Search results for 'Life sciences' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Nancy L. Jones (2007). A Code of Ethics for the Life Sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (1):25-43.score: 242.0
    The activities of the life sciences are essential to provide solutions for the future, for both individuals and society. Society has demanded growing accountability from the scientific community as implications of life science research rise in influence and there are concerns about the credibility, integrity and motives of science. While the scientific community has responded to concerns about its integrity in part by initiating training in research integrity and the responsible conduct of research, this approach is minimal. (...)
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  2. John C. Waller (2001). Gentlemanly Men of Science: Sir Francis Galton and the Professionalization of the British Life-Sciences. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 34 (1):83 - 114.score: 240.0
    Because Francis Galton (1822-1911) was a well-connected gentleman scientist with substantial private means, the importance of the role he played in the professionalization of the Victorian life-sciences has been considered anomalous. In contrast to the X-clubbers, he did not seem to have any personal need for the reforms his Darwinist colleagues were advocating. Nor for making common cause with individuals haling from social strata clearly inferior to his own. However, in this paper I argue that Galton quite realistically (...)
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  3. Mark Kac (1972). Advances in the Physical and Life Sciences. Washington,American Association for the Advancement of Science.score: 210.0
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  4. G. M. N. Verschuuren (1986). Investigating the Life Sciences: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Pergamon Press.score: 210.0
  5. R. Stephen Crespi (2000). An Analysis of Moral Issues Affecting Patenting Inventions in the Life Sciences: A European Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (2):157-180.score: 194.0
    Following the 1980 US Supreme Court decision to allow a patent on a living organism, debate has continued on the moral issues involved in biotechnology patents of many kinds and remains a contentious issue for those opposed to the use of biotechnology in industry and agriculture. Attitudes to patenting in the life sciences, including those of the research scientists themselves, are analysed. The relevance of morality to patent law is discussed here in an international context with particular reference (...)
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  6. Francis Macrina (2011). Teaching Authorship and Publication Practices in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):341-354.score: 194.0
    Examination of a limited number of publisher’s Instructions for Authors, guidelines from two scientific societies, and the widely accepted policy document of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provided useful information on authorship practices. Three of five journals examined (Nature, Science, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) publish papers across a variety of disciplines. One is broadly focused on topics in medical research (New England Journal of Medicine) and one publishes research reports in a (...)
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  7. Frida Kuhlau, Anna T. Höglund, Kathinka Evers & Stefan Eriksson (2011). A Precautionary Principle for Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences. Bioethics 25 (1):1-8.score: 192.0
    Most life science research entails dual-use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of dual-use life science research. Four central elements of the principle are examined: threat, uncertainty, prescription and action. Although charges (...)
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  8. Thomas Efferth, Mita Banerjee & Alfred Hornung (2014). Therapeutic Intervention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder by Chinese Medicine: Perspectives for Transdisciplinary Cooperation Between Life Sciences and Humanities. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):71-89.score: 192.0
    Taking post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as an example, we present a concept for transdisciplinary cooperation between life sciences and humanities. PTSD is defined as a long-term persisting anxiety disorder after severe psychological traumata. Initially recognized in war veterans, PTSD also appears in victims of crime and violence or survivors of natural catastrophes, e.g., earthquakes. We consider PTSD as a prototype topic to realize transdisciplinary projects, because this disease is multifacetted from different points of view. Based on physiological and (...)
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  9. Catherine Kendig (2013). Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam's Historia Insectorum Generalis and the Case of the Water Flea. Science and Education 22 (8):1939-1961.score: 186.0
    Hasok Chang (Science & Education 20:317–341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science education. In this paper I describe the implementation of an integrated learning project that I initiated, organized, and structured to complement a course in history and philosophy of the life sciences (...)
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  10. Jan Baedke (2013). The Epigenetic Landscape in the Course of Time: Conrad Hal Waddington's Methodological Impact on the Life Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):756-773.score: 186.0
    It seems that the reception of Conrad Hal Waddington’s work never really gathered speed in mainstream biology. This paper, offering a transdisciplinary survey of approaches using his epigenetic landscape images, argues that (i) Waddington’s legacy is much broader than is usually recognized—it is widespread across the life sciences (e.g. stem cell biology, developmental psychology and cultural anthropology). In addition, I will show that (ii) there exist as yet unrecognized heuristic roles, especially in model building and theory formation, which (...)
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  11. Michael J. Selgelid (2009). Dual-Use Research Codes of Conduct: Lessons From the Life Sciences. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 3 (3):175-183.score: 184.0
    This paper considers multiple meanings of the expression ‘dual use’ and examines lessons to be learned from the life sciences when considering ethical and policy issues associated with the dual-use nature of nanotechnology (and converging technologies). After examining recent controversial dual-use experiments in the life sciences, it considers the potential roles and limitations of science codes of conduct for addressing concerns associated with dual-use science and technology. It concludes that, rather than being essentially associated with voluntary (...)
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  12. Bernard Feltz (ed.) (2006). Self-Organization and Emergence in Life Sciences (Synthese Library, Volume 331). Dordrecht: Springer.score: 184.0
    Historical aspects of the issue are also broached. Intuitions relative to self-organization can be found in the works of such key Western philosophical figures as Aristotle, Leibniz and Kant. Interacting with more recent authors and cybernetics, self-organization represents a notion in keeping with the modern world’s discovery of radical complexity. The themes of teleology and emergence are analyzed by philosophers of sciences with regards to the issues of modelization and scientific explanation. (publisher, edited).
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  13. S. Müller-Wille (2012). Hans-Jorg Rheinberger: Temporality in the Life Sciences and Beyond. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (1):5-7.score: 184.0
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  14. Cristian Timmermann (2013). Life Sciences, Intellectual Property Regimes and Global Justice. Dissertation, Wageningen Universityscore: 184.0
    In this thesis we have examined the complex interaction between intellectual property rights, life sciences and global justice. Science and the innovations developed in its wake have an enormous effect on our daily lives, providing countless opportunities but also raising numerous problems of justice. The complexity of a problem however does not liberate society as a whole from moral responsibilities. Our intellectual property regimes clash at various points with human rights law and commonly held notions of justice.
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  15. Koos van der Bruggen (2012). Possibilities, Intentions and Threats: Dual Use in the Life Sciences Reconsidered. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (4):741-756.score: 182.0
    Due to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and the anthrax letters of a few weeks later, the concept of dual use has spread widely in the life sciences during the past decade. This article is aimed at a clarification of the dual use concept and its scope of application for the life sciences. Such a clarification would greatly facilitate the work of policymakers seeking to ensure security while avoiding undesirable interventions of government in the conduct of (...)
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  16. Wim J. Van der Steen (1998). Forging Links Between Philosophy, Ethics, and the Life Sciences: A Tale of Disciplines and Trenches. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 20 (2):233 - 248.score: 182.0
    Philosophy of medicine and its daughter bioethics seldom undertake a critical analysis of live medical science. That is a serious shortcoming since some forms of bias in medical science have a negative impact on health care. Most notably, many areas of medicine focus on a restricted area of biology to the exclusion of ecology. Ecological thinking should lead to fundamental changes in medicine and the philosophy of medicine.
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  17. Roger Wertheimer (2007). The Relevance of Speciesism to Life Sciences Practices. In Fred Adams (ed.), Ethics and the Life Sciences. Philosophy Document Center. 27-38.score: 180.0
    Properly understood speciesism regards membership in one's own species (e.g., being a fellow human being) as sufficient for sharing one's own moral status, but NOT as being necessary. Speciesism is consistent with any of a great range of attitudes toward alter-specific animals. When nonhuman animals are accorded a lesser moral status it is not per se because they are not human.
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  18. Richard W. Burkhardt (1999). Ethology, Natural History, the Life Sciences, and the Problem of Place. Journal of the History of Biology 32 (3):489 - 508.score: 180.0
    Investigators of animal behavior since the eighteenth century have sought to make their work integral to the enterprises of natural history and/or the life sciences. In their efforts to do so, they have frequently based their claims of authority on the advantages offered by the special places where they have conducted their research. The zoo, the laboratory, and the field have been major settings for animal behavior studies. The issue of the relative advantages of these different sites has (...)
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  19. Miles MacLeod & Thomas A. C. Reydon (2013). Natural Kinds in Philosophy and in the Life Sciences: Scholastic Twilight or New Dawn? [REVIEW] Biological Theory 7 (2):89-99.score: 180.0
    This article, which is intended both as a position paper in the philosophical debate on natural kinds and as the guest editorial to this thematic issue, takes up the challenge posed by Ian Hacking in his paper, “Natural Kinds: Rosy Dawn, Scholastic Twilight.” Whereas a straightforward interpretation of that paper suggests that according to Hacking the concept of natural kinds should be abandoned, both in the philosophy of science and in philosophy more generally, we suggest that an alternative and less (...)
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  20. Stuart Glennan, Carl F. Craver and Lindley Darden: In Search of Mechanisms: Discoveries Across the Life Sciences.score: 180.0
    Carl Craver and Lindley Darden are two of the foremost proponents of a recent approach to the philosophy of biology that is often called the New Mechanism. In this book they seek to make available to a broader readership insights gained from more than two decades of work on the nature of mechanisms and how they are described and discovered. The book is not primarily aimed at specialists working on the New Mechanism, but rather targets scientists, students and teachers who (...)
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  21. Michel Morange (2001). On the Relations Between History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences and Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (1):65 - 74.score: 180.0
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  22. Miles MacLeod (2013). Limitations of Natural Kind Talk in the Life Sciences: Homology and Other Cases. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 7 (2):109-120.score: 180.0
    The aim of this article is to detail some reservations against the beliefs, claims, or presuppositions that current essentialist natural kind concepts (including homeostatic property cluster kinds) model grouping practices in the life sciences accurately and generally. Such concepts fit reasoning into particular preconceived epistemic and semantic patterns. The ability of these patterns to fit scientific practice is often argued in support of homeostatic property cluster accounts, yet there are reasons to think that in the life (...) kind concepts exhibit a diversity of grouping practices that are flattened out by conceptualizing them as natural kinds. Instead this article argues that the process of understanding grouping practices needs to start from a more neutral position independent of any ontological account. Following Love (Acta Biotheor 57:51–75, 2009) this paper suggests that typical natural kind concepts should be broached in the first place as grouping strategies that use a variety of semantic and epistemic tactics to apply group-bound information to tasks of explanation and understanding. (shrink)
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  23. Ohad Nachtomy & Justin E. H. Smith (eds.) (2014). The Life Sciences in Early Modern Philosophy. Oup Usa.score: 180.0
    This volume explores the intersection between early modern philosophy and the life sciences by presenting the contributions of important but often neglected figures such as Cudworth, Grew, Glisson, Hieronymus Fabricius, Stahl, Gallego, Hartsoeker, and More, as well as familiar figures such as Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Malebranche, and Kant.
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  24. Frank W. Stahnisch (2005). Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Experimental Practice in Medicine and the Life Sciences. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (5):397-425.score: 180.0
    The aim of this paper is to discuss a key question in the history and philosophy of medicine, namely how scholars should treat the practices and experimental hypotheses of modern life science laboratories. The paper seeks to introduce some prominent historiographical methods and theoretical approaches associated with biomedical research. Although medical scientists need no convincing that experimentation has a significant function in their laboratory work, historians, philosophers, and sociologists long neglected its importance when examining changes in medical theories or (...)
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  25. Stuart Oultram (2012). Reflecting on the 'Patient Record Access Proposals' in the UK Government's Planned NHS–Life Sciences Partnership. Research Ethics 8 (3):169-177.score: 180.0
    In this article I review the principal arguments in favour of and against the UK government’s recent proposals to allow access to NHS patient records to life sciences companies as part of the NHS–Life Sciences partnership scheme.
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  26. Wim J. Van der Steen (1998). Forging Links Between Philosophy, Ethics, and the Life Sciences: A Tale of Disciplines and Trenches. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 20 (2):233-248.score: 180.0
     
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  27. Esther Isabelle Wilder & William H. Walters (2007). The Cost Implications of Open-Access Publishing in the Life Sciences. BioScience 57 (7):619-625.score: 180.0
    Open-access journals are growing in number and importance. Because they rely on revenue from publication fees rather than subscriptions, these journals have important economic implications for the institutions that sponsor, produce, and use research in the life sciences. This article shows how the wholesale adoption of open-access pricing would influence institutional journal costs in the field of cell biology Estimating prices under two open-access models, we find that a switch to open access would result in substantial cost reductions (...)
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  28. Thomas Eberle (2010). The Phenomenological Life-World Analysis and the Methodology of the Social Sciences. Human Studies 33 (2):123-139.score: 168.0
    This Alfred Schutz Memorial Lecture discusses the relationship between the phenomenological life-world analysis and the methodology of the social sciences, which was the central motive of Schutz’s work. I have set two major goals in this lecture. The first is to scrutinize the postulate of adequacy, as this postulate is the most crucial of Schutz’s methodological postulates. Max Weber devised the postulate ‘adequacy of meaning’ in analogy to the postulate of ‘causal adequacy’ (a concept used in jurisprudence) and (...)
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  29. Thomas A. C. Reydon (2009). Do the Life Sciences Need Natural Kinds? Croatian Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):167-190.score: 164.0
    Natural kinds have been a constant topic in philosophy throughout its history, but many issues pertaining to natural kinds still remain unresolved. This paper considers one of these issues: the epistemic role of natural kinds in scientific investigation. I begin by clarifying what is at stake for an individual scientific field when asking whether or not the field studies a natural kind. I use an example from life science, concerning how biologists explain the similar body shapes of fish and (...)
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  30. Louise Bezuidenhout (2014). Moving Life Science Ethics Debates Beyond National Borders: Some Empirical Observations. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):445-467.score: 162.0
    The life sciences are increasingly being called on to produce “socially robust” knowledge that honors the social contract between science and society. This has resulted in the emergence of a number of “broad social issues” that reflect the ethical tensions in these social contracts. These issues are framed in a variety of ways around the world, evidenced by differences in regulations addressing them. It is important to question whether these variations are simply regulatory variations or in fact reflect (...)
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  31. Ephraim Katzir (1989). The Meaning of Life as Represented in the Life Sciences and the Jewish Heritage. Kaplan Centre, University of Cape Town.score: 162.0
     
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  32. Sam Whimster (1995). Review Article : Liberal Eugenics and the Vitalist Life Sciences: Incongruities in the German Human Sciences in the 19th Century Woodruff D. Smith, Politics and the Sciences of Culture in Germany, 1840-1920. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 8 (1):107-114.score: 156.0
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  33. Alessandro Cordelli (2008). Hedwig Conrad-Martius' Phenomenological Approach to Life Sciences and the Question of Vitalism. Axiomathes 18 (4):503-514.score: 156.0
    The philosophy of Hedwig Conrad-Martius represents a very important intersection point between phenomenological research and the natural sciences in the twentieth century. She tried to open a common pattern from the ontology of the physical being up to anthropology, passing from the biological sciences. An intersection point that, for the particular features of her thought, is rather a perspective point from which to observe, in an interesting and original way, both natural sciences and phenomenology. The 1923 essay (...)
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  34. Rattan Singh (1992). Mechanistic to Holistic Concept of Reality: A Paradigm Shift in Life Sciences. In Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, Indu Banga & Chhanda Gupta (eds.), Philosophy of Science: Perspectives From Natural and Social Sciences. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. 40--26.score: 156.0
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  35. Norbert M. Samuelson (2001). Rethinking Ethics in the Light of Jewish Thought and the Life Sciences. Journal of Religious Ethics 29 (2):209 - 233.score: 152.0
    Judaism in the twentieth century began to return to its scriptural, communal roots after a centuries-long detour through Greek-influenced natural philosophy, a detour during which science and ethics were assumed to be partners and Jewish ethics drew heavily on natural philosophy and science. Twentieth-century philosophical ethics and science, particularly biological science, have developed in such a way as to make any continuation of that historical partnership problematic. This is not altogether regrettable because the problematizing of this long-standing partnership has driven (...)
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  36. Ellen Clarke (2009). Review of JAMIE ELWICK, Styles of Reasoning in the British Life Sciences: Shared Assumptions, 1820–1858. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 42 (1):143-145.score: 152.0
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  37. Martin Schönfeld (2006). Animal Consciousness: Paradigm Change in the Life Sciences. Perspectives on Science 14 (3):354-381.score: 152.0
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  38. Sophia Connell (2003). Aristotle's Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the Origins of Life Sciences. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (3):509-513.score: 152.0
  39. Jong Yong Abdiel Foo (2011). A Retrospective Analysis of the Trend of Retracted Publications in the Field of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):459-468.score: 152.0
    Among the many forms of research misconduct, publishing fraudulent data is considered to be serious where the confidence and validity of the research is detrimentally undermined. In this study, the trend of 303 retracted publications from 44 authors (with more than three retracted publications each) was analysed. The results showed that only 6.60% of the retracted publications were single-authored and the discovery of fraudulent publications had reduced from 52.24 months (those published before the year 2000) to 33.23 months (those published (...)
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  40. Joseph A. Caron (1988). 'Biology'in the Life Sciences: A Historiographical Contribution. History of Science 26:223-268.score: 152.0
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  41. Mathias Grote (2010). Surfaces of Action: Cells and Membranes in Electrochemistry and the Life Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 41 (3):183-193.score: 152.0
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  42. Marcel Weber (2010). Life in a Physical World: The Place of the Life Sciences. In F. Stadler, D. Dieks, W. Gonzales, S. Hartmann, T. Uebel & M. Weber (eds.), The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. 155--168.score: 152.0
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  43. Cristina Chimisso (2013). The Life Sciences and French Philosophy of Science: Georges Canguilhem on Norms. In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag. 399--409.score: 152.0
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  44. G. E. R. Lloyd (1999). Science, Folklore, and Ideology: Studies in the Life Sciences in Ancient Greece. Hackett Pub. Co..score: 152.0
    Taking a set of central issues from ancient Greek medicine and biology, this book studies first the interaction between scientific theorising and folklore or popular assumptions, and second the ideological character of scientific inquiry. Topics of current interest in the philosphy and sociology of science illuminated here include the relationship between primitive thought and early science, and the roles of the consensus of the scientific community, of tradition and of the authority of the written text, in the development of science.
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  45. Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (2011). Recent Orientations and Reorientations in the Life Sciences. In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. 161--168.score: 152.0
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  46. Lisa Shapiro & Karen Detlefsen (2003). Dennis Des Chene is Professor of Philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis. His Research Interests Are in Early Modern Philosophy and Sci-Ence, and He has Written on Natural Philosophy—Including Physics and the Life Sciences—in Late Scholastic and Cartesian Thought. [REVIEW] Perspectives on Science 11 (4).score: 152.0
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  47. Claude Debru (2010). Comments on Marcel Weber's “Life in a Physical World: The Place of the Life Sciences”. In F. Stadler, D. Dieks, W. Gonzales, S. Hartmann, T. Uebel & M. Weber (eds.), The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. 169--172.score: 152.0
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  48. Sophia Roosth (2013). Biobricks and Crocheted Coral: Dispatches From the Life Sciences in the Age of Fabrication. Science in Context 26 (1):153-171.score: 152.0
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  49. Olaf Wolkenhauer & Jan-Hendrik Hofmeyr (2013). Interdisciplinarity as Both Necessity and Hurdle for Progress in the Life Sciences. In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag. 225--235.score: 152.0
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  50. Peter J. Bowler (2009). Life Sciences. Annals of Science 66 (1):145-147.score: 152.0
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