Search results for 'Logic machines' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  6
    Walter A. Carnielli, Itala M. L. D'ottaviano & Brazilian Conference on Mathematical Logic (1999). Advances in Contemporary Logic and Computer Science Proceedings of the Eleventh Brazilian Conference on Mathematical Logic, May 6-10, 1996, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. [REVIEW] Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    This volume presents the proceedings from the Eleventh Brazilian Logic Conference on Mathematical Logic held by the Brazilian Logic Society (co-sponsored by the Centre for Logic, Epistemology and the History of Science, State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo) in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The conference and the volume are dedicated to the memory of professor Mario Tourasse Teixeira, an educator and researcher who contributed to the formation of several generations of Brazilian logicians. Contributions were made from leading (...)
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  2.  3
    Martin Gardner (1982). Logic Machines and Diagrams. University of Chicago Press.
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  3. Martin Gardner (1958/1968). Logic Machines, Diagrams and Boolean Algebra. New York, Dover Publications.
     
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  4. W. Mays (1959). Review: Martin Gardner, Logic Machines and Diagrams. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 24 (1):78-79.
     
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  5. Alonzo Church (1952). Review: Martin Gardner, Logic Machines. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 17 (3):217-217.
     
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  6. Martin Gardner (1952). Logic Machines. Journal of Symbolic Logic 17 (3):217-217.
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  7.  52
    David Deutsch, Artur Ekert & Rossella Lupacchini (2000). Machines, Logic and Quantum Physics. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (3):265-283.
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  8.  21
    Diana Raffman Deutsch, George Schumm & Neil Tennant (1998). Clusions From Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems, and Related Results From Mathematical Logic. Languages, Minds, and Machines Figure Prominently in the Discussion. Gödel's Theorems Surely Tell Us Something About These Important Matters. But What? A Descriptive Title for This Paper Would Be “Gödel, Lucas, Penrose, Tur”. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 4 (3).
  9.  5
    Robert F. Barnes (1973). Review: Alice Mary Hilton, Logic, Computing Machines, and Automation. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 38 (2):341-342.
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  10.  5
    Robert McNaughton (1971). Review: Dean N. Arden, Delayed-Logic and Finite-State Machines. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (1):151-151.
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  11.  1
    George W. Patterson (1952). Review: Edmund C. Berkeley, The Relations Between Symbolic Logic and Large-Scale Calculating Machines. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 17 (1):78-78.
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  12.  4
    Arthur W. Burks, Hao Wang & John H. Holland, Application of Logic to the Design of Computing Machines : Final Report.
  13.  67
    Antje Nowack (2005). A Guarded Fragment for Abstract State Machines. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (3):345-368.
    Abstract State Machines (ASMs) provide a formal method for transparent design and specification of complex dynamic systems. They combine advantages of informal and formal methods. Applications of this method motivate a number of computability and decidability problems connected to ASMs. Such problems result for example from the area of verifying properties of ASMs. Their high expressive power leads rather directly to undecidability respectively uncomputability results for most interesting problems in the case of unrestricted ASMs. Consequently, it is rather natural (...)
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  14. C. Hampson, S. Kikot & A. Kurucz (2016). The Decision Problem of Modal Product Logics with a Diagonal, and Faulty Counter Machines. Studia Logica 104 (3):455-486.
    In the propositional modal treatment of two-variable first-order logic equality is modelled by a ‘diagonal’ constant, interpreted in square products of universal frames as the identity relation. Here we study the decision problem of products of two arbitrary modal logics equipped with such a diagonal. As the presence or absence of equality in two-variable first-order logic does not influence the complexity of its satisfiability problem, one might expect that adding a diagonal to product logics in general is similarly (...)
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  15.  79
    Martin Davis (ed.) (1965/2004). The Undecidable: Basic Papers on Undecidable Propositions, Unsolvable Problems, and Computable Functions. Dover Publication.
    "A valuable collection both for original source material as well as historical formulations of current problems."-- The Review of Metaphysics "Much more than a mere collection of papers . . . a valuable addition to the literature."-- Mathematics of Computation An anthology of fundamental papers on undecidability and unsolvability by major figures in the field, this classic reference opens with Godel's landmark 1931 paper demonstrating that systems of logic cannot admit proofs of all true assertions of arithmetic. Subsequent papers (...)
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  16. Granville C. Henry (1993). The Mechanism and Freedom of Logic. Upa.
    This book uses the friendly format of the computing language Prolog to teach a full formal predicate logic. With Prolog, the scope and limits of both logic and computing can be explored and experimented. Students learning formal logic in a Prolog format can begin using their already developed informal abilities in logic to program in Prolog and conversely learn enough formal logic to examine Prolog and computing in general so major fundamental theorems can be demonstrated. (...)
     
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  17.  69
    Michał Walicki (2012). Introduction to Mathematical Logic. World Scientific.
    A history of logic -- Patterns of reasoning -- A language and its meaning -- A symbolic language -- 1850-1950 mathematical logic -- Modern symbolic logic -- Elements of set theory -- Sets, functions, relations -- Induction -- Turning machines -- Computability and decidability -- Propositional logic -- Syntax and proof systems -- Semantics of PL -- Soundness and completeness -- First order logic -- Syntax and proof systems of FOL -- Semantics of FOL (...)
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  18.  27
    Evert Willem Beth (1966). Mathematical Epistemology and Psychology. New York, Gordon and Breach.
  19.  14
    Merlin Carl, Tim Fischbach, Peter Koepke, Russell Miller, Miriam Nasfi & Gregor Weckbecker (2010). The Basic Theory of Infinite Time Register Machines. Archive for Mathematical Logic 49 (2):249-273.
    Infinite time register machines (ITRMs) are register machines which act on natural numbers and which are allowed to run for arbitrarily many ordinal steps. Successor steps are determined by standard register machine commands. At limit times register contents are defined by appropriate limit operations. In this paper, we examine the ITRMs introduced by the third and fourth author (Koepke and Miller in Logic and Theory of Algorithms LNCS, pp. 306–315, 2008), where a register content at a limit (...)
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  20.  68
    Y. Sato & T. Ikegami (2004). Undecidability in the Imitation Game. Minds and Machines 14 (2):133-43.
    This paper considers undecidability in the imitation game, the so-called Turing Test. In the Turing Test, a human, a machine, and an interrogator are the players of the game. In our model of the Turing Test, the machine and the interrogator are formalized as Turing machines, allowing us to derive several impossibility results concerning the capabilities of the interrogator. The key issue is that the validity of the Turing test is not attributed to the capability of human or machine, (...)
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  21.  6
    Max I. Kanovich (1994). Linear Logic as a Logic of Computations. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 67 (1-3):183-212.
    The question at issue is to develop a computational interpretation of Linear Logic [8] and to establish exactly its expressive power. We follow the bottom-up approach. This involves starting with the simplest of the systems we are interested in, and then expanding them step-by-step. We begin with the !-Horn fragment of Linear Logic, which uses only positive literals, the linear implication ⊸, the tensor product ⊗, and the modal storage operator !. We give a complete computational interpretation for (...)
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  22.  76
    Yves Lafont (1996). The Undecidability of Second Order Linear Logic Without Exponentials. Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (2):541-548.
    Recently, Lincoln, Scedrov and Shankar showed that the multiplicative fragment of second order intuitionistic linear logic is undecidable, using an encoding of second order intuitionistic logic. Their argument applies to the multiplicative-additive fragment, but it does not work in the classical case, because second order classical logic is decidable. Here we show that the multiplicative-additive fragment of second order classical linear logic is also undecidable, using an encoding of two-counter machines originally due to Kanovich. The (...)
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  23.  1
    Danièle Beauquier & Anatol Slissenko (2001). A First Order Logic for Specification of Timed Algorithms: Basic Properties and a Decidable Class. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 113 (1-3):13-52.
    We consider one aspect of the problem of specification and verification of reactive real-time systems which involve operations and constraints concerning time. Time is continuous what is motivated by specifications of hybrid systems. Our goal is to try to find a framework that is based on applied first order logic that permits to represent the verification problem directly, completely and conservatively , and that is apt to describe interesting decidable classes, maybe showing way to feasible algorithms. To achieve this (...)
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  24.  30
    Eric Steinhart (2002). Logically Possible Machines. Minds and Machines 12 (2):259-280.
    I use modal logic and transfinite set-theory to define metaphysical foundations for a general theory of computation. A possible universe is a certain kind of situation; a situation is a set of facts. An algorithm is a certain kind of inductively defined property. A machine is a series of situations that instantiates an algorithm in a certain way. There are finite as well as transfinite algorithms and machines of any degree of complexity (e.g., Turing and super-Turing machines (...)
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  25.  14
    H. Maas (1999). Mechanical Rationality: Jevons and the Making of Economic Man. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 30 (4):587-619.
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  26. Daniele Beauquier (2006). Decidable Properties for Monadic Abstract State Machines. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 141 (3):308-319.
    The paper describes a decidable class of verification problems expressed in first order timed logic. To specify programs we useState Machines. It is known that Abstract State Machines and first order timed logic are two very powerful formalisms apt to represent verification problems for timed distributed systems. However, the general verification problem represented in this way is undecidable. Prior, some decidable classes of verification problems were described in semantical properties that are in their turn undecidable. The (...)
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  27. Jessica Davidson (1971). The Square Root of Tuesday. New York,Mccall Pub. Co..
     
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  28. Fenrong Liu & Yanjing Wang (2013). Reasoning About Agent Types and the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever. Minds and Machines 23 (1):123-161.
    In this paper, we first propose a simple formal language to specify types of agents in terms of necessary conditions for their announcements. Based on this language, types of agents are treated as ‘first-class citizens’ and studied extensively in various dynamic epistemic frameworks which are suitable for reasoning about knowledge and agent types via announcements and questions. To demonstrate our approach, we discuss various versions of Smullyan’s Knights and Knaves puzzles, including the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever (HLPE) proposed by (...)
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  29.  59
    Jiji Zhang (2013). A Lewisian Logic of Causal Counterfactuals. Minds and Machines 23 (1):77-93.
    In the artificial intelligence literature a promising approach to counterfactual reasoning is to interpret counterfactual conditionals based on causal models. Different logics of such causal counterfactuals have been developed with respect to different classes of causal models. In this paper I characterize the class of causal models that are Lewisian in the sense that they validate the principles in Lewis’s well-known logic of counterfactuals. I then develop a system sound and complete with respect to this class. The resulting (...) is the weakest logic of causal counterfactuals that respects Lewis’s principles, sits in between the logic developed by Galles and Pearl and the logic developed by Halpern, and stands to Galles and Pearl’s logic in the same fashion as Lewis’s stands to Stalnaker’s. (shrink)
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  30. Chris Smeenk & Christian Wuthrich (2011). Time Travel and Time Machines. In Craig Callender (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time. Oxford University Press
    This paper is an enquiry into the logical, metaphysical, and physical possibility of time travel understood in the sense of the existence of closed worldlines that can be traced out by physical objects. We argue that none of the purported paradoxes rule out time travel either on grounds of logic or metaphysics. More relevantly, modern spacetime theories such as general relativity seem to permit models that feature closed worldlines. We discuss, in the context of Gödel's infamous argument for the (...)
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  31. Hava T. Siegelmann (2003). Neural and Super-Turing Computing. Minds and Machines 13 (1):103-114.
    ``Neural computing'' is a research field based on perceiving the human brain as an information system. This system reads its input continuously via the different senses, encodes data into various biophysical variables such as membrane potentials or neural firing rates, stores information using different kinds of memories (e.g., short-term memory, long-term memory, associative memory), performs some operations called ``computation'', and outputs onto various channels, including motor control commands, decisions, thoughts, and feelings. We show a natural model of neural computing that (...)
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  32.  73
    B. Maclennan (2003). Transcending Turing Computability. Minds and Machines 13 (1):3-22.
    It has been argued that neural networks and other forms of analog computation may transcend the limits of Turing-machine computation; proofs have been offered on both sides, subject to differing assumptions. In this article I argue that the important comparisons between the two models of computation are not so much mathematical as epistemological. The Turing-machine model makes assumptions about information representation and processing that are badly matched to the realities of natural computation (information representation and processing in or inspired by (...)
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  33.  84
    Bruce Edmonds (2000). The Constructability of Artificial Intelligence. Journal of Logic Language and Information 9 (4):419-424.
    The Turing Test, as originally specified, centres on theability to perform a social role. The TT can be seen as a test of anability to enter into normal human social dynamics. In this light itseems unlikely that such an entity can be wholly designed in anoff-line mode; rather a considerable period of training insitu would be required. The argument that since we can pass the TT,and our cognitive processes might be implemented as a Turing Machine, that consequently a TM that (...)
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  34.  29
    Stuart A. Eisenstadt & Herbert A. Simon (1997). Logic and Thought. Minds and Machines 7 (3):365-385.
    Rips, in The Psychology of Proof, argues that, through the processes of evolution, logic (e.g., modus ponens) has become established in the human mind as the basis for thinking, and that production systems rest on this foundation. In this paper we defend the converse argument that, through evolution, a production system architecture has become the basis for human thinking, and that formal logics rest on this production system and the accompanying mechanisms for recognition and search. It is through the (...)
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  35.  3
    Simon Cook (2005). Minds, Machines and Economic Agents: Cambridge Receptions of Boole and Babbage. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (2):331-350.
    In the 1860s and 1870s the logic of Boole and the calculating machines of Babbage were key resources in W. S. Jevons’s attempt to construct a mechanical model of the mind, and both therefore played an important role in Jevons’s attempted revolution in economic theory. In this same period both Boole and Babbage were studied within the Cambridge Moral Sciences Tripos, but the Cambridge reading of Boole and Babbage was much more circumspect. Implicitly following the division of the (...)
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  36.  26
    Larry Hauser (2000). Ordinary Devices: Reply to Bringsjord's Clarifying the Logic of Anti-Computationalism: Reply to Hauser. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 10 (1):115-117.
    What Robots Can and Can't Be (hereinafter Robots) is, as Selmer Bringsjord says "intended to be a collection of formal-arguments-that-border-on-proofs for the proposition that in all worlds, at all times, machines can't be minds" (Bringsjord, forthcoming). In his (1994) "Précis of What Robots Can and Can't Be" Bringsjord styles certain of these arguments as proceeding "repeatedly . . . through instantiations of" the "simple schema".
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  37.  18
    Satoshi Tojo (1999). Event, State, and Process in Arrow Logic. Minds and Machines 9 (1):81-103.
    Artificial agents, which are embedded in a virtual world, need to interpret a sequence of commands given to them adequately, considering the temporal structure for each command. In this paper, we start with the semantics of natural language and classify the temporal structures of various eventualities into such aspectual classes as action, process, and event. In order to formalize these temporal structures, we adopt Arrow Logic. This logic specifies the domain for the valuation of a sentence as an (...)
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  38.  15
    Chung Hee Hwang & Lenhart K. Schubert (1993). Episodic Logic: A Comprehensive, Natural Representation for Language Understanding. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 3 (4):381-419.
    A new comprehensive framework for narrative understanding has been developed. Its centerpiece is a new situational logic calledEpisodic Logic, a knowledge and semantic representation well-adapted to the interpretive and inferential needs of general NLU. The most distinctive features of EL is its natural language-like expressiveness. It allows for generalized quantifiers, lambda abstraction, sentence and predicate modifiers, sentence and predicate reification, intensional predicates, unreliable generalizations, and perhaps most importantly, explicit situational variables linked to arbitrary formulas that describe them. These (...)
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  39.  11
    Timothy R. Colburn (1991). Defeasible Reasoning and Logic Programming. Minds and Machines 1 (4):417-436.
    The general conditions of epistemic defeat are naturally represented through the interplay of two distinct kinds of entailment, deductive and defeasible. Many of the current approaches to modeling defeasible reasoning seek to define defeasible entailment via model-theoretic notions like truth and satisfiability, which, I argue, fails to capture this fundamental distinction between truthpreserving and justification-preserving entailments. I present an alternative account of defeasible entailment and show how logic programming offers a paradigm in which the distinction can be captured, allowing (...)
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  40.  3
    Gerald Heidegger (1992). Machines, Computers, Dialectics: A New Look at Human Intelligence. [REVIEW] AI and Society 6 (1):27-40.
    The more recent computer developments cause us to take a new look at human intelligence. The prevailing occidental view of human intelligence represents a very one-sided, logocentric approach, so that it is becoming more urgent to look for a more complete view. In this way, specific strengths of so-called human information processing are becoming particularly evident in a new way. To provide a general substantiation for this view, some elements of a phenomenological model for a dialectical coherence of human expressions (...)
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  41. Therese Feiler (2015). From Dialectics to Theo-Logic: The Ethics of War From Paul Ramsey to Oliver O’Donovan. Studies in Christian Ethics 28 (3):343-359.
    This article studies the fundamental shift between Paul Ramsey’s and Oliver O’Donovan’s ethics of war and so reintroduces Hegel into the debate on political ethics. The topic is approached through the notion of divine-human and political mediation, whereby Hegel’s early movement from Christology to dialectics provides the analytical framework. The article first studies the theo-logic of Paul Ramsey’s early agapist notions of war up to his transformist period. It then traces how O’Donovan fundamentally transforms Ramsey’s dialectical framework within that (...)
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  42. Mary Haight (2003). The Snake and the Fox: An Introduction to Logic. Routledge.
    _The Snake and the Fox_ is a highly imaginative and fun way to learn logic. Mary Haight's characters guide you through an elaborate tale of how logic works. This book features the Snake and the Fox, Granny, Gussie and the Newts, Ren^De Descartes and Miss Nightingale, along with a huge supporting cast of humans, devils and sausage machines. For anyone coming to logic for the first time, this is the best place to start. Mary Haight makes (...)
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  43. Mary Haight (1999). The Snake and the Fox: An Introduction to Logic. Routledge.
    _The Snake and the Fox_ is a highly imaginative and fun way to learn logic. Mary Haight's characters guide you through an elaborate tale of how logic works. This book features the Snake and the Fox, Granny, Gussie and the Newts, Ren^De Descartes and Miss Nightingale, along with a huge supporting cast of humans, devils and sausage machines. For anyone coming to logic for the first time, this is the best place to start. Mary Haight makes (...)
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  44. Paul Benacerraf (1967). God, the Devil, and Godel. The Monist 51 (January):9-32.
  45. Samuel A. Alexander (2014). A Machine That Knows Its Own Code. Studia Logica 102 (3):567-576.
    We construct a machine that knows its own code, at the price of not knowing its own factivity.
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  46. Stevan Harnad (2000). Minds, Machines and Turing: The Indistinguishability of Indistinguishables. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):425-445.
    Turing's celebrated 1950 paper proposes a very general methodological criterion for modelling mental function: total functional equivalence and indistinguishability. His criterion gives rise to a hierarchy of Turing Tests, from subtotal ("toy") fragments of our functions (t1), to total symbolic (pen-pal) function (T2 -- the standard Turing Test), to total external sensorimotor (robotic) function (T3), to total internal microfunction (T4), to total indistinguishability in every empirically discernible respect (T5). This is a "reverse-engineering" hierarchy of (decreasing) empirical underdetermination of the theory (...)
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  47.  19
    S. Harnad (2000). Minds, Machines and Turing. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):425-445.
    Turing's celebrated 1950 paper proposes a very generalmethodological criterion for modelling mental function: total functionalequivalence and indistinguishability. His criterion gives rise to ahierarchy of Turing Tests, from subtotal (toy) fragments of ourfunctions (t1), to total symbolic (pen-pal) function (T2 – the standardTuring Test), to total external sensorimotor (robotic) function (T3), tototal internal microfunction (T4), to total indistinguishability inevery empirically discernible respect (T5). This is areverse-engineering hierarchy of (decreasing) empiricalunderdetermination of the theory by the data. Level t1 is clearly toounderdetermined, T2 (...)
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  48.  50
    Samuel Alexander (2013). Fast-Collapsing Theories. Studia Logica (1):1-21.
    Reinhardt’s conjecture, a formalization of the statement that a truthful knowing machine can know its own truthfulness and mechanicalness, was proved by Carlson using sophisticated structural results about the ordinals and transfinite induction just beyond the first epsilon number. We prove a weaker version of the conjecture, by elementary methods and transfinite induction up to a smaller ordinal.
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  49.  86
    Storrs McCall (1999). Can a Turing Machine Know That the Godel Sentence is True? Journal of Philosophy 96 (10):525-32.
  50.  13
    Francesco Orilia (1994). Belief Representation in a Deductivist Type-Free Doxastic Logic. Minds and Machines 4 (2):163-203.
    Konolige''s technical notion of belief based on deduction structures is briefly reviewed and its usefulness for the design of artificial agents with limited representational and deductive capacities is pointed out. The design of artificial agents with more sophisticated representational and deductive capacities is then taken into account. Extended representational capacities require in the first place a solution to the intensional context problems. As an alternative to Konolige''s modal first-order language, an approach based on type-free property theory is proposed. It considers (...)
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