Search results for 'Levels of Organization' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Markus I. Eronen (forthcoming). Levels of Organization: A Deflationary Account. Biology and Philosophy:1-20.score: 720.0
    The idea of levels of organization plays a central role in the philosophy of the life sciences. In this article, I first examine the explanatory goals that have motivated accounts of levels of organization. I then show that the most state-of-the-art and scientifically plausible account of levels of organization, the account of levels of mechanism proposed by Bechtel and Craver, is fundamentally problematic. Finally, I argue that the explanatory goals can be reached by (...)
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  2. Matthew Shapiro & Eric Hargreaves (1997). Long Term Potentiation: Attending to Levels of Organization of Learning and Memory Mechanisms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):631-632.score: 540.0
    Shors & Matzel set up a straw man, that LTP is a memory storage mechanism, and knock him down without due consideration of the important relations among different levels of organization and analysis regarding LTP, learning, and memory. Assessing these relationships requires analysis and hypotheses linking specific brain regions, neural circuits, plasticity mechanisms, and task demands. The issue addressed by the authors is important, but their analysis is off target.
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  3. Daniel Barthélémy (1991). Levels of Organization and Repetition Phenomena in Seed Plants. Acta Biotheoretica 39 (3-4).score: 540.0
    Each plant can be recognized by its general shape. Nevertheless, this physiognomy is the result of a very precise structure that expresses the existence of a strong organization. The architecture of a plant depends on the nature and relative arrangement of each of its parts; it is at any given time the result of an equilibrium between endogenous growth processes and the constraints exerted by the environment. Architectural studies have been carried out for some twenty years and have led (...)
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  4. Petra Stoerig & Stephan Brandt (1993). The Visual System and Levels of Perception: Properties of Neuromental Organization. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 14 (2).score: 477.0
    To see whether the mental and the neural have common attributes that could resolve some of the traditional dichotomies, we review neuroscientific data on the visual system. The results show that neuronal and perceptual function share a parallel and hierarchical architecture which is manifest not only in the anatomy and physiology of the visual system, but also in normal perception and in the deficits caused by lesions in different parts of the system. Based on the description of parallel hierarchical (...) of active information processing in the visual brain, we suggest a concept of dissociable levels of perception, advocating that the phenomenal perception and recognition is realized in the functional integrity of a network of reciprocal cortico-cortical connections. The properties shared by neuronal and perceptional functions provide a basis for a neuromental monism in which both functions are attributed a causal role. (shrink)
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  5. Wim J. Steen & Bart Voorzanger (1984). Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology III. Selection and Levels of Organization. Acta Biotheoretica 33 (3).score: 468.0
    Apparently factual disagreement on the level(s) at which selection operates often results from different interpretations of the term selection. Attempts to resolve terminological problems must come to grips with a dilemma: a narrow interpretation of selection may lead to a restricted view on evolution; a broader, less precise, definition may wrongly suggest that selection is the centre of a unified, integrated theory of evolution. Different concepts of selection, therefore, should carefully be kept apart.
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  6. William C. Wimsatt (1994). The Ontology of Complex Systems: Levels of Organization, Perspectives, and Causal Thickets. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24 (sup1):207-274.score: 459.0
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  7. John H. Mueller (1977). Test Anxiety, Input Modality, and Levels of Organization in Free Recall. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9 (1):67-69.score: 459.0
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  8. Ira J. Roseman (2011). Emotional Behaviors, Emotivational Goals, Emotion Strategies: Multiple Levels of Organization Integrate Variable and Consistent Responses. Emotion Review 3 (4):434-443.score: 459.0
    Researchers have found undeniable variability and irrefutable evidence of consistencies in emotional responses across situations, individuals, and cultures. Both must be acknowledged in constructing adequate, enduring models of emotional phenomena. In this article I outline an empirically-grounded model of the structure of the emotion system, in which relatively variable actions may be used to pursue relatively consistent goals within discrete emotion syndromes; the syndromes form a stable, coherent set of strategies for coping with crises and opportunities. I also discuss a (...)
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  9. Gary W. Barrett, John D. Peles & Eugene P. Odum (1997). Transcending Processes and the Levels-of-Organization Concept. Bioscience 47 (8):531-535.score: 450.0
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  10. Donald T. Campbell (1981). Levels of Organization, Selection, and Information Storage in Biological and Social Evaluation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):236.score: 450.0
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  11. Walter J. Bock (1997). Integrating Levels of Organization Complexity and Evolution Max Pettersson. Bioscience 47 (5):320-321.score: 450.0
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  12. Walter J. Bock (1997). Integrating Levels of Organization. Bioscience 47 (5):320-321.score: 450.0
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  13. Paul Grobstein (1987). The Nervous System/Behavior Interface: Levels of Organization and Levels of Approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):380.score: 450.0
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  14. William C. Wimsatt (1976). Reductionism, Levels of Organization, and the Mind-Body Problem. In Gordon G. Globus (ed.), Consciousness and the Brain. Plenum Press.score: 450.0
  15. David N. Caplan David W. Gow, Jr (2012). New Levels of Language Processing Complexity and Organization Revealed by Granger Causation. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 444.0
    Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all nonredundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that even “early” processes such as speech perception involve interactions of many areas in (...)
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  16. Luigi M. Tomasini (1978). Optimal Choice of Reward Levels in an Organization. Theory and Decision 9 (2):195-198.score: 405.0
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  17. Claudio Gnoli & Roberto Poli (2004). Levels of Reality and Levels of Representation. Knowledge Organization 31 (3):151-160.score: 372.0
    Ontology, in its philosophical meaning, is the discipline investigating the structure of reality. Its findings can be relevant to knowledge organization, as well as models of knowledge can in turn offer relevant ontological suggestions. Several philosophers in time have pointed out that reality is structured into a series of integrative levels, like the physical, the biological, the mental, and the cultural one, and that each level plays as a base for the emergence of more complex ones. Among them, (...)
     
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  18. Giuseppe Boccignone & Roberto Cordeschi (2012). Predictive Brains: Forethought and the Levels of Explanation. Frontiers in Psychology 3 (511).score: 315.0
    Is any unified theory of brain function possible? Following a line of thought dating back to the early cybernetics (see, e.g., Cordeschi, 2002), Clark (in press) has proposed the action-oriented Hierarchical Predictive Coding (HPC) as the account to be pursued in the effort of gaining the “Grand Unified Theory of the Mind”—or “painting the big picture,” as (Edelman 2012) put it. Such line of thought is indeed appealing, but to be effectively pursued it should be confronted with experimental findings and (...)
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  19. Robert C. Richardson (1982). Grades of Organization and the Units of Selection Controversy. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:324 - 340.score: 309.0
    Much recent work in sociobiology can be understood as designed to demonstrate the sufficiency of selection operating at lower levels of organization by the development of models at the level of the gene or the individual. Higher level units are accordingly viewed as artifacts of selection operating at lower levels. The adequacy of this latter form of argument is dependent upon issues of the complexity of the systems under consideration. A taxonomy is proposed elaborating a series of (...)
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  20. Stephen Jay Gould & Elisabeth A. Lloyd (1999). Individuality and Adaptation Across Levels of Selection: How Shall We Name and Generalize the Unit of Darwinism? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96 (21):11904-09.score: 309.0
    Two major clarifications have greatly abetted the understanding and fruitful expansion of the theory of natural selection in recent years: the acknowledgment that interactors, not replicators, constitute the causal unit of selection; and the recognition that interactors are Darwinian individuals, and that such individuals exist with potency at several levels of organization (genes, organisms, demes, and species in particular), thus engendering a rich hierarchical theory of selection in contrast with Darwin’s own emphasis on the organismic level. But a (...)
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  21. Yves Burnod (1991). Organizational Levels of the Cerebral Cortex: An Integrated Model. Acta Biotheoretica 39 (3-4).score: 300.0
    We propose a theoretical model of the cerebral cortex which is based on its cellular components and integrates its different levels of organization: (1) cells have general adaptive and memorization properties; (2) cortical columns are repetitive interneuronal circuits which determine an adaptive processing specific to the cerebral cortex; (3) cortical maps effect selective combinations which are very efficient to learn basic behaviourial adaptations such as invariant recognition of forms, visually-guided hand movements, or execution of structured motor programs; (4) (...)
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  22. A. J. Amos & C. D. L. Wynne (2000). The Organization of Organization: Neuronal Scaffold or Cognitive Straitjacket? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):533-534.score: 297.0
    We praise Arbib et al.'s Neural organization for its support of the integration of different levels of analysis, while noting that it does not always achieve what it advocates. We extend this approach into an area of neuropsychological activity in need of the structure offered by Organization at the intersection of the conflated fields of executive function and frontal lobe function.
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  23. Amy Klemm Verbos, Joseph A. Gerard, Paul R. Forshey, Charles S. Harding & Janice S. Miller (2007). The Positive Ethical Organization: Enacting a Living Code of Ethics and Ethical Organizational Identity. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 76 (1):17 - 33.score: 294.0
    A vision of a living code of ethics is proposed to counter the emphasis on negative phenomena in the study of organizational ethics. The living code results from the harmonious interaction of authentic leadership, five key organizational processes (attraction–selection–attrition, socialization, reward systems, decision-making and organizational learning), and an ethical organizational culture (characterized by heightened levels of ethical awareness and a positive climate regarding ethics). The living code is the cognitive, affective, and behavioral manifestation of an ethical organizational identity. We (...)
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  24. David A. Coldwell, Jon Billsberry, Nathalie van Meurs & Philip J. G. Marsh (2008). The Effects of Person–Organization Ethical Fit on Employee Attraction and Retention: Towards a Testable Explanatory Model. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):611 - 622.score: 294.0
    An exploratory model is presented as a heuristic to indicate how individual perceptions of corporate reputation (before joining) and corporate ethical values (after joining) generate specific individual organizational senses of fit. The paper suggests that an ethical dimension of person-organization fit may go some way in explaining superior acquisition and retention of staff by those who are attracted to specific organizations by levels of corporate social performance consonant with their ethical expectations, or who remain with them by virtue (...)
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  25. Luciano Floridi (2008). The Method of Levels of Abstraction. Minds and Machines 18 (3):303-329.score: 286.7
    The use of “levels of abstraction” in philosophical analysis (levelism) has recently come under attack. In this paper, I argue that a refined version of epistemological levelism should be retained as a fundamental method, called the method of levels of abstraction. After a brief introduction, in section “Some Definitions and Preliminary Examples” the nature and applicability of the epistemological method of levels of abstraction is clarified. In section “A Classic Application of the Method ofion”, the philosophical fruitfulness (...)
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  26. Francis Heylighen & Donald Campbell (1995). Selection of Organization at the Social Level: Obstacles and Facilitators of Metasystem Transitions. World Futures 45 (1):181-212.score: 286.0
    (1995). Selection of organization at the social level: Obstacles and facilitators of metasystem transitions. World Futures: Vol. 45, The Quantum of Evolution, pp. 181-212.
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  27. Michael A. Arbib & Péter Érdi (2000). Précis of Neural Organization: Structure, Function, and Dynamics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):513-533.score: 285.0
    Neural organization: Structure, function, and dynamics shows how theory and experiment can supplement each other in an integrated, evolving account of the brain's structure, function, and dynamics. (1) Structure: Studies of brain function and dynamics build on and contribute to an understanding of many brain regions, the neural circuits that constitute them, and their spatial relations. We emphasize Szentágothai's modular architectonics principle, but also stress the importance of the microcomplexes of cerebellar circuitry and the lamellae of hippocampus. (2) Function: (...)
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  28. Angela Potochnik & Brian McGill (2012). The Limitations of Hierarchical Organization. Philosophy of Science 79 (1):120-140.score: 279.0
    The concept of hierarchical organization is commonplace in science. Subatomic particles compose atoms, which compose molecules; cells compose tissues, which compose organs, which compose organisms; etc. Hierarchical organization is particularly prominent in ecology, a field of research explicitly arranged around levels of ecological organization. The concept of levels of organization is also central to a variety of debates in philosophy of science. Yet many difficulties plague the concept of discrete hierarchical levels. In this (...)
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  29. Gregory Johnson (2012). The Relationship Between Psychological Capacities and Neurobiological Activities. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):453-480.score: 279.0
    This paper addresses the relationship between psychological capacities, as they are understood within cognitive psychology, and neurobiological activities. First, Lycan’s (1987) account of this relationship is examined and certain problems with his account are explained. According to Lycan, psychological capacities occupy a higher level than neurobiological activities in a hierarchy of levels of nature, and psychological entities can be decomposed into neurobiological entities. After discussing some problems with Lycan’s account, a similar, more recent account built around levels of (...)
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  30. Maureen L. Ambrose, Anke Arnaud & Marshall Schminke (2008). Individual Moral Development and Ethical Climate: The Influence of Person–Organization Fit on Job Attitudes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 77 (3):323 - 333.score: 276.0
    This research examines how the fit between employees moral development and the ethical work climate of their organization affects employee attitudes. Person-organization fit was assessed by matching individuals' level of cognitive moral development with the ethical climate of their organization. The influence of P-O fit on employee attitudes was assessed using a sample of 304 individuals from 73 organizations. In general, the findings support our predictions that fit between personal and organizational ethics is related to higher (...) of commitment and job satisfaction and lower levels of turnover intent. Ethical P-O fit was related to higher levels of affective commitment across all three ethical climate types. Job satisfaction was only associated with ethical P-O fit for one of the three P-O fit variables and turnover intentions were significantly associated with two of the ethical P-O fit variables. The most consistent effect was found for the Conventional - Caring fit variable, which was significantly related to all three attitudes assessed. The weakest effect was found for the Preconventional - Instrumental fit variable, which was only predictive of affective commitment. The pattern of findings and implications for practice and future research are discussed. (shrink)
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  31. David A. Fritz & Nabil A. Ibrahim (2010). The Impact of Leadership Longevity on Innovation in a Religious Organization. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (2):223 - 231.score: 276.0
    Navigating organizations through a changing environment is central to leadership. Thus, innovativeness has proven to be critical to the process of achieving strategic competitiveness (Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 1998). This skill is particularly needed when the firm is confronted with the unique challenges of a religious organization. The existence of innovation and the dependencies that encourage or restrict its existence in this environment are largely unknown. Utilizing a sample of 250 religious organizations in five geographical areas this research explores (...)
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  32. Yuri Krista (2003). Information-Hierarchical Organization of Mankind and Problems of its Sustainable Development. World Futures 59 (6):401 – 419.score: 261.0
    The information-hierarchical approach is used to analyze the evolutionary developed organization of mankind. This organization is shown to be hierarchical, from molecular hierarchical levels to the religious ones. Time cycles of each level operation are included in the greater cycle of the next level according to the specific schemes defined by the common information principle of natural system development. Time cycles of levels have duration of 1 second, 6 seconds, 42 seconds, 24 hours, 11 days, 1 (...)
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  33. Linda Klebe Treviño, Gary R. Weaver & Michael E. Brown (2008). It's Lovely at the Top: Hierarchical Levels, Identities, and Perceptions of Organizational Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2):233-252.score: 261.0
    Senior managers are important to the successful management of ethics in organizations. Therefore, their perceptions of organizational ethics are important. In this study, we propose that senior managers are likely to have a more positive perception of organizational ethics than lower level employees do largely because of their managerial role and their corresponding identification with the organization and need to protect the organization’s image as well as their own identity. Bycontrast, lower level employees are more likely to be (...)
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  34. Vanesse Labeyrie, Bernard Rono & Christian Leclerc (2013). How Social Organization Shapes Crop Diversity: An Ecological Anthropology Approach Among Tharaka Farmers of Mount Kenya. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values:1-11.score: 261.0
    The conservation of in situ crop diversity is a key issue to ensure food security. Understanding the processes that shape it is crucial for efficiently managing such diversity. In most rural societies, crop diversity patterns are affected by farmers’ practices of seed exchange, transmission, and selection, but the role of social organization in shaping those practices has been overlooked. This study proposes an ecological anthropology approach to investigate the relation between crop diversity patterns and the social organization of (...)
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  35. Marcel van Marrewijk (2004). A Value Based Approach to Organization Types: Towards a Coherent Set of Stakeholder-Oriented Management Tools. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 55 (2):147-158.score: 249.0
    This paper describes a set of ideal type organizations in a developmental sequence. As these descriptions are based on Spiral Dynamics (or Emerging Cyclical Levels of Existence Theory – ECLET), the types are labeled as Order, Success, Community and Synergy. Per type the author elaborated on the underlying value system and relating institutional structures, such as leadership role, governance and measurement format. As a summary, a Transition Matrix is presented which indicate the paradigm shifts per discipline/department, as manifested in (...)
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  36. Heylighen Francis & T. Campbell Donald (1995). Selection of Organization at the Social Level: Obstacles and Facilitators of Metasystem Transitions. World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution 45:181-212.score: 245.3
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  37. F. Heylighen (forthcoming). Donald T. Campbell DT Selection of Organization at the Social Level: Obstacles and Facilitators of Metasystem Transitions. World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution": Special Issue on" the Quantum of Evolution: Toward a Theory of Metaystem Transitions", F. Heylighen, C. Joslyn, V. Turchin (Eds.).score: 245.3
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  38. Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Carlos F. H. Neves (2013). Consciousness as a Phenomenon in the Operational Architectonics of Brain Organization: Criticality and Self-Organization Considerations. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 55:13-31.score: 241.0
    In this paper we aim to show that phenomenal consciousness is realized by a particular level of brain operational organization and that understanding human consciousness requires a description of the laws of the immediately underlying neural collective phenomena, the nested hierarchy of electromagnetic fields of brain activity – operational architectonics. We argue that the subjective mental reality and the objective neurobiological reality, although seemingly worlds apart, are intimately connected along a unified metastable continuum and are both guided by the (...)
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  39. James R. Harris (1990). Ethical Values of Individuals at Different Levels in the Organizational Hierarchy of a Single Firm. Journal of Business Ethics 9 (9):741 - 750.score: 240.0
    This study examines the ethical values of respondents by level in the organizational hierarchy of a single firm. It also explores the possible impacts of gender, education and years of experience on respondents' values as well as their perceptions of how the organization and professional associations influence their personal values. Results showed that, although there were differences in individuals' ethical values by hierarchical level, significantly more differences were observed by the length of tenure with the organization. While respondents, (...)
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  40. Thomas S. Hyde (1973). Differential Effects of Effort and Type of Orienting Task on Recall and Organization of Highly Associated Words. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):111.score: 233.0
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  41. Maximiliano Martínez & Andrés Moya (2011). Natural Selection and Multi-Level Causation. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 3 (20130604).score: 231.0
    In this paper, using a multilevel approach, we defend the positive role of natural selection in the generation of organismal form. Despite the currently widespread opinion that natural selection only plays a negative role in the evolution of form, we argue, in contrast, that the Darwinian factor is a crucial (but not exclusive) factor in morphological organization. Analyzing some classic arguments, we propose incorporating the notion of ‘downward causation’ into the concept of ‘natural selection.’ In our opinion, this kind (...)
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  42. Roger Buis (1993). Growth Activity and Structure at Various Organization Levels in Plants. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (3).score: 231.0
    The growth activity of an organ (variable y) is defined simultaneously by the instantaneous absolute ratedy/dt and its variationd 2y/dt2. The use of these two descriptors allows a sigmoidal (i.e. continuous and non periodical, as observed for the logistic function) growth curve to be discretized into a series of 5 growth states or phases which are delimited by the following singular values: max, Vmax (=0), max, adult stage. The (V, ) plot, termedgrowth trajectory, visualizes, e.g. in the case of Richards-Nelder's (...)
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  43. Patrick McGivern (2012). Levels of Reality and Scales of Application. In Alexander Bird, Brian Ellis & Howard Sankey (eds.), Properties, Powers and Structures: Issues in the Metaphysics of Realism. Routledge.score: 227.3
    Philosophers and scientists often describe theories, laws, and explanations as applying to the world at different 'levels'. The idea of a 'level of application' is often used to demarcate disciplinary or sub-disciplinary boundaries in the sciences. For instance, stoichiometric laws and quantum mechanical laws might be said to describe chemical phenomena at different levels. More generally, the idea of levels is used to distinguish more fundamental laws or theories from less fundamental ones: more fundamental theories are those (...)
     
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  44. Massimo Pigliucci (2010). Okasha's Evolution and the Levels of Selection: Toward a Broader Conception of Theoretical Biology. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):405-415.score: 224.0
    The debate about the levels of selection has been one of the most controversial both in evolutionary biology and in philosophy of science. Okasha’s book makes the sort of contribution that simply will not be able to be ignored by anyone interested in this field for many years to come. However, my interest here is in highlighting some examples of how Okasha goes about discussing his material to suggest that his book is part of an increasingly interesting trend that (...)
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  45. Jorge J. E. Gracia (2009). Categories and Levels of Reality. Axiomathes 19 (2):179-191.score: 224.0
    The discussion of the relation of levels of reality to categories is important because categories have often been interpreted as constituting levels of reality. This article explores whether this view is correct, and argues it is not. Categories as such should not be understood to constitute levels of reality, although particular categories may. The article begins with a discussion of levels of reality and then turns to specific questions about categories and how they are related to (...)
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  46. Samir Okasha (2005). Maynard Smith on the Levels of Selection Question. Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):989-1010.score: 224.0
    The levels of selection problem was central to Maynard Smith’s work throughout his career. This paper traces Maynard Smith’s views on the levels of selection, from his objections to group selection in the 1960s to his concern with the major evolutionary transitions in the 1990s. The relations between Maynard Smith’s position and those of Hamilton and G.C. Williams are explored, as is Maynard Smith’s dislike of the Price equation approach to multi-level selection. Maynard Smith’s account of the ‘core (...)
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  47. Roberto Poli (2007). Three Obstructions: Forms of Causation, Chronotopoids, and Levels of Reality. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 17 (1):1-18.score: 224.0
    The thesis is defended that the theories of causation, time and space, and levels of reality are mutually interrelated in such a way that the difficulties internal to theories of causation and to theories of space and time can be understood better, and perhaps dealt with, in the categorial context furnished by the theory of the levels of reality. The structural condition for this development to be possible is that the first two theories be opportunely generalized.
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  48. Ron McClamrock (1995). Screening-Off and the Levels of Selection. Erkenntnis 42 (1):107 - 112.score: 224.0
    In The Levels of Selection (Brandon, 1984), Robert Brandon provides a suggestive but ultimately unsuccessful attempt to use the probabilistic notion ofscreening off in providing a schema for dealing with an aspect of the units of selection question in the philosophy of biology. I characterize that failure, and suggest a revision and expansion of Brandon's account which addresses its key shortcoming.
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  49. Jan van Leeuwen (2014). On Floridi's Method of Levels of Abstraction. Minds and Machines 24 (1):5-17.score: 224.0
    ion is arguably one of the most important methods in modern science in analysing and understanding complex phenomena. In his book The Philosophy of Information, Floridi (The philosophy of information. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011) presents the method of levels of abstraction as the main method of the Philosophy of Information. His discussion of abstraction as a method seems inspired by the formal methods and frameworks of computer science, in which abstraction is operationalised extensively in programming languages and design (...)
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