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  1. Lindley Darden, Reasoning in Biological Discoveries.
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  2. Lindley Darden, Published 2002 in Philosophy of Science (Supplement 69: S354-S365.
    Discovery proceeds in stages of construction, evaluation, and revision. Each of these stages is constrained by what is known or conjectured about what is being discovered. A new characterization of mechanism aids in specifying what is to be discovered when a mechanism is sought. Guidance in discovering mechanisms may be provided by the reasoning strategies of schema instantiation, modular subassembly, and forward/backward chaining. Examples are found in mechanisms in molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, and evolutionary biology.
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  3. Lindley Darden (2011). The Annotated Origin: A Facsimile of the First Edition of On the Origin of Species. Annals of Science 70 (3):1-3.
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  4. Lindley Darden (2008). Thinking Again About Biological Mechanisms. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):958-969.
    The new research program to understand mechanisms in biology has developed rapidly in the last 10 years. Reconsideration of the characterization of mechanisms in biology in the light of this recent work is now in order. This article discusses the perspectival aspect of the characterization of mechanisms (and ways of mitigating rampant perspectivalism), refinements in claims about working entities and kinds of activities, challenges and responses to claims about regularity, productive continuity, and the organizational aspects of a mechanism, and issues (...)
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  5. Lindley Darden (2007). Mechanisms and Models. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press
  6. Lindley Darden (2006). Philosophy of Experimental Biology. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 97:198-199.
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  7. Lindley Darden (2006). Reasoning in Biological Discoveries: Essays on Mechanisms, Interfield Relations, and Anomaly Resolution. Cambridge University Press.
    Reasoning in Biological Discoveries brings together a series of essays which focus on one of the most heavily debated topics of scientific discovery today. Collected together and richly illustrated for the first time in this edition, Darden's essays represent a ground-breaking foray into one of the major problems facing scientists and philosophers of science. Divided into three sections, the essays focus on broad themes, notably historical and philosophical issues at play in discussions of biological mechanism; and the problem of developing (...)
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  8. Lindley Darden (2006). Flow of Information in Molecular Biological Mechanisms. Biological Theory 1 (3):280-287.
    In 1958, Francis Crick distinguished the flow of information from the flow of matter and the flow of energy in the mechanism of protein synthesis. Crick’s claims about information flow and coding in molecular biology are viewed from the perspective of a new characterization of mechanisms and from the perspective of information as holding a key to distinguishing work in molecular biology from that of biochemistry in the 1950s–1970s . Flow of matter from beginning to end does not occur in (...)
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  9. Carl F. Craver & Lindley Darden (2005). Introduction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (2):233-244.
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  10. Lindley Darden (2005). Relations Among Fields: Mendelian, Cytological and Molecular Mechanisms. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (2):349-371.
    Philosophers have proposed various kinds of relations between Mendelian genetics and molecular biology: reduction, replacement, explanatory extension. This paper argues that the two fields are best characterized as investigating different, serially integrated, hereditary mechanisms. The mechanisms operate at different times and contain different working entities. The working entities of the mechanisms of Mendelian heredity are chromosomes, whose movements serve to segregate alleles and independently assort genes in different linkage groups. The working entities of numerous mechanisms of molecular biology are larger (...)
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  11. Lindley Darden (2004). Darwin and Design: Does Evolution Have a Purpose? [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 95:338-339.
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  12. Lindley Darden (2002). Strategies for Discovering Mechanisms: Schema Instantiation, Modular Subassembly, Forward/Backward Chaining. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S354-S365.
    Discovery proceeds in stages of construction, evaluation, and revision. Each of these stages is constrained by what is known or conjectured about what is being discovered. A new characterization of mechanism aids in specifying what is to be discovered when a mechanism is sought. Guidance in discovering mechanisms may be provided by the reasoning strategies of schema instantiation, modular subassembly, and forward/backward chaining. Examples are found in mechanisms in molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, and evolutionary biology.
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  13. Lindley Darden & Carl Craver (2002). Strategies in the Interfield Discovery of the Mechanism of Protein Synthesis. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (1):1-28.
    In the 1950s and 1960s, an interfield interaction between molecular biologists and biochemists integrated important discoveries about the mechanism of protein synthesis. This extended discovery episode reveals two general reasoning strategies for eliminating gaps in descriptions of the productive continuity of mechanisms: schema instantiation and forward chaining/backtracking. Schema instantiation involves filling roles in an overall framework for the mechanism. Forward chaining and backtracking eliminate gaps using knowledge about types of entities and their activities. Attention to mechanisms highlights salient features of (...)
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  14. Carl F. Craver & Lindley Darden (2001). Discovering Mechanisms in Neurobiology: The Case of Spatial Memory. In P.K. Machamer, Rick Grush & Peter McLaughlin (eds.), Theory and Method in Neuroscience. Pittsburgh: University of Pitt Press 112--137.
  15. Lindley Darden (2000). Book Review:How Scientists Explain Disease Paul Thagard. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 67 (2):352-.
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  16. Peter K. Machamer, Lindley Darden & Carl F. Craver (2000). Thinking About Mechanisms. Philosophy of Science 67 (1):1-25.
    The concept of mechanism is analyzed in terms of entities and activities, organized such that they are productive of regular changes. Examples show how mechanisms work in neurobiology and molecular biology. Thinking in terms of mechanisms provides a new framework for addressing many traditional philosophical issues: causality, laws, explanation, reduction, and scientific change.
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  17. Lindley Darden (1998). Anomaly-Driven Theory Redesign: Computational Philosophy of Science Experiments. In T. W. Bynum & J. Moor (eds.), The Digital Phoenix. Cambridge: Blackwell 62--78.
  18. Lindley Darden (1997). Preface. Philosophy of Science 64 (S1).
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  19. Lindley Darden (1996). Discovering Complexity. Biology and Philosophy 12 (1):101-107.
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  20. Lindley Darden (1996). Preface. Philosophy of Science 63 (S1):v.
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  21. Lindley Darden & Michael Cook (1994). Reasoning Strategies in Molecular Biology: Abstractions, Scans and Anomalies. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:179 - 191.
    Molecular biologists use different kinds of reasoning strategies for different tasks, such as hypothesis formation, experimental design, and anomaly resolution. More specifically, the reasoning strategies discussed in this paper may be characterized as (1) abstraction-instantiation, in which an abstract skeletal model is instantiated to produce an experimental system; (2) the systematic scan, in which alternative hypotheses are systematically generated; and (3) modular anomaly resolution, in which components of a model are stated explicitly and methodically changed to generate alternative changes to (...)
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  22. Lindley Darden (1993). Theory Construction in Science: Strategies From Mendelian Genetics. Journal of the History of Biology 26 (3):575-577.
     
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  23. Lindley Darden (1992). Cognitive Models of Science.
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  24. Lindley Darden (1992). Strategies for Anomaly Resolution. In R. Giere & H. Feigl (eds.), Cognitive Models of Science. University of Minnesota Press
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  25. Lindley Darden (1991). Theory Change in Science: Strategies From Mendelian Genetics. Oxford University Press.
    This innovative book focuses on the development of the gene theory as a case study in scientific creativity.
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  26. Lindley Darden (1990). Computational Philosophy of Science by Paul Thagard. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 81:153-154.
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  27. Lindley Darden & Joseph A. Cain (1989). Selection Type Theories. Philosophy of Science 56 (1):106-129.
    Selection type theories solve adaptation problems. Natural selection, clonal selection for antibody production, and selective theories of higher brain function are examples. An abstract characterization of typical selection processes is generated by analyzing and extending previous work on the nature of natural selection. Once constructed, this abstraction provides a useful tool for analyzing the nature of other selection theories and may be of use in new instances of theory construction. This suggests the potential fruitfulness of research to find other theory (...)
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  28. Joseph Allen Cain & Lindley Darden (1988). Hull and Selection. Biology and Philosophy 3 (2):165-171.
  29. Lindley Darden & Roy Rada (1988). Hypothesis Formation Via Interrelations. In Armand Prieditis (ed.), Analogica. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers 109--127.
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  30. Lindley Darden (1986). Relations Among Fields in the Evolutionary Synthesis. In William Bechtel (ed.), Integrating Scientific Disciplines. 113--123.
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  31. Lindley Darden (1986). The Nature of Selection. Teaching Philosophy 9 (4):365-366.
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  32. Lindley Darden (1985). Hugo de Vries's Lecture Plates and the Discovery of Segregation. Annals of Science 42 (3):233-242.
    This note discusses lecture plates at the Hugo de Vries Laboratorium that may be relevant to Hugo de Vries's claim to have independently discovered Mendel's law of segregation. Dating when the plates were made is problematic.
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  33. Lindley Darden (1983). GRIFFIN, DONALD R. "The Question of Animal Awareness". [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34:399.
     
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  34. Lindley Darden (1983). Reviews. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34 (4):399-403.
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  35. Lindley Darden (1982). Artificial Intelligence and Philosophy of Science: Reasoning by Analogy in Theory Construction. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:147 - 165.
    This paper examines the hypothesis that analogies may play a role in the generation of new ideas that are built into new explanatory theories. Methods of theory construction by analogy, by failed analogy, and by modular components from several analogies are discussed. Two different analyses of analogy are contrasted: direct mapping (Mary Hesse) and shared abstraction (Michael Genesereth). The structure of Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection shows various analogical relations. Finally, an "abstraction for selection theories" is shown to be (...)
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  36. Lindley Darden (1980). The Sociobiology Debate: Readings on Ethical and Scientific Issues by Arthur L. Caplan; Sociobiology: Sense or Nonsense? By Michael Ruse. Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 71:653-654.
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  37. Lindley Darden (1980). Book Review:Thomas Hunt Morgan, The Man and His Science Garland E. Allen. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 47 (4):662-.
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  38. Lindley Darden (1978). Discoveries and the Emergence of New Fields in Science. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1978:149 - 160.
    This paper analyzes features of the emergence of new fields in science by examining the cases of cytology and biochemistry. The first step in the emergence of these new fields was the discovery of a new entity. A subsequent claim was made that entities of this kind are found more generally; making this generalization constituted the construction of a new theory. As a line of research to test the theory began, a new domain was formed and the new field emerged. (...)
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  39. Lindley Darden (1977). Teaching Philosophy of Biology. Teaching Philosophy 2 (2):153-161.
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  40. Lindley Darden (1977). William Bateson and the Promise of Mendelism. Journal of the History of Biology 10 (1):87 - 106.
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  41. Lindley Darden & Nancy Maull (1977). Interfield Theories. Philosophy of Science 44 (1):43-64.
    This paper analyzes the generation and function of hitherto ignored or misrepresented interfield theories , theories which bridge two fields of science. Interfield theories are likely to be generated when two fields share an interest in explaining different aspects of the same phenomenon and when background knowledge already exists relating the two fields. The interfield theory functions to provide a solution to a characteristic type of theoretical problem: how are the relations between fields to be explained? In solving this problem (...)
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  42. Lindley Darden (1976). Reasoning in Scientific Change: Charles Darwin, Hugo de Vries, and the Discovery of Segregation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 7 (2):127-169.
  43. Lindley Darden (1976). The Heritage From Logical Positivism: A Reassessment. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1976:242 - 258.
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