The study of evolutionary developmental biology (“evo‐devo”) has recently experienced a dramatic surge in popularity among researchers and theorists concerned with evolution. However, some biologists and philosophers remain skeptical of the claims of evo‐devo. This paper discusses and responds to the recent high profile criticisms of evo‐devo presented by biologists Hopi E. Hoekstra and Jerry A. Coyne. I argue that their objections are unconvincing. Indeed, empirical research supports the main tenets of evo‐devo, including the claim that morphological evolution is the (...) result of cis ‐regulatory change and the distinction that evo‐devo draws between morphological and physiological traits. *Received January 2008; revised March 2009. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Philosophy, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221; e‐mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. (shrink)
Rogers, C. R. and Skinner, B. F. Some issues concerning the control of human behavior.--Broudy, H. S. Didactics, heuristics, and philetics.--Craig, R. An analysis of the psychology of moral development of Lawrence Kohlberg.--Scudder, J. R., Jr. Freedom with authority: a Buber model for teaching.--Hook, S. Some educational attitudes and poses.--Strike, K. A. Freedom, autonomy, and teaching.--Elkind, D. Piaget and Montessori.--Raywid, M. A. Irrationalism and the new reformism.--Doll, W. E., Jr. A methodology of experience: the process of inquiry.--Neff, F. C. (...) Competency-based teaching and trained fleas.--Brown, A. "What could be bad?" Some reflections on the accountability movement. (shrink)
Wenn man in Lehrbüchern und einschlägigen Lexika nach einer Charakterisierung der Erkenntnistheorie sucht, findet man eine große Übereinstimmung im Hinblick auf die Grundfragen dieser Disziplin. Im ersten Band der von Jürgen Mittelstraß herausgegebenen Enzyklopädie Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie etwa findet sich folgender Eintrag: Erkenntnistheorie (!), philosophische Grunddisziplin, deren Gegenstand die Beantwortung der Frage nach den Bedingungen begründeten Wissens ist. Im klassischen Sinne schloß dies die Fragen nach der Entstehung, dem Wesen und den Grenzen der Erkenntnis ein ('die Wissenschaft vom Wesen und (...) den Prinzipien der Erkenntnis, vom [logischen] Ursprung, den Quellen, Bedingungen und Voraussetzungen, vom Umfang, von den Grenzen der Erkenntnis', R. Eisler, Wörterbuch der philos. Begriffe 1, Berlin, 41927, 389). (576f.) Und im neuesten Standardwerk, der von Edward Craig herausgegebenen Rout- ledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, schreibt Peter Klein. (shrink)
A number of Christian philosophers, most recently Gary R. Habermas and William Lane Craig, have claimed that there is sufficient historical evidence to establish the resurrection of Jesus conceived as the transformation of Jesus’ corpse into a living supernatural body that possesses such extraordinary dispositional properties as the inability to ever die again. I argue that, given this conception of resurrection, our only source of potential evidence, the New Testament Easter traditions, cannot provide adequate information to enable us to (...) establish the historicity of the resurrection---even on the assumption that these traditions are completely historically reliable. (shrink)
We are not convinced by Gangestad & Simpson that differential mating strategies within each sex would be greater than such strategies between sexes. The target article does not provide actual evidence of human males who do not desire mating with multiple females, or evidence that the benefits for females of short-term matings with multiple males have ever outweighed the associated costs.
For a variety of reasons, including the common use of deception in psychology experiments, participants often disbelieve experimenters' assertions about important task parameters. This can lead researchers to conclude incorrectly that participants are behaving non- normatively. The problem can be overcome by deriving and testing normative models that do not assume full belief in key task parameters. A real experimental example is discussed.
Despite the growing public awareness of social sustainability issues, little is known about what drives firms to emphasize social criteria in their supplier management practices and what the precise benefits of such efforts are. This is especially true for relationships with international suppliers from the world’s emerging economies in Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. Building on stakeholder theory, we address the issue by examining how pressures from customers, the government, and employees as primary constituencies of the firm determine the (...) extent to which firms consider social aspects in the selection of emerging economy suppliers. Further, we analyze how such socially sustainable supplier selection relates to the capabilities of the firm’s suppliers, its market reputation, and the learning in its supply management organization. We test the developed research framework empirically using data from 244 U.S. and German corporations. Our findings, consistent with our hypothesized model, suggest that middle-level supply managers as internal stakeholders play a major driving role for firms’ socially sustainable supplier selection, and that strong positive links exist between that selection and the investigated outcomes. (shrink)
Craig's interpolation theorem fails for the prepositional logicsE of entailment,R of relevant implication andT of ticket entailment, as well as in a large class of related logics. This result is proved by a geometrical construction, using the fact that a non-Arguesian projective plane cannot be imbedded in a three-dimensional projective space. The same construction shows failure of the amalgamation property in many varieties of distributive lattice-ordered monoids.
This paper explores common elements of problem-based learning (PBL) and some of its benefits in management classes. We then argue that PBL is a pedagogy more suited to the learning environment that our students will face in the workplace, and should therefore be more widely utilized in management education. We conclude by providing a brief description of a class in which PBL is employed as the primary instructional method.
Onc of thc problems of quantnun cosmology follows from thc fact that thc Hamiltonian H of classical general relativity equals zero. Quantizing canonically in thc Schrodinger picture, thc Schrodinger equation for thc wave function *1* of thc universe is thcreforc thc so-called Whcelc:r—DeWitt..
The Interpolation Theorem, first formulated and proved by W. Craig fifty years ago for predicate logic, has been extended to many other logical frameworks and is being applied in several areas of computer science. We give a short overview, and focus on the theory of software systems and modules. An algebra of theories TA is presented, with a nonstandard interpretation of the existential quantifier . In TA, the interpolation property of the underlying logic corresponds with the quantifier combination property (...) . It is shown how the Modularization Theorem, the Factorization Lemma and the Normal Form Theorem for module expressions can be proved in TA. (shrink)
The Interpolation Theorem, first formulated and proved by W. Craig fifty years ago for predicate logic, has been extended to many other logical frameworks and is being applied in several areas of computer science. We give a short overview, and focus on the theory of software systems and modules. An algebra of theories TA is presented, with a nonstandard interpretation of the existential quantifier ∃. In TA, the interpolation property of the underlying logic corresponds with the quantifier combination property (...) ∃Σ ∃П S ≡ ∃(Σ ∪ П) S. It is shown how the Modularization Theorem, the Factorization Lemma and the Normal Form Theorem for module expressions can be proved in TA. (shrink)