Search results for 'Logic machines' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Martin Gardner (1982). Logic Machines and Diagrams. University of Chicago Press.score: 75.0
     
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  2. Martin Gardner (1958/1968). Logic Machines, Diagrams and Boolean Algebra. New York, Dover Publications.score: 75.0
     
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  3. Alonzo Church (1952). Review: Martin Gardner, Logic Machines. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 17 (3):217-217.score: 48.0
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  4. W. Mays (1959). Review: Martin Gardner, Logic Machines and Diagrams. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 24 (1):78-79.score: 48.0
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  5. Antje Nowack (2005). A Guarded Fragment for Abstract State Machines. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (3):345-368.score: 48.0
    Abstract State Machines (ASMs) provide a formal method for transparent design and specification of complex dynamic systems. They combine advantages of informal and formal methods. Applications of this method motivate a number of computability and decidability problems connected to ASMs. Such problems result for example from the area of verifying properties of ASMs. Their high expressive power leads rather directly to undecidability respectively uncomputability results for most interesting problems in the case of unrestricted ASMs. Consequently, it is rather natural (...)
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  6. Samuel Alexander (forthcoming). A Machine That Knows its Own Code. Studia Logica:1-10.score: 39.0
    We construct a machine that knows its own code, at the price of not knowing its own factivity. knowing machines; Reinhardt's strong mechanistic thesis; Lucas-Penrose argument; Kleene's recursion theorem; quantified modal logic.
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  7. David Deutsch, Artur Ekert & Rossella Lupacchini (2000). Machines, Logic and Quantum Physics. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (3):265-283.score: 39.0
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  8. Robert F. Barnes (1973). Review: Alice Mary Hilton, Logic, Computing Machines, and Automation. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 38 (2):341-342.score: 39.0
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  9. Diana Raffman Deutsch, George Schumm & Neil Tennant (1998). Clusions From Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems, and Related Results From Mathematical Logic. Languages, Minds, and Machines Figure Prominently in the Discussion. Gödel's Theorems Surely Tell Us Something About These Important Matters. But What? A Descriptive Title for This Paper Would Be “Gödel, Lucas, Penrose, Tur. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 4 (3).score: 39.0
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  10. Robert McNaughton (1971). Review: Dean N. Arden, Delayed-Logic and Finite-State Machines. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (1):151-151.score: 39.0
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  11. George W. Patterson (1952). Review: Edmund C. Berkeley, The Relations Between Symbolic Logic and Large-Scale Calculating Machines. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 17 (1):78-78.score: 39.0
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  12. Martin Davis (ed.) (1965/2004). The Undecidable: Basic Papers on Undecidable Propositions, Unsolvable Problems, and Computable Functions. Dover Publication.score: 36.0
    "A valuable collection both for original source material as well as historical formulations of current problems."-- The Review of Metaphysics "Much more than a mere collection of papers . . . a valuable addition to the literature."-- Mathematics of Computation An anthology of fundamental papers on undecidability and unsolvability by major figures in the field, this classic reference opens with Godel's landmark 1931 paper demonstrating that systems of logic cannot admit proofs of all true assertions of arithmetic. Subsequent papers (...)
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  13. Arthur W. Burks, Application of Logic to the Design of Computing Machines : Final Report.score: 36.0
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  14. Eric Steinhart (2002). Logically Possible Machines. Minds and Machines 12 (2):259-280.score: 35.0
    I use modal logic and transfinite set-theory to define metaphysical foundations for a general theory of computation. A possible universe is a certain kind of situation; a situation is a set of facts. An algorithm is a certain kind of inductively defined property. A machine is a series of situations that instantiates an algorithm in a certain way. There are finite as well as transfinite algorithms and machines of any degree of complexity (e.g., Turing and super-Turing machines (...)
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  15. Majid Amini (2008). Logical Machines: Peirce on Psychologism. Disputatio 2 (24):1 - 14.score: 34.0
    This essay discusses Peirce�s appeal to logical machines as an argument against psychologism. It also contends that some of Peirce�s anti-psychologistic remarks on logic contain interesting premonitions arising from his perception of the asymmetry of proof complexity in monadic and relational logical calculi that were only given full formulation and explication in the early twentieth century through Church�s Theorem and Hilbert�s broad-ranging Entscheidungsproblem.
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  16. Y. Sato & T. Ikegami (2004). Undecidability in the Imitation Game. Minds and Machines 14 (2):133-43.score: 30.0
    This paper considers undecidability in the imitation game, the so-called Turing Test. In the Turing Test, a human, a machine, and an interrogator are the players of the game. In our model of the Turing Test, the machine and the interrogator are formalized as Turing machines, allowing us to derive several impossibility results concerning the capabilities of the interrogator. The key issue is that the validity of the Turing test is not attributed to the capability of human or machine, (...)
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  17. Evert Willem Beth (1966). Mathematical Epistemology and Psychology. New York, Gordon and Breach.score: 30.0
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  18. Jessica Davidson (1971). The Square Root of Tuesday. New York,Mccall Pub. Co..score: 30.0
     
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  19. Hava T. Siegelmann (2003). Neural and Super-Turing Computing. Minds and Machines 13 (1):103-114.score: 28.0
    ``Neural computing'' is a research field based on perceiving the human brain as an information system. This system reads its input continuously via the different senses, encodes data into various biophysical variables such as membrane potentials or neural firing rates, stores information using different kinds of memories (e.g., short-term memory, long-term memory, associative memory), performs some operations called ``computation'', and outputs onto various channels, including motor control commands, decisions, thoughts, and feelings. We show a natural model of neural computing that (...)
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  20. Bruce Edmonds (2000). The Constructability of Artificial Intelligence (as Defined by the Turing Test). Journal of Logic Language and Information 9 (4):419-424.score: 28.0
    The Turing Test (TT), as originally specified, centres on theability to perform a social role. The TT can be seen as a test of anability to enter into normal human social dynamics. In this light itseems unlikely that such an entity can be wholly designed in anoff-line mode; rather a considerable period of training insitu would be required. The argument that since we can pass the TT,and our cognitive processes might be implemented as a Turing Machine(TM), that consequently (...)
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  21. B. Maclennan (2003). Transcending Turing Computability. Minds and Machines 13 (1):3-22.score: 28.0
    It has been argued that neural networks and other forms of analog computation may transcend the limits of Turing-machine computation; proofs have been offered on both sides, subject to differing assumptions. In this article I argue that the important comparisons between the two models of computation are not so much mathematical as epistemological. The Turing-machine model makes assumptions about information representation and processing that are badly matched to the realities of natural computation (information representation and processing in or inspired by (...)
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  22. Michał Walicki (2012). Introduction to Mathematical Logic. World Scientific.score: 27.0
    A history of logic -- Patterns of reasoning -- A language and its meaning -- A symbolic language -- 1850-1950 mathematical logic -- Modern symbolic logic -- Elements of set theory -- Sets, functions, relations -- Induction -- Turning machines -- Computability and decidability -- Propositional logic -- Syntax and proof systems -- Semantics of PL -- Soundness and completeness -- First order logic -- Syntax and proof systems of FOL -- Semantics of FOL (...)
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  23. Storrs McCall (1999). Can a Turing Machine Know That the Godel Sentence is True? Journal of Philosophy 96 (10):525-32.score: 27.0
  24. Merlin Carl, Tim Fischbach, Peter Koepke, Russell Miller, Miriam Nasfi & Gregor Weckbecker (2010). The Basic Theory of Infinite Time Register Machines. Archive for Mathematical Logic 49 (2):249-273.score: 26.0
    Infinite time register machines (ITRMs) are register machines which act on natural numbers and which are allowed to run for arbitrarily many ordinal steps. Successor steps are determined by standard register machine commands. At limit times register contents are defined by appropriate limit operations. In this paper, we examine the ITRMs introduced by the third and fourth author (Koepke and Miller in Logic and Theory of Algorithms LNCS, pp. 306–315, 2008), where a register content at a limit (...)
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  25. Samuel Alexander (2013). Fast-Collapsing Theories. Studia Logica:1-21.score: 25.0
    Reinhardt’s conjecture, a formalization of the statement that a truthful knowing machine can know its own truthfulness and mechanicalness, was proved by Carlson using sophisticated structural results about the ordinals and transfinite induction just beyond the first epsilon number. We prove a weaker version of the conjecture, by elementary methods and transfinite induction up to a smaller ordinal.
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  26. Paul Benacerraf (1967). God, the Devil, and Godel. The Monist 51 (January):9-32.score: 24.0
  27. J. J. C. Smart (1961). Godel's Theorem, Church's Theorem, and Mechanism. Synthese 13 (June):105-10.score: 24.0
  28. I. J. Good (1967). Human and Machine Logic. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 18 (August):145-6.score: 24.0
  29. Yves Lafont (1996). The Undecidability of Second Order Linear Logic Without Exponentials. Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (2):541-548.score: 24.0
    Recently, Lincoln, Scedrov and Shankar showed that the multiplicative fragment of second order intuitionistic linear logic is undecidable, using an encoding of second order intuitionistic logic. Their argument applies to the multiplicative-additive fragment, but it does not work in the classical case, because second order classical logic is decidable. Here we show that the multiplicative-additive fragment of second order classical linear logic is also undecidable, using an encoding of two-counter machines originally due to Kanovich. The (...)
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  30. Giorgi Japaridze (2000). The Propositional Logic of Elementary Tasks. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 41 (2):171-183.score: 24.0
    The paper introduces a semantics for the language of propositional additive-multiplicative linear logic. It understands formulas as tasks that are to be accomplished by an agent (machine, robot) working as a slave for its master (user, environment). This semantics can claim to be a formalization of the resource philosophy associated with linear logic when resources are understood as agents accomplishing tasks. I axiomatically define a decidable logic TSKp and prove its soundness and completeness with respect to the (...)
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  31. C. T. K. Chari (1963). Further Comments on Minds, Machines and Godel. Philosophy 38 (April):175-8.score: 23.0
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  32. L. Jonathan Cohen (1986). What Sorts of Machines Can Understand the Symbols They Use? Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 60:81-96.score: 23.0
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  33. Gerald Heidegger (1992). Machines, Computers, Dialectics: A New Look at Human Intelligence. [REVIEW] AI and Society 6 (1):27-40.score: 23.0
    The more recent computer developments cause us to take a new look at human intelligence. The prevailing occidental view of human intelligence represents a very one-sided, logocentric approach, so that it is becoming more urgent to look for a more complete view. In this way, specific strengths of so-called human information processing are becoming particularly evident in a new way. To provide a general substantiation for this view, some elements of a phenomenological model for a dialectical coherence of human expressions (...)
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  34. Alessandro Giordani (2013). A Logic of Justification and Truthmaking. Review of Symbolic Logic 6 (2):323-342.score: 21.0
    In the present paper we propose a system of propositional logic for reasoning about justification, truthmaking, and the connection between justifiers and truthmakers. The logic of justification and truthmaking is developed according to the fundamental ideas introduced by Artemov. Justifiers and truthmakers are treated in a similar way, exploiting the intuition that justifiers provide epistemic grounds for propositions to be considered true, while truthmakers provide ontological grounds for propositions to be true. This system of logic is then (...)
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  35. Chris Smeenk & Christian Wuthrich (2011). Time Travel and Time Machines. In Craig Callender (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time. Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    This paper is an enquiry into the logical, metaphysical, and physical possibility of time travel understood in the sense of the existence of closed worldlines that can be traced out by physical objects. We argue that none of the purported paradoxes rule out time travel either on grounds of logic or metaphysics. More relevantly, modern spacetime theories such as general relativity seem to permit models that feature closed worldlines. We discuss, in the context of Gödel's infamous argument for the (...)
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  36. Wilfrid Hodges (2009). Traditional Logic, Modern Logic and Natural Language. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (6):589 - 606.score: 21.0
    In a recent paper Johan van Benthem reviews earlier work done by himself and colleagues on ‘natural logic’. His paper makes a number of challenging comments on the relationships between traditional logic, modern logic and natural logic. I respond to his challenge, by drawing what I think are the most significant lines dividing traditional logic from modern. The leading difference is in the way logic is expected to be used for checking arguments. For traditionals (...)
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  37. Phil Corkum (forthcoming). Is Aristotle's Syllogistic a Logic? History and Philosophy of Logic.score: 21.0
    Much of the last fifty years of scholarship on Aristotle’s syllogistic suggests a conceptual framework under which the syllogistic is a logic, a system of inferential reasoning, only if it is not a theory or formal ontology, a system concerned with general features of the world. In this paper, I will argue that this a misleading interpretative framework. The syllogistic is something sui generis: by our lights, it is neither clearly a logic, nor clearly a theory, but rather (...)
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  38. Nate Charlow (2013). Logic and Semantics for Imperatives. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-48.score: 21.0
    In this paper I will develop a view about the semantics of imperatives, which I term Modal Noncognitivism, on which imperatives might be said to have truth conditions (dispositionally, anyway), but on which it does not make sense to see them as expressing propositions (hence does not make sense to ascribe to them truth or falsity). This view stands against “Cognitivist” accounts of the semantics of imperatives, on which imperatives are claimed to express propositions, which are then enlisted in explanations (...)
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  39. Tapio Korte, Ari Maunu & Tuomo Aho (2009). Modal Logic From Kant to Possible Worlds Semantics. In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press.score: 21.0
    This chapter begins with a discussion of Kant's theory of judgment-forms. It argues that it is not true in Kant's logic that assertoric or apodeictic judgments imply problematic ones, in the manner in which necessity and truth imply possibility in even the weakest systems of modern modal logic. The chapter then discusses theories of judgment-form after Kant, the theory of quantification, Frege's Begriffsschrift, C. I. Lewis and the beginnings of modern modal logic, the proof-theoretic approach to modal (...)
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  40. George Boolos (1998). Logic, Logic, and Logic. Harvard University Press.score: 21.0
    This collection, nearly all chosen by Boolos himself shortly before his death, includes thirty papers on set theory, second-order logic, and plural quantifiers; ...
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  41. Tim S. Roberts (2001). Some Thoughts About the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever. Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (6):609-612.score: 21.0
    "The Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever" was first described by the late George Boolos in the Spring 1996 issue of the Harvard Review of Philosophy. Although not dissimilar in appearance from many other simpler puzzles involving gods (or tribesmen) who always tell the truth or always lie, this puzzle has several features that make the solution far from trivial. This paper examines the puzzle and describes a simpler solution than that originally proposed by Boolos.
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  42. Robert Demolombe, Andreas Herzig & Ivan Varzinczak (2003). Regression in Modal Logic. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logic 13 (2):165-185.score: 21.0
    In this work we propose an encoding of Reiter’s Situation Calculus solution to the frame problem into the framework of a simple multimodal logic of actions. In particular we present the modal counterpart of the regression technique. This gives us a theorem proving method for a relevant fragment of our modal logic.
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  43. Jason Turner (2012). Logic and Ontological Pluralism. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):419-448.score: 21.0
    Ontological pluralism is the doctrine that there are different ways or modes of being. In contemporary guise, it is the doctrine that a logically perspicuous description of reality will use multiple quantifiers which cannot be thought of as ranging over a single domain. Although thought defeated for some time, recent defenses have shown a number of arguments against the view unsound. However, another worry looms: that despite looking like an attractive alternative, ontological pluralism is really no different than its counterpart, (...)
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  44. Ulrich Meyer (2009). 'Now' and 'Then' in Tense Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (2):229-247.score: 21.0
    According to Hans Kamp and Frank Vlach, the two-dimensional tense operators “now” and “then” are ineliminable in quantified tense logic. This is often adduced as an argument against tense logic, and in favor of an extensional account that makes use of explicit quantification over times. The aim of this paper is to defend tense logic against this attack. It shows that “now” and “then” are eliminable in quantified tense logic, provided we endow it with enough quantificational (...)
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  45. M. J. Cresswell (2010). Temporal Reference in Linear Tense Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (2):173 - 200.score: 21.0
    The paper introduces a first-order theory in the language of predicate tense logic which contains a single simple axiom. It is shewn that this theory enables times to be referred to and sentences involving ‘now’ and ‘then’ to be formalised. The paper then compares this way of increasing the expressive capacity of predicate tense logic with other mechanisms, and indicates how to generalise the results to other modal and tense systems.
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  46. Kit Fine (2013). Truth-Maker Semantics for Intuitionistic Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-29.score: 21.0
    I propose a new semantics for intuitionistic logic, which is a cross between the construction-oriented semantics of Brouwer-Heyting-Kolmogorov and the condition-oriented semantics of Kripke. The new semantics shows how there might be a common semantical underpinning for intuitionistic and classical logic and how intuitionistic logic might thereby be tied to a realist conception of the relationship between language and the world.
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  47. Gregory Wheeler & Pedro Barahona (2012). Why the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever Cannot Be Solved in Less Than Three Questions. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):493-503.score: 21.0
    Rabern and Rabern (Analysis 68:105–112 2 ) and Uzquiano (Analysis 70:39–44 4 ) have each presented increasingly harder versions of ‘the hardest logic puzzle ever’ (Boolos The Harvard Review of Philosophy 6:62–65 1 ), and each has provided a two-question solution to his predecessor’s puzzle. But Uzquiano’s puzzle is different from the original and different from Rabern and Rabern’s in at least one important respect: it cannot be solved in less than three questions. In this paper we solve Uzquiano’s (...)
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  48. Gillian Russell (2008). One True Logic? Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (6):593 - 611.score: 21.0
    This is a paper about the constituents of arguments. It argues that several different kinds of truth-bearer may be taken to compose arguments, but that none of the obvious candidates—sentences, propositions, sentence/truth-value pairs etc.—make sense of logic as it is actually practiced. The paper goes on to argue that by answering the question in different ways, we can generate different logics, thus ensuring a kind of logical pluralism that is different from that of J. Beall and Greg Restall.
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  49. Sebastian Enqvist (2009). Interrogative Belief Revision in Modal Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (5):527 - 548.score: 21.0
    The well known AGM framework for belief revision has recently been extended to include a model of the research agenda of the agent, i.e. a set of questions to which the agent wishes to find answers (Olsson & Westlund in Erkenntnis , 65 , 165–183, 2006 ). The resulting model has later come to be called interrogative belief revision . While belief revision has been studied extensively from the point of view of modal logic, so far interrogative belief revision (...)
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  50. Jaakko Hintikka (2012). If Logic, Definitions and the Vicious Circle Principle. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):505-517.score: 21.0
    In a definition (∀ x )(( x є r )↔D[ x ]) of the set r, the definiens D[ x ] must not depend on the definiendum r . This implies that all quantifiers in D[ x ] are independent of r and of (∀ x ). This cannot be implemented in the traditional first-order logic, but can be expressed in IF logic. Violations of such independence requirements are what created the typical paradoxes of set theory. Poincaré’s Vicious (...)
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