Search results for 'Life sciences' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, World Institute for Advanced Phenomenological Research and Learning & International Congress of Phenomenology/Philosophy and the Sciences Of Life (2002). The Creative Matrix of the Origins Dynamisms, Forces and the Shaping of Life. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  2.  75
    Nancy L. Jones (2007). A Code of Ethics for the Life Sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (1):25-43.
    The activities of the life sciences are essential to provide solutions for the future, for both individuals and society. Society has demanded growing accountability from the scientific community as implications of life science research rise in influence and there are concerns about the credibility, integrity and motives of science. While the scientific community has responded to concerns about its integrity in part by initiating training in research integrity and the responsible conduct of research, this approach is minimal. (...)
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  3.  2
    Justin Garson (2015). Carl F. Craver and Lindley Darden. In Search of Mechanisms: Discoveries Across the Life Sciences. [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (1):180-83.
    Carl F. Craver and Lindley Darden’s new book, In Search of Mechanisms: Discoveries across the Life Sciences, is a fantastic and lucid introduction to the “new mechanism” tradition in the philosophy of science. Over the last 2 decades, but particularly since the turn of the century, this has become an influential framework for thinking about core problems in the history and philosophy of science, with a strong emphasis on biology. There are at least four major aims. First, the (...)
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  4.  7
    John C. Waller (2001). Gentlemanly Men of Science: Sir Francis Galton and the Professionalization of the British Life-Sciences. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 34 (1):83 - 114.
    Because Francis Galton (1822-1911) was a well-connected gentleman scientist with substantial private means, the importance of the role he played in the professionalization of the Victorian life-sciences has been considered anomalous. In contrast to the X-clubbers, he did not seem to have any personal need for the reforms his Darwinist colleagues were advocating. Nor for making common cause with individuals haling from social strata clearly inferior to his own. However, in this paper I argue that Galton quite realistically (...)
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  5.  2
    Wim J. van der Steen (1993). A Practical Philosophy for the Life Sciences. State University of New York Press.
    Offers a practical philosophy of the life sciences, showing how scientific reasoning can, in limited contexts, be translated into the language of philosophy, and how science can correct the philosophy of science.
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  6. Marie I. Kaiser (2011). The Limits of Reductionism in the Life Sciences. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (4):453-476.
    In the contemporary life sciences more and more researchers emphasize the “limits of reductionism” (e.g. Ahn et al. 2006a, 709; Mazzocchi 2008, 10) or they call for a move “beyond reductionism” (Gallagher/Appenzeller 1999, 79). However, it is far from clear what exactly they argue for and what the envisioned limits of reductionism are. In this paper I claim that the current discussions about reductionism in the life sciences, which focus on methodological and explanatory issues, leave the (...)
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  7.  11
    Lane DesAutels (forthcoming). Toward a Propensity Interpretation of Stochastic Mechanism for the Life Sciences. Synthese:1-33.
    In what follows, I suggest that it makes good sense to think of the truth of the probabilistic generalizations made in the life sciences as metaphysically grounded in stochastic mechanisms in the world. To further understand these stochastic mechanisms, I take the general characterization of mechanism offered by MDC :1–25, 2000) and explore how it fits with several of the going philosophical accounts of chance: subjectivism, frequentism, Lewisian best-systems, and propensity. I argue that neither subjectivism, frequentism, nor a (...)
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  8. Arthur Caplan & Stan van Hooft (1996). Moral Matters: Ethical Issues in Medicine and the Life Sciences. Bioethics 10 (2):167-169.
     
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  9.  0
    Eric Deibel (2014). Open Genetic Code: On Open Source in the Life Sciences. Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10 (1):1-23.
    The introduction of open source in the life sciences is increasingly being suggested as an alternative to patenting. This is an alternative, however, that takes its shape at the intersection of the life sciences and informatics. Numerous examples can be identified wherein open source in the life sciences refers to access, sharing and collaboration as informatic practices. This includes open source as an experimental model and as a more sophisticated approach of genetic engineering. The (...)
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  10. Mark Kac (1972). Advances in the Physical and Life Sciences. Washington,American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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  11.  0
    Theo Papaioannou (2013). New Life Sciences Innovation and Distributive Justice: Rawlsian Goods Versus Senian Capabilities. Life Sciences, Society and Policy 9 (1):1-13.
    The successful decoding of human genome and subsequent advances in new life sciences innovation create technological presuppositions of a new possibility of justice i.e. the just distribution of both social and natural goods. Although Rawlsians attempt to expand their theory to include this new possibility, they fail to provide plausible metrics of social justice in the genomics and post-genomics era. By contrast, Senians seem to succeed to do so through their index of basic capabilities. This paper explores what (...)
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  12.  1
    G. M. N. Verschuuren (1986). Investigating the Life Sciences: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Pergamon Press.
  13.  8
    Francis Macrina (2011). Teaching Authorship and Publication Practices in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):341-354.
    Examination of a limited number of publisher’s Instructions for Authors, guidelines from two scientific societies, and the widely accepted policy document of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provided useful information on authorship practices. Three of five journals examined (Nature, Science, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) publish papers across a variety of disciplines. One is broadly focused on topics in medical research (New England Journal of Medicine) and one publishes research reports in a (...)
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  14.  20
    Frida Kuhlau, Anna T. Höglund, Kathinka Evers & Stefan Eriksson (2011). A Precautionary Principle for Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences. Bioethics 25 (1):1-8.
    Most life science research entails dual-use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of dual-use life science research. Four central elements of the principle are examined: threat, uncertainty, prescription and action. Although charges (...)
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  15.  48
    R. Stephen Crespi (2000). An Analysis of Moral Issues Affecting Patenting Inventions in the Life Sciences: A European Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (2):157-180.
    Following the 1980 US Supreme Court decision to allow a patent on a living organism, debate has continued on the moral issues involved in biotechnology patents of many kinds and remains a contentious issue for those opposed to the use of biotechnology in industry and agriculture. Attitudes to patenting in the life sciences, including those of the research scientists themselves, are analysed. The relevance of morality to patent law is discussed here in an international context with particular reference (...)
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  16.  5
    Thomas Efferth, Mita Banerjee & Alfred Hornung (2014). Therapeutic Intervention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder by Chinese Medicine: Perspectives for Transdisciplinary Cooperation Between Life Sciences and Humanities. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):71-89.
    Taking post-traumatic stress disorder as an example, we present a concept for transdisciplinary cooperation between life sciences and humanities. PTSD is defined as a long-term persisting anxiety disorder after severe psychological traumata. Initially recognized in war veterans, PTSD also appears in victims of crime and violence or survivors of natural catastrophes, e.g., earthquakes. We consider PTSD as a prototype topic to realize transdisciplinary projects, because this disease is multifacetted from different points of view. Based on physiological and molecular (...)
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  17.  98
    Catherine Kendig (2013). Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam's Historia Insectorum Generalis and the Case of the Water Flea. Science and Education 22 (8):1939-1961.
    Hasok Chang (Science & Education 20:317–341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science education. In this paper I describe the implementation of an integrated learning project that I initiated, organized, and structured to complement a course in history and philosophy of the life sciences (...)
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  18.  25
    Michael J. Selgelid (2009). Dual-Use Research Codes of Conduct: Lessons From the Life Sciences. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 3 (3):175-183.
    This paper considers multiple meanings of the expression ‘dual use’ and examines lessons to be learned from the life sciences when considering ethical and policy issues associated with the dual-use nature of nanotechnology (and converging technologies). After examining recent controversial dual-use experiments in the life sciences, it considers the potential roles and limitations of science codes of conduct for addressing concerns associated with dual-use science and technology. It concludes that, rather than being essentially associated with voluntary (...)
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  19.  14
    Koos van der Bruggen (2012). Possibilities, Intentions and Threats: Dual Use in the Life Sciences Reconsidered. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (4):741-756.
    Due to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and the anthrax letters of a few weeks later, the concept of dual use has spread widely in the life sciences during the past decade. This article is aimed at a clarification of the dual use concept and its scope of application for the life sciences. Such a clarification would greatly facilitate the work of policymakers seeking to ensure security while avoiding undesirable interventions of government in the conduct of (...)
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  20.  59
    Jan Baedke (2013). The Epigenetic Landscape in the Course of Time: Conrad Hal Waddington's Methodological Impact on the Life Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 44 (4):756-773.
    It seems that the reception of Conrad Hal Waddington’s work never really gathered speed in mainstream biology. This paper, offering a transdisciplinary survey of approaches using his epigenetic landscape images, argues that (i) Waddington’s legacy is much broader than is usually recognized—it is widespread across the life sciences (e.g. stem cell biology, developmental psychology and cultural anthropology). In addition, I will show that (ii) there exist as yet unrecognized heuristic roles, especially in model building and theory formation, which (...)
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  21.  6
    Mathias Grote (2010). Surfaces of Action: Cells and Membranes in Electrochemistry and the Life Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 41 (3):183-193.
    The term ‘cell’, in addition to designating fundamental units of life, has also been applied since the nineteenth century to technical apparatuses such as fuel and galvanic cells. This paper shows that such technologies, based on the electrical effects of chemical reactions taking place in containers, had a far-reaching impact on the concept of the biological cell. My argument revolves around the controversy over oxidative phosphorylation in bioenergetics between 1961 and 1977. In this scientific conflict, a two-level mingling of (...)
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  22.  20
    Miles MacLeod & Thomas A. C. Reydon (2013). Natural Kinds in Philosophy and in the Life Sciences: Scholastic Twilight or New Dawn? [REVIEW] Biological Theory 7 (2):89-99.
    This article, which is intended both as a position paper in the philosophical debate on natural kinds and as the guest editorial to this thematic issue, takes up the challenge posed by Ian Hacking in his paper, “Natural Kinds: Rosy Dawn, Scholastic Twilight.” Whereas a straightforward interpretation of that paper suggests that according to Hacking the concept of natural kinds should be abandoned, both in the philosophy of science and in philosophy more generally, we suggest that an alternative and less (...)
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  23.  9
    S. Müller-Wille (2012). Hans-Jorg Rheinberger: Temporality in the Life Sciences and Beyond. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (1):5-7.
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  24.  6
    Miles MacLeod (2013). Limitations of Natural Kind Talk in the Life Sciences: Homology and Other Cases. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 7 (2):109-120.
    The aim of this article is to detail some reservations against the beliefs, claims, or presuppositions that current essentialist natural kind concepts (including homeostatic property cluster kinds) model grouping practices in the life sciences accurately and generally. Such concepts fit reasoning into particular preconceived epistemic and semantic patterns. The ability of these patterns to fit scientific practice is often argued in support of homeostatic property cluster accounts, yet there are reasons to think that in the life (...) kind concepts exhibit a diversity of grouping practices that are flattened out by conceptualizing them as natural kinds. Instead this article argues that the process of understanding grouping practices needs to start from a more neutral position independent of any ontological account. Following Love (Acta Biotheor 57:51–75, 2009) this paper suggests that typical natural kind concepts should be broached in the first place as grouping strategies that use a variety of semantic and epistemic tactics to apply group-bound information to tasks of explanation and understanding. (shrink)
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  25.  1
    Cristian Timmermann (2013). Justifying Pro-Poor Innovation in the Life Sciences: A Brief Overview of the Ethical Landscape. In Helena Röcklinsberg & Per Sandin (eds.), The ethics of consumption. Wageningen Academic Publishers 341-346.
    An idea is a public good. The use of an idea by one person does not hinder others to benefit from the same idea. However in order to generate new life-saving ideas, e.g. inventions in the life sciences, a huge amount of human and material resources are needed. Powerful, but highly criticized tools to speed up the rate of innovation are exclusive rights, most prominently the use of patents and plant breeders’ rights. Exclusive rights leave by nature (...)
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  26.  21
    Bernard Feltz (ed.) (2006). Self-Organization and Emergence in Life Sciences (Synthese Library, Volume 331). Dordrecht: Springer.
    Historical aspects of the issue are also broached. Intuitions relative to self-organization can be found in the works of such key Western philosophical figures as Aristotle, Leibniz and Kant. Interacting with more recent authors and cybernetics, self-organization represents a notion in keeping with the modern world’s discovery of radical complexity. The themes of teleology and emergence are analyzed by philosophers of sciences with regards to the issues of modelization and scientific explanation. (publisher, edited).
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  27.  4
    Cristian Timmermann (2013). Life Sciences, Intellectual Property Regimes and Global Justice. Dissertation, Wageningen University
    In this thesis we have examined the complex interaction between intellectual property rights, life sciences and global justice. Science and the innovations developed in its wake have an enormous effect on our daily lives, providing countless opportunities but also raising numerous problems of justice. The complexity of a problem however does not liberate society as a whole from moral responsibilities. Our intellectual property regimes clash at various points with human rights law and commonly held notions of justice.
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  28.  3
    Wim J. Van der Steen (1998). Forging Links Between Philosophy, Ethics, and the Life Sciences: A Tale of Disciplines and Trenches. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 20 (2):233 - 248.
    Philosophy of medicine and its daughter bioethics seldom undertake a critical analysis of live medical science. That is a serious shortcoming since some forms of bias in medical science have a negative impact on health care. Most notably, many areas of medicine focus on a restricted area of biology to the exclusion of ecology. Ecological thinking should lead to fundamental changes in medicine and the philosophy of medicine.
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  29.  0
    Douglas R. Weiner (1985). The Roots of 'Michurinism': Transformist Biology and Acclimatization as Currents in the Russian Life Sciences. Annals of Science 42 (3):243-260.
    By now, the story of T. D. Lysenko's phantasmagoric career in the Soviet life sciences is widely familiar. While Lysenko's attempts to identify I. V. Michurin, the horticulturist, as the source of his own inductionist ideas about heredity are recognized as a gambit calculated to enhance his legitimacy, the real roots of those ideas are still shrouded in mystery. This paper suggests those roots may be found in a tradition in Russian biology that stretches back to the 1840s—a (...)
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  30.  17
    Richard W. Burkhardt (1999). Ethology, Natural History, the Life Sciences, and the Problem of Place. Journal of the History of Biology 32 (3):489 - 508.
    Investigators of animal behavior since the eighteenth century have sought to make their work integral to the enterprises of natural history and/or the life sciences. In their efforts to do so, they have frequently based their claims of authority on the advantages offered by the special places where they have conducted their research. The zoo, the laboratory, and the field have been major settings for animal behavior studies. The issue of the relative advantages of these different sites has (...)
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  31.  5
    Britta Schinzel (2006). Gender and Ethically Relevant Issues of Visualizations in the Life Sciences. International Review of Information Ethics 5:09.
    Here moral problems created by the use of constructive imaging technologies within the life sciences are discussed. It specifically deals with the creation of dichotomies, such as gender, race and other differences, created and manifested through the contingent use of scientific and computational models and methods, channelling the production process of scientific results and images. Gender in technology studies has been concerned with destabilizing essentialist and dichotomous co-constructions of gender and technology. In the technological construction process gendered social (...)
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  32.  11
    Stuart Glennan, Carl F. Craver and Lindley Darden: In Search of Mechanisms: Discoveries Across the Life Sciences.
    Carl Craver and Lindley Darden are two of the foremost proponents of a recent approach to the philosophy of biology that is often called the New Mechanism. In this book they seek to make available to a broader readership insights gained from more than two decades of work on the nature of mechanisms and how they are described and discovered. The book is not primarily aimed at specialists working on the New Mechanism, but rather targets scientists, students and teachers who (...)
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  33.  5
    Farah Huzair & Peter Robbins (2008). Life Sciences Innovation in Central and Eastern Europe: Conceptual Frameworks and Contributions. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 2 (2).
    This article outlines analytical frameworks for studying life sciences innovation in Central and Eastern Europe , based on national systems of innovation and the triple helix. The reflexive and evolutionary models of triple helix 1-3 help us in evaluating life sciences innovation in the shift from pre- to post-transition, and are useful in providing a systemic approach that emphasises social institutions over the role of the firm. While pre-transition CEE embodied a linear innovation model rooted in (...)
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  34.  2
    Esther Isabelle Wilder & William H. Walters (2007). The Cost Implications of Open-Access Publishing in the Life Sciences. BioScience 57 (7):619-625.
    Open-access journals are growing in number and importance. Because they rely on revenue from publication fees rather than subscriptions, these journals have important economic implications for the institutions that sponsor, produce, and use research in the life sciences. This article shows how the wholesale adoption of open-access pricing would influence institutional journal costs in the field of cell biology Estimating prices under two open-access models, we find that a switch to open access would result in substantial cost reductions (...)
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  35.  4
    Frank W. Stahnisch (2005). Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Experimental Practice in Medicine and the Life Sciences. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (5):397-425.
    The aim of this paper is to discuss a key question in the history and philosophy of medicine, namely how scholars should treat the practices and experimental hypotheses of modern life science laboratories. The paper seeks to introduce some prominent historiographical methods and theoretical approaches associated with biomedical research. Although medical scientists need no convincing that experimentation has a significant function in their laboratory work, historians, philosophers, and sociologists long neglected its importance when examining changes in medical theories or (...)
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  36.  6
    Michel Morange (2001). On the Relations Between History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences and Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (1):65 - 74.
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  37.  1
    Stuart Oultram (2012). Reflecting on the 'Patient Record Access Proposals' in the UK Government's Planned NHS–Life Sciences Partnership. Research Ethics 8 (3):169-177.
    In this article I review the principal arguments in favour of and against the UK government’s recent proposals to allow access to NHS patient records to life sciences companies as part of the NHS–Life Sciences partnership scheme.
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  38.  1
    Sergey Filippov & Ionara Costa (2008). Go East? Multinational Companies in the Czech Life Sciences. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 2 (2).
    This article provides a qualitative analysis of the developments in the life sciences industry in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Czech Republic in particular. It begins by exploring the current state and the prospects of the life sciences industry in the region. Subsequently, it analyses the strategies of global multinational companies who are perceived to be the main driving force in the sector. In doing so, we follow the new stream in the international business (...)
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  39. John James Economos (1991). A Non-Reductive Account of Function Statements in the Life Sciences. Dissertation, University of Michigan
    The problem of function statements in the Life Sciences may be stated as follows. Life Scientists make frequent and important use of statements of the form 'X is the function of Y', in explaining phenomena intimately connected with living organisms. The use of such statements, according to recent philosophical discussions suffers the defects of presupposing or committing the user to the existence of vital forces, purposive activity outside the realm of human action, or a special kind of (...)
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  40. Christian J. Emden (2014). Nietzsche's Naturalism: Philosophy and the Life Sciences in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores Nietzsche's philosophical naturalism in its historical context, showing that his position is best understood against the background of encounters between neo-Kantianism and the life sciences in the nineteenth century. Analyzing most of Nietzsche's writings from the late 1860s onwards, Christian J. Emden reconstructs Nietzsche's naturalism and argues for a new understanding of his account of nature and normativity. Emden proposes historical reasons why Nietzsche came to adopt the position he did; his genealogy of values and (...)
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  41.  4
    Ohad Nachtomy & Justin E. H. Smith (eds.) (2014). The Life Sciences in Early Modern Philosophy. OUP Usa.
    This volume explores the intersection between early modern philosophy and the life sciences by presenting the contributions of important but often neglected figures such as Cudworth, Grew, Glisson, Hieronymus Fabricius, Stahl, Gallego, Hartsoeker, and More, as well as familiar figures such as Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Malebranche, and Kant.
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  42. Sharmon Sollitto, Robert M. Veatch & Ethics the Life Sciences Institute of Society (1974). Bibliography of Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences. 1974 Edition. Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences.
     
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  43. Wim J. Van der Steen (1998). Forging Links Between Philosophy, Ethics, and the Life Sciences: A Tale of Disciplines and Trenches. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 20 (2):233-248.
     
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  44.  72
    Evan Thompson (2007). Mind in Life: Biology, Phenomenology, and the Sciences of Mind. Harvard University Press.
    The question has long confounded philosophers and scientists, and it is this so-called explanatory gap between biological life and consciousness that Evan ...
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  45.  65
    Thomas Eberle (2010). The Phenomenological Life-World Analysis and the Methodology of the Social Sciences. Human Studies 33 (2):123-139.
    This Alfred Schutz Memorial Lecture discusses the relationship between the phenomenological life-world analysis and the methodology of the social sciences, which was the central motive of Schutz’s work. I have set two major goals in this lecture. The first is to scrutinize the postulate of adequacy, as this postulate is the most crucial of Schutz’s methodological postulates. Max Weber devised the postulate ‘adequacy of meaning’ in analogy to the postulate of ‘causal adequacy’ (a concept used in jurisprudence) and (...)
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  46.  38
    Thomas A. C. Reydon (2009). Do the Life Sciences Need Natural Kinds? Croatian Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):167-190.
    Natural kinds have been a constant topic in philosophy throughout its history, but many issues pertaining to natural kinds still remain unresolved. This paper considers one of these issues: the epistemic role of natural kinds in scientific investigation. I begin by clarifying what is at stake for an individual scientific field when asking whether or not the field studies a natural kind. I use an example from life science, concerning how biologists explain the similar body shapes of fish and (...)
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  47.  0
    Anna T. HÖglund Frida Kuhlau (2011). A Precautionary Principle for Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences. Bioethics 25 (1):1-8.
    ABSTRACTMost life science research entails dual‐use complexity and may be misused for harmful purposes, e.g. biological weapons. The Precautionary Principle applies to special problems characterized by complexity in the relationship between human activities and their consequences. This article examines whether the principle, so far mainly used in environmental and public health issues, is applicable and suitable to the field of dual‐use life science research. Four central elements of the principle are examined: threat, uncertainty, prescription and action. Although charges (...)
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  48.  19
    Louise Bezuidenhout (2014). Moving Life Science Ethics Debates Beyond National Borders: Some Empirical Observations. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):445-467.
    The life sciences are increasingly being called on to produce “socially robust” knowledge that honors the social contract between science and society. This has resulted in the emergence of a number of “broad social issues” that reflect the ethical tensions in these social contracts. These issues are framed in a variety of ways around the world, evidenced by differences in regulations addressing them. It is important to question whether these variations are simply regulatory variations or in fact reflect (...)
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  49. Sam Whimster (1995). Review Article : Liberal Eugenics and the Vitalist Life Sciences: Incongruities in the German Human Sciences in the 19th Century Woodruff D. Smith, Politics and the Sciences of Culture in Germany, 1840-1920. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 8 (1):107-114.
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  50. Ephraim Katzir (1989). The Meaning of Life as Represented in the Life Sciences and the Jewish Heritage. Kaplan Centre, University of Cape Town.
     
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