated argument for her version of the high-level view can also be resisted if one adopts a view that distinguishes between perceptual experiences (...)
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  3. L. R. Franklin-Hall (forthcoming). High-Level Explanation and the Interventionist's 'Variables Problem'. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.score: 24.0
    The interventionist account of causal explanation, in the version presented by Jim Woodward (2003), has been recently claimed capable of buttressing the widely felt—though poorly understood—hunch that high-level, relatively abstract explanations, of the sort provided by sciences like biology, psychology and economics, are in some cases explanatorily optimal. It is the aim of this paper to show that this is mistaken. Due to a lack of effective constraints on the causal variables at the heart of the interventionist causal-explanatory scheme, (...)
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  4. Chris Tucker (2012). Movin' on Up: Higher-Level Requirements and Inferential Justification. Philosophical Studies 157 (3):323-340.score: 24.0
    Does inferential justification require the subject to be aware that her premises support her conclusion? Externalists tend to answer “no” and internalists tend to answer “yes”. In fact, internalists often hold the strong higher-level requirement that an argument justifies its conclusion only if the subject justifiably believes that her premises support her conclusion. I argue for a middle ground. Against most externalists, I argue that inferential justification requires that one be aware that her premises support her conclusion. Against many (...)
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  5. Christopher Clarke (forthcoming). Multi-Level Selection and the Explanatory Value of Mathematical Decompositions. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.score: 24.0
    Do multi-level selection explanations of the evolution of social traits deepen the understanding provided by single-level explanations? Central to the former is a mathematical theorem, the multi-level Price decomposition. I build a framework through which to understand the explanatory role of such non-empirical decompositions in scientific practice. Applying this general framework to the present case places two tasks on the agenda. The first task is to distinguish the various ways of suppressing within-collective variation in fitness, and moreover (...)
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  6. Nicolas Espinoza & Martin Peterson (2012). Risk and Mid-Level Moral Principles. Bioethics 26 (1):8-14.score: 24.0
    We discuss ethical aspects of risk-taking with special focus on principlism and mid-level moral principles. A new distinction between the strength of an obligation and the degree to which it is valid is proposed. We then use this distinction for arguing that, in cases where mid-level moral principles come into conflict, the moral status of the act under consideration may be indeterminate, in a sense rendered precise in the paper. We apply this thought to issues related to pandemic (...)
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  7. Elijah Chudnoff (forthcoming). Moral Perception: High-Level Perception or Low-Level Intuition? In Thiemo Breyer & Christopher Gutland (eds.), Phenomenology of Thinking.score: 24.0
    Here are four examples of “seeing.” You see that something green is wriggling. You see that an iguana is in distress. You see that someone is wrongfully harming an iguana. You see that torturing animals is wrong. The first is an example of low-level perception. You visually represent color and motion. The second is an example of high-level perception. You visually represent kind properties and mental properties. The third is an example of moral perception. You have an impression (...)
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  8. Mladen Pečujlija, Ilija Ćosić & Velibor Ivanišević (2011). A Professor's Moral Thinking at the Abstract Level Versus The Professor's Moral Thinking in the Real Life Situation (Consistency Problem). Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):299-320.score: 24.0
    We conducted an on-line survey to investigate the professor’s idea of “morality” and then to compare their moral thinking at the abstract level with their moral thinking in the real life situations by sampling 257 professors from the University of Novi Sad. We constructed questionnaire based on related theoretical ethical concepts. Our results show (after we performed exploratory factor analysis) that the professor’s idea of “morality” consists of the three moral thinking patterns which are simultaneously activated during the process (...)
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  9. Nicholas Shea (2013). Neural Mechanisms of Decision-Making and the Personal Level. In Kwm Fulford, M. Davies, G. Graham, J. Sadler, G. Stanghellini & T. Thornton (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. OUP. 1063-1082.score: 24.0
    Can findings from psychology and cognitive neuroscience about the neural mechanisms involved in decision-making can tell us anything useful about the commonly-understood mental phenomenon of making voluntary choices? Two philosophical objections are considered. First, that the neural data is subpersonal, and so cannot enter into illuminating explanations of personal level phenomena like voluntary action. Secondly, that mental properties are multiply realized in the brain in such a way as to make them insusceptible to neuroscientific study. The paper argues that (...)
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  10. Benjamin Kerr & Peter Godfrey-Smith (2002). Individualist and Multi-Level Perspectives on Selection in Structured Populations. Biology and Philosophy 17 (4):477-517.score: 24.0
    Recent years have seen a renewed debate over the importance of groupselection, especially as it relates to the evolution of altruism. Onefeature of this debate has been disagreement over which kinds ofprocesses should be described in terms of selection at multiple levels,within and between groups. Adapting some earlier discussions, we presenta mathematical framework that can be used to explore the exactrelationships between evolutionary models that do, and those that donot, explicitly recognize biological groups as fitness-bearing entities.We show a fundamental set (...)
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  11. Bahtışen Kavak, Eda Gürel, Canan Eryiğit & Öznur Özkan Tektaş (2009). Examining the Effects of Moral Development Level, Self-Concept, and Self-Monitoring on Consumers' Ethical Attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):115 - 135.score: 24.0
    This study investigates the possible effects of self-concept, self-monitoring, and moral development level on dimensions of consumers' ethical attitudes. "Actively benefiting from illegal activities," "actively benefiting from deceptive practices," and "no harm/no foul 1—2" are defined by factor analysis as four dimensions of Turkish consumers' ethical attitudes. Logistic regression analysis is applied to data collected from 516 Turkish households. Results indicate that self-monitoring and moral development level predicted consumer ethics in relation to "actively benefiting from questionable practices" and (...)
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  12. Ran Zhang, Jigao Zhu, Heng Yue & Chunyan Zhu (2010). Corporate Philanthropic Giving, Advertising Intensity, and Industry Competition Level. Journal of Business Ethics 94 (1):39 - 52.score: 24.0
    This article examines whether the likelihood and amount of firm charitable giving in response to catastrophic events are related to firm advertising intensity, and whether industry competition level moderates this relationship. Using data on Chinese firms’ philanthropic response to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, we find that firm advertising intensity is positively associated with both the probability and the amount of corporate giving. The results also indicate that this positive advertising intensity-philanthropic giving relationship is stronger in competitive industries, and firms (...)
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  13. Hanoch Ben-Yami (2013). Higher‐Level Plurals Versus Articulated Reference, and an Elaboration of Salva Veritate. Dialectica 67 (1):81-102.score: 24.0
    In recent literature on plurals the claim has often been made that the move from singular to plural expressions can be iterated, generating what are occasionally called higher-level plurals or superplurals, often correlated with superplural predicates. I argue that the idea that the singular-to-plural move can be iterated is questionable. I then show that the examples and arguments intended to establish that some expressions of natural language are in some sense higher-level plurals fail. Next, I argue that these (...)
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  14. André Krom (2011). The Harm Principle as a Mid-Level Principle? Three Problems From the Context of Infectious Disease Control. Bioethics 25 (8):437-444.score: 24.0
    Effective infectious disease control may require states to restrict the liberty of individuals. Since preventing harm to others is almost universally accepted as a legitimate (prima facie) reason for restricting the liberty of individuals, it seems plausible to employ a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control. Moral practices like infectious disease control support – or even require – a certain level of theory-modesty. However, employing a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control faces at least three (...)
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  15. Kathy Lund Dean, Jeri Mullins Beggs & Timothy P. Keane (2010). Mid-Level Managers, Organizational Context, and (Un)Ethical Encounters. Journal of Business Ethics 97 (1):51–69.score: 24.0
    This article details day-to-day ethics issues facing MBAs who occupy entry-level and mid-level management positions and offers defined examples of the stressors these managers face. The study includes lower-level managers, essentially excluded from extant literature, and focuses on workplace behaviors both undertaken and observed. Results indicate that pressures from internal organization sources, and ambiguity in letter versus spirit of rules, account for over a third of the most frequent unethical situations encountered, and that most managers did not (...)
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  16. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2002). Individualist and Multi-Level Perspectives on Selection in Structured Populations. Biology and Philosophy 17 (4):477-517.score: 24.0
    Recent years have seen a renewed debate over the importance of groupselection, especially as it relates to the evolution of altruism. Onefeature of this debate has been disagreement over which kinds ofprocesses should be described in terms of selection at multiple levels,within and between groups. Adapting some earlier discussions, we presenta mathematical framework that can be used to explore the exactrelationships between evolutionary models that do, and those that donot, explicitly recognize biological groups as fitness-bearing entities.We show a fundamental set (...)
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  17. Bruce Glymour (1999). Population Level Causation and a Unified Theory of Natural Selection. Biology and Philosophy 14 (4):521-536.score: 24.0
    Sober (1984) presents an account of selection motivated by the view that one property can causally explain the occurrence of another only if the first plays a unique role in the causal production of the second. Sober holds that a causal property will play such a unique role if it is a population level cause of its effect, and on this basis argues that there is selection for a trait T only if T is a population level cause (...)
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  18. Giorgio Magri (2009). A Theory of Individual-Level Predicates Based on Blind Mandatory Scalar Implicatures. Natural Language Semantics 17 (3):245-297.score: 24.0
    Predicates such as tall or to know Latin, which intuitively denote permanent properties, are called individual-level predicates. Many peculiar properties of this class of predicates have been noted in the literature. One such property is that we cannot say #John is sometimes tall. Here is a way to account for this property: this sentence sounds odd because it triggers the scalar implicature that the alternative John is always tall is false, which cannot be, given that, if John is sometimes (...)
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  19. Peter Schroeder-Heister (forthcoming). The Calculus of Higher-Level Rules, Propositional Quantification, and the Foundational Approach to Proof-Theoretic Harmony. Studia Logica:1-32.score: 24.0
    We present our calculus of higher-level rules, extended with propositional quantification within rules. This makes it possible to present general schemas for introduction and elimination rules for arbitrary propositional operators and to define what it means that introductions and eliminations are in harmony with each other. This definition does not presuppose any logical system, but is formulated in terms of rules themselves. We therefore speak of a foundational (rather than reductive) account of proof-theoretic harmony. With every set of introduction (...)
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  20. [deleted]Kai Kaspar & Peter König (2012). Emotions and Personality Traits as High-Level Factors in Visual Attention: A Review. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    The visual sense has outstanding significance for human perception and behavior, and visual attention plays a central role in the processing of the sensory input. Thereby, multiple low- and high-level factors contribute to the guidance of attention. The present review focuses on two neglected high-level factors: emotion and personality. The review starts with an overview of different models of attention, providing a conceptual framework and illustrating the nature of low- and high-level factors in visual attention. Then, the (...)
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  21. Arthur W. Apter (2011). Level by Level Inequivalence Beyond Measurability. Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (7-8):707-712.score: 24.0
    We construct models containing exactly one supercompact cardinal in which level by level inequivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness holds. In each model, above the supercompact cardinal, there are finitely many strongly compact cardinals, and the strongly compact and measurable cardinals precisely coincide.
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  22. Fenrong Liu (2011). A Two-Level Perspective on Preference. Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (3):421 - 439.score: 24.0
    This paper proposes a two-level modeling perspective which combines intrinsic 'betterness' and reason-based extrinsic preference, and develops its static and dynamic logic in tandem. Our technical results extend, integrate, and re-interpret earlier theorems on preference representation and update in the literature on preference change.
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  23. Arthur W. Apter (2006). Failures of SCH and Level by Level Equivalence. Archive for Mathematical Logic 45 (7):831-838.score: 24.0
    We construct a model for the level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness in which below the least supercompact cardinal κ, there is a stationary set of cardinals on which SCH fails. In this model, the structure of the class of supercompact cardinals can be arbitrary.
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  24. Arthur W. Apter (2014). Inaccessible Cardinals, Failures of GCH, and Level-by-Level Equivalence. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 55 (4):431-444.score: 24.0
    We construct models for the level-by-level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness containing failures of the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis (GCH) at inaccessible cardinals. In one of these models, no cardinal is supercompact up to an inaccessible cardinal, and for every inaccessible cardinal $\delta $, $2^{\delta }\gt \delta ^{++}$. In another of these models, no cardinal is supercompact up to an inaccessible cardinal, and the only inaccessible cardinals at which GCH holds are also measurable. These results extend and generalize (...)
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  25. Arthur W. Apter (2010). Indestructibility, Instances of Strong Compactness, and Level by Level Inequivalence. Archive for Mathematical Logic 49 (7-8):725-741.score: 24.0
    Suppose λ > κ is measurable. We show that if κ is either indestructibly supercompact or indestructibly strong, then A = {δ < κ | δ is measurable, yet δ is neither δ + strongly compact nor a limit of measurable cardinals} must be unbounded in κ. The large cardinal hypothesis on λ is necessary, as we further demonstrate by constructing via forcing two models in which ${A = \emptyset}$ . The first of these contains a supercompact cardinal κ and (...)
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  26. Arthur W. Apter (2007). Supercompactness and Level by Level Equivalence Are Compatible with Indestructibility for Strong Compactness. Archive for Mathematical Logic 46 (3-4):155-163.score: 24.0
    It is known that if $\kappa < \lambda$ are such that κ is indestructibly supercompact and λ is 2λ supercompact, then level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness fails. We prove a theorem which points towards this result being best possible. Specifically, we show that relative to the existence of a supercompact cardinal, there is a model for level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness containing a supercompact cardinal κ in which κ’s (...)
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  27. Mike Robinson (1991). Double-Level Languages and Co-Operative Working. AI and Society 5 (1):34-60.score: 24.0
    Four criteria are discussed as important conditions of successful applications in Computer Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW). They are equality, mutual influence, new competence, and double-level language. The criteria originate in the experience of the International Co-operative Movement. They are examined and illustrated withreference to eight contemporary CSCW applications: meeting scheduling and support; bargaining; co-authoring; co-ordination; planning; design support and collaborative design.
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  28. Arthur W. Apter (2005). Diamond, Square, and Level by Level Equivalence. Archive for Mathematical Logic 44 (3):387-395.score: 24.0
    We force and construct a model in which level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness holds, along with certain additional combinatorial properties. In particular, in this model, ♦ δ holds for every regular uncountable cardinal δ, and below the least supercompact cardinal κ, □ δ holds on a stationary subset of κ. There are no restrictions in our model on the structure of the class of supercompact cardinals.
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  29. Hui Fang (forthcoming). An Explanation of Resisted Discoveries Based on Construal-Level Theory. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-10.score: 24.0
    New discoveries and theories are crucial for the development of science, but they are often initially resisted by the scientific community. This paper analyses resistance to scientific discoveries that supplement previous research results or conclusions with new phenomena, such as long chains in macromolecules, Alfvén waves, parity nonconservation in weak interactions and quasicrystals. Construal-level theory is used to explain that the probability of new discoveries may be underestimated because of psychological distance. Thus, the insufficiently examined scope of an accepted (...)
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  30. [deleted]Shaul Hochstein Michal Wolf (2011). High-Level Binocular Rivalry Effects. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 24.0
    Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (...)
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  31. Christopher Peacocke (1986). Explanation in Computational Psychology: Language, Perception and Level. Mind and Language 1 (2):101-23.score: 21.0
  32. Harlan Lane (1963). The Autophonic Scale of Voice Level for Congenitally Deaf Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (4):328.score: 21.0
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  33. A. J. Gilbert (1967). Tactile Spatial Aftereffect or Adaptation Level? Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (3):450.score: 21.0
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  34. Arthur W. Apter (2005). An Easton Theorem for Level by Level Equivalence. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 51 (3):247-253.score: 21.0
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  35. Edwin A. Fleishman (1958). A Relationship Between Incentive Motivation and Ability Level in Psychomotor Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (1):78.score: 21.0
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  36. Allen Parducci (1959). An Adaptation-Level Analysis of Ordinal Effects in Judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (3):239.score: 21.0
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  37. Arthur Tomie & David R. Thomas (1974). Adaptation Level as a Factor in Human Wavelength Generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (1):29.score: 21.0
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  38. A. W. Apter (2003). Failure of GCH and the Level by Level Equivalence Between Strong Compactness and Supercompactness. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (6):587.score: 21.0
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  39. Selwyn W. Becker & Sidney Siegel (1958). Utility of Grades: Level of Aspiration in a Decision Theory Context. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (1):81.score: 21.0
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  40. Paola Bordandini & Roberto Cartocci (2011). The Political Culture of the Italian Political Party Middle-Level Elites. Polis 25 (2):171-204.score: 21.0
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  41. E. B. Coleman (1964). Verbal Concept Learning as a Function of Instructions and Dominance Level. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (2):213.score: 21.0
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  42. R. B. Holt (1946). Level of Aspiration: Ambition or Defense? Journal of Experimental Psychology 36 (5):398.score: 21.0
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  43. J. B. Rotter (1942). Level of Aspiration as a Method of Studying Personality. II. Development and Evaluation of a Controlled Method. Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (5):410.score: 21.0
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  44. Thomas J. Ryan, Christopher Orton & June B. Pimm (1968). Discrete-Trial Instrumental Performance Related to Reward Schedule and Developmental Level. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):31.score: 21.0
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  45. Wolfgang Schönpflug (1966). Arousal, Adaptation Level, and Accentuation of Judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):443.score: 21.0
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  46. Kenneth W. Spence & Robert S. Beecroft (1954). Differential Conditioning and Level of Anxiety. Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (5):399.score: 21.0
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  47. K. W. Spence, I. E. Farber & H. H. McFann (1956). The Relation of Anxiety (Drive) Level to Performance in Competitional and Non-Competitional Paired-Associates Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (5):296.score: 21.0
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  48. Richard G. Stennett (1957). The Relationship of Performance Level to Level of Arousal. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (1):54.score: 21.0
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  49. Norman H. Anderson (1971). Test of Adaptation-Level Theory as an Explanation of a Recency Effect in Psychophysical Integration. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (1):57.score: 21.0
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  50. Arthur W. Apter (2007). Indestructibility and Level by Level Equivalence and Inequivalence. Mlq 53 (1):78-85.score: 21.0
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