Search results for 'Localism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Russell‘Beyond Localism Berman & Beyond Localism (1995). Universalism: Nationhood and Solidarity'. Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 105.
     
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  2.  74
    Jamin Asay (forthcoming). Going Local: A Defense of Methodological Localism About Scientific Realism. Synthese:1-23.
    Scientific realism and anti-realism are most frequently discussed as global theses: theses that apply equally well across the board to all the various sciences. Against this status quo I defend the localist alternative, a methodological stance on scientific realism that approaches debates on realism at the level of individual sciences, rather than at science itself. After identifying the localist view, I provide a number of arguments in its defense, drawing on the diversity and disunity found in the sciences, as well (...)
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  3.  31
    Mike Page (2000). Connectionist Modelling in Psychology: A Localist Manifesto. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):443-467.
    Over the last decade, fully distributed models have become dominant in connectionist psychological modelling, whereas the virtues of localist models have been underestimated. This target article illustrates some of the benefits of localist modelling. Localist models are characterized by the presence of localist representations rather than the absence of distributed representations. A generalized localist model is proposed that exhibits many of the properties of fully distributed models. It can be applied to a number of problems that are difficult for fully (...)
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  4.  30
    C. J. L. Talmage (1998). Semantic Localism and the Locality of Content. Erkenntnis 48 (1):101-111.
    Semantic localism is the view of meaning defended by Michael Devitt in Coming to Our Senses. In this paper I assess this view by considering how well it answers the concerns that led Akeel Bilgrami in Belief and Meaning to put forward his thesis of the locality of content.
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  5.  1
    Christopher T. Kello, Daragh E. Sibley & David C. Plaut (2005). Dissociations in Performance on Novel Versus Irregular Items: Single‐Route Demonstrations With Input Gain in Localist and Distributed Models. Cognitive Science 29 (4):627-654.
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  6.  7
    Greg Sharzer (2012). A Critique of Localist Political Economy and Urban Agriculture. Historical Materialism 20 (4):75-114.
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  7. Olga Markic (1997). A Localist Network? In Dunja Jutronic (ed.), The Maribor Papers in Naturalized Semantics. Maribor 73.
     
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  8.  31
    Michael Devitt (1995). Coming to Our Senses: A Naturalistic Program for Semantic Localism. Cambridge University Press.
    Michael Devitt is a distinguished philosopher of language. In this new book he takes up one of the most important difficulties that must be faced by philosophical semantics: namely, the threat posed by holism. Three important questions lie at the core of this book: what are the main objectives of semantics; why are they worthwhile; how should we accomplish them? Devitt answers these 'methodological' questions naturalistically and explores what semantic programme arises from the answers. The approach is anti-Cartesian, rejecting the (...)
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  9.  28
    Francesco Guala (2003). Experimental Localism and External Validity. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1195-1205.
    Experimental “localism” stresses the importance of context‐specific knowledge, and the limitations of universal theories in science. I illustrate Latour's radical approach to localism and show that it has some unpalatable consequences, in particular the suggestion that problems of external validity (or how to generalize experimental results to nonlaboratory circumstances) cannot be solved. In the last part of the paper I try to sketch a solution to the problem of external validity by extending Mayo's error‐probabilistic approach.
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  10.  19
    Francesco Guala (2003). Experimental Localism and External Validity. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1195-1205.
    Experimental ‘localism’ stresses the importance of context-specific knowledge, and the limitations of universal theories in science. I illustrate Latour’s radical approach to localism and show that it has some unpalatable consequences, in particular the suggestion that problems of external validity (or how to generalise experimental results to non-laboratory circumstances) cannot be solved. In the last part of the paper I try to sketch a solution to the problem of external validity by extending Mayo’s error-probabilistic approach.
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  11.  25
    Adam Leite (2005). A Localist Solution to the Regress of Epistemic Justification. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (3):395 – 421.
    Guided by an account of the norms governing justificatory conversations, I propose that person-level epistemic justification is a matter of possessing a certain ability: the ability to provide objectively good reasons for one's belief by drawing upon considerations which one responsibly and correctly takes there to be no reason to doubt. On this view, justification requires responsible belief and is also objectively truth-conducive. The foundationalist doctrine of immediately justified beliefs is rejected, but so too is the thought that coherence in (...)
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  12. Michael Devitt (2010). Coming to Our Senses: A Naturalistic Program for Semantic Localism. Cambridge University Press.
    Michael Devitt is a distinguished philosopher of language. In this book he takes up one of the most important difficulties that must be faced by philosophical semantics: namely, the threat posed by holism. Three important questions lie at the core of this book: what are the main objectives of semantics; why are they worthwhile; how should we accomplish them? Devitt answers these 'methodological' questions naturalistically and explores what semantic programme arises from the answers. The approach is anti-Cartesian, rejecting the idea (...)
     
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  13.  38
    Agustín Vicente (2002). The Localism of the Conserved Quantity Theory. Theoria 45 (563):571.
    Phil Dowe has argued persuasively for a reductivist theory of causality. Drawing on Wesley Salmon's mark transmission theory and David Fair's transferencetheory, Dowe proposes to reduce causality to the exchange of conserved quantities. Dowe's account has the virtue of being simple and offering a definite "visible" idea of causation. According to Dowe and Salmon, it is also virtuous in being localist. That a theory of causation is localist means that it does not need the aid of counterfactuals and/or laws to (...)
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  14.  18
    Colin Martindale (2000). Localist Representations Are a Desirable Emergent Property of Neurologically Plausible Neural Networks. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):485-486.
    Page has done connectionist researchers a valuable service in this target article. He points out that connectionist models using localized representations often work as well or better than models using distributed representations. I point out that models using distributed representations are difficult to understand and often lack parsimony and plausibility. In conclusion, I give an example – the case of the missing fundamental in music – that can easily be explained by a model using localist representations but can be explained (...)
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  15.  15
    Gail A. Carpenter (2000). Combining Distributed and Localist Computations in Real-Time Neural Networks. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):473-474.
    In order to benefit from the advantages of localist coding, neural models that feature winner-take-all representations at the top level of a network hierarchy must still solve the computational problems inherent in distributed representations at the lower levels.
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  16.  13
    John E. Hummel (2000). Localism as a First Step Toward Symbolic Representation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):480-481.
    Page argues convincingly for several important properties of localist representations in connectionist models of cognition. I argue that another important property of localist representations is that they serve as the starting point for connectionist representations of symbolic (relational) structures because they express meaningful properties independent of one another and their relations.
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  17.  10
    Jeffrey S. Bowers (2000). Further Arguments in Support of Localist Coding in Connectionist Networks. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):471-471.
    Two additional sources of evidence are provided in support of localist coding within connectionist networks. First, only models with localist codes can currently represent multiple pieces of information simultaneously or represent order among a set of items on-line. Second, recent priming data appear problematic for theories that rely on distributed representations. However, a faulty argument advanced by Page is also pointed out.
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  18.  4
    Istvan S. N. Berkeley (2000). Some Counter-Examples to Page's Notion of “Localist”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):470-471.
    In his target article Page proposes a definition of the term “localist.” In this commentary I argue that his definition does not serve to make a principled distinction, as the inclusion of vague terms make it susceptible to some problematic counterexamples.
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  19.  11
    Stephen Grossberg (2000). Localist but Distributed Representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):478-479.
    A number of examples are given of how localist models may incorporate distributed representations, without the types of nonlocal interactions that often render distributed models implausible. The need to analyze the information that is encoded by these representations is also emphasized as a metatheoretical constraint on model plausibility.
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  20.  8
    Kazimierz Krzysztofek (1992). Factors Favoring and Impeding Localism and Strategies of Regional Development in Poland: An Outline. World Futures 33 (1):87-94.
    (1992). Factors favoring and impeding localism and strategies of regional development in Poland: An outline. World Futures: Vol. 33, Culture and Development: European Experiences and Challenges A Special Research Report of the European Culture Impact Research Consortium (EUROCIRCON), pp. 87-94.
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  21.  6
    Paul A. Koch & Gerry Leisman (2004). The Local is Running on the Express Track: Localist Models Better Facilitate Understanding of Nervous System Function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (5):700-700.
    Artificial neural networks have weaknesses as models of cognition. A conventional neural network has limitations of computational power. The localist representation is at least equal to its competition. We contend that locally connected neural networks are perfectly capable of storing and retrieving the individual features, but the process of reconstruction must be otherwise explained. We support the localist position but propose a “hybrid” model that can begin to explain cognition in anatomically plausible terms.
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  22.  6
    Robert M. French & Elizabeth Thomas (2000). Why Localist Connectionist Models Are Inadequate for Categorization. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):477-477.
    Two categorization arguments pose particular problems for localist connectionist models. The internal representations of localist networks do not reflect the variability within categories in the environment, whereas networks with distributed internal representations do reflect this essential feature of categories. We provide a real biological example of perceptual categorization in the monkey that seems to require population coding (i.e., distributed internal representations).
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  23.  6
    Stellan Ohlsson (2000). Localist Models Are Already Here. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):486-487.
    Localist networks are symbolic models, because their nodes refer to extra-mental objects and events. Hence, localist networks can be combined with symbolic computations to form hybrid models. Such models are already familiar and they are likely to represent the dominant type of cognitive model in the next few decades.
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  24.  2
    Alan D. Pickering (2000). Dynamic Thresholds for Controlling Encoding and Retrieval Operations in Localist (or Distributed) Neural Networks: The Need for Biologically Plausible Implementations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):488-489.
    A dynamic threshold, which controls the nature and course of learning, is a pivotal concept in Page's general localist framework. This commentary addresses various issues surrounding biologically plausible implementations for such thresholds. Relevant previous research is noted and the particular difficulties relating to the creation of so-called instance representations are highlighted. It is stressed that these issues also apply to distributed models.
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  25.  6
    Peter C. M. Molenaar & Maartje E. J. Raijmakers (2000). A Phase Transition Between Localist and Distributed Representation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):486-486.
    Bifurcation analysis of a real-time implementation of an ART network, which is functionally similar to the generalized localist model discussed in Page's manifesto shows that it yields a phase transition from local to distributed representation owing to continuous variation of the range of inhibitory connections. Hence there appears to be a qualitative dichotomy between local and distributed representations at the level of connectionistic networks conceived of as instances of nonlinear dynamical systems.
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  26.  5
    Jan Voorsvant (1993). A Localist Model for Event Semantics. Journal of Semantics 10 (1):65-111.
    This study presents a localist model illuminating the semantics of transitive constructions. The model groups transitive argument structures into a number of classes similar to those found in many aspectual studies which focus primarily on temporal aspects of events. The building blocks of the model are based on linguistic evidence in the form of tests involving adverbials of different types. A crucial role is played by manner adverbials. These adverbials show that the entity given by the subject has control over (...)
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  27.  3
    Richard M. Golden (2000). Some Cautionary Remarks on the “Localist Model” Concept. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):478-478.
    The notion of a “familiar example” used in Page's definition of a “localist model” is shown to be meaningful only with respect to the types of tasks faced by the connectionist model. It is also shown that the modeling task ultimately dictates which choice of model: “localist” or “distributed” is most appropriate.
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  28.  3
    Craig Leth-Steensen (2000). Localist Network Modelling in Psychology: Ho-Hum or Hm-M-M? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):484-485.
    Localist networks represent information in a very simple and straightforward way. However, localist modelling of complex behaviours ultimately entails the use of intricate “hand-designed” connectionist structures. It is, in fact, mainly these two aspects of localist network models that I believe have turned many researchers off them (perhaps wrongly so).
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  29.  3
    Horace Barlow & Anthony Gardner-Medwin (2000). Localist Representation Can Improve Efficiency for Detection and Counting. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):467-468.
    Almost all representations have both distributed and localist aspects, depending upon what properties of the data are being considered. With noisy data, features represented in a localist way can be detected very efficiently, and in binary representations they can be counted more efficiently than those represented in a distributed way. Brains operate in noisy environments, so the localist representation of behaviourally important events is advantageous, and fits what has been found experimentally. Distributed representations require more neurons to perform as efficiently, (...)
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  30.  2
    Norman D. Cook (2000). Localist Representations and Theoretical Clarity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):474-475.
    In the Localist Manifesto, Page enumerated several computational advantages that localist representations have over distributed representations, but the most important difference between such networks concerns their theoretical clarity. Distributed representations are normally closed to theoretical interpretation and, for that reason, contribute little to psychology, whereas the meaning of the information processing in networks using localist representations can be transparent.
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  31. Armando Cíntora (2002). Can a Localist and Descriptive Epistemological Naturalism Avoid Dogmatic Foundations? Sorites 14:42-56.
    It is argued that epistemological naturalism is the result of a holist thesis plus a high valuation of empirical science. Epistemological naturalism criticizes the sceptic for entertaining unjustified global doubts and naturalism tries to avoid scepticism by taking for granted as non problematic our background scientific knowledge and by recommending only a localist or piecemealist mending of our corpus of knowledge, these corrections will be motivated by limited and justified questions. It is argued that the epistemological naturalist: i) Cannot justify (...)
     
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  32. Michael Devitt (2011). Coming to Our Senses: A Naturalistic Program for Semantic Localism. Cambridge University Press.
    Michael Devitt is a distinguished philosopher of language. In this book he takes up one of the most important difficulties that must be faced by philosophical semantics: namely, the threat posed by holism. Three important questions lie at the core of this book: what are the main objectives of semantics; why are they worthwhile; how should we accomplish them? Devitt answers these 'methodological' questions naturalistically and explores what semantic programme arises from the answers. The approach is anti-Cartesian, rejecting the idea (...)
     
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  33. Michael Devitt (1995). Coming to Our Senses: A Naturalistic Program for Semantic Localism. Cambridge University Press.
    Michael Devitt is a distinguished philosopher of language. In this book he takes up one of the most important difficulties that must be faced by philosophical semantics: namely, the threat posed by holism. Three important questions lie at the core of this book: what are the main objectives of semantics; why are they worthwhile; how should we accomplish them? Devitt answers these 'methodological' questions naturalistically and explores what semantic programme arises from the answers. The approach is anti-Cartesian, rejecting the idea (...)
     
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  34. Agustín Rayo (2013). A Plea for Semantic Localism. Noûs 47 (4):647-679.
    The purpose of this paper is to defend a conception of language that does not rely on linguistic meanings, and use it to address the Sorites and Liar paradoxes.
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  35. Michael Devitt (1993). Localism and Analyticity. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (3):641-646.
    In their discussion of semantic holism, Fodor and Lepore claim that Quine showed that any inferential properties constituting a meaning cannot be distinguished on epistemic grounds like apriority. But they often write as if Quine showed that such properties cannot be distinguished at all. The paper argues that Quine did not show the latter. It goes on to propose a criterion for distinguishing the constitutive properties: they are the ones that determine reference. Fodor is not in a position to reject (...)
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  36.  15
    Russell Arben Fox (2008). Activity and Communal Authority: Localist Lessons From Puritan and Confucian Communities. Philosophy East and West 58 (1):36-59.
    : Puritanism and Confucianism have little in common in terms of their substantive teachings, but they do share an emphasis on bounded, authoritative, localized human arrangements, and this profoundly challenges the dominant presumptions of contemporary globalization. It is not enough to say that these worldviews are ‘‘communitarian’’ alternatives to globalism, for that defines away what needs to be explained. This article compares the ontology of certain elements of the Puritan and Confucian worldviews, and, by focusing on the role of both (...)
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  37.  8
    Brian Tokar (2015). Democracy, Localism, and The Future of The Climate Movement. World Futures 71 (3-4):65-75.
    The accelerating disruption of the Earth's climate systems is the defining issue of our time. The persistent failure of international climate diplomacy has encouraged local, regional, and some national-level solutions and spurred an emerging global movement for climate justice, mainly rooted in communities that bear disproportionate impacts from climate change. This article discusses the ways in which movements from below, seeking economic and energy democracy, are shaping our responses to the crisis. How can the imperative for immediate climate action and (...)
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  38. Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen (2012). Senses of Localism. History of Science 50 (169):477-500.
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  39.  6
    Andrew Heathcote & Scott Brown (2000). The Law of Practice and Localist Neural Network Models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):479-480.
    An extensive survey by Heathcote et al. (in press) found that the Law of Practice is closer to an exponential than a power form. We show that this result is hard to obtain for models using leaky competitive units when practice affects only the input, but that it can be accommodated when practice affects shunting self-excitation.
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  40.  12
    Michael P. Moreland (2005). Subsidiarity, Localism and School Finance. Journal of Catholic Social Thought 2 (2):369-400.
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  41.  1
    Charles Camic (1995). Three Departments in Search of Discipline: Localism and Interdisciplinary Interaction in American Sociology, 1890-1940. Social Research 62 (2):1003-1033.
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  42.  10
    Mark A. Pitt, Jay I. Myung, Maximiliano Montenegro & James Pooley (2008). Measuring the Flexibility of Localist Connectionist Models of Speech Perception. Cognitive Science 32:1285-1303.
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  43.  1
    Peter Galison (2016). Limits of Localism: The Scale of Sight. In Susan Neiman, Peter Galison & Wendy Doniger (eds.), What Reason Promises: Essays on Reason, Nature and History. De Gruyter 155-170.
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  44.  6
    David E. Irwin, George W. McConkie, Laura A. Carlson-Radvansky & Christopher Currie (1994). A Localist Evaluation Solution for Visual Stability Across Saccades. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):265.
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  45.  4
    Guilherme Sanches de Oliveira & Anthony Chemero (2015). Against Smallism And Localism. Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 41 (1):9-23.
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  46.  36
    Michael Devitt (1997). Précis of "Coming to Our Senses: A Naturalistic Program for Semantic Localism". Philosophical Issues 8:325-349.
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  47.  6
    R. A. Berman (1995). Beyond Localism and Universalism: Nationhood and Solidarity. Télos 1995 (105):43-56.
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  48.  5
    Barry L. Bull (1984). Liberty and the New Localism: Toward an Evaluation of the Trade-Off Between Educational Equity and Local Control of Schools. Educational Theory 34 (1):75-94.
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  49.  8
    Carol Whitney (2006). An Alternative Model of Sentence Parsing Explains Complexity Phenomena More Comprehensively Without Problems of Localist Encoding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (1):87-88.
    I discuss weaknesses of the proposed model related to reinstantiation of encodings recorded by the hippocampal complex and to the inability of the model to explain complexity phenomena. An alternative model that also addresses the formation of hierarchical representations of sentences in working memory is outlined, and the ability of this model to account for complexity phenomena is briefly reviewed.
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  50.  14
    Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen (2011). I Am Knowledge. Get Me Out of Here! On Localism and the Universality of Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):590-601.
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