Search results for 'Logic of Discovery' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Mehul Shah (2008). The Logics of Discovery in Popper's Evolutionary Epistemology. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 39 (2):303 - 319.score: 151.0
    Popper is well known for rejecting a logic of discovery, but he is only justified in rejecting the same type of logic of discovery that is denied by consequentialism. His own account of hypothesis generation, based on a natural selection analogy, involves an error-eliminative logic of discovery and the differences he admits between biological and conceptual evolution suggest an error-corrective logic of discovery. These types of logics of discovery are based on (...)
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  2. Bert Leuridan (2009). Causal Discovery and the Problem of Ignorance. An Adaptive Logic Approach. Journal of Applied Logic 7 (2):188-205.score: 148.0
    In this paper, I want to substantiate three related claims regarding causal discovery from non-experimental data. Firstly, in scientific practice, the problem of ignorance is ubiquitous, persistent, and far-reaching. Intuitively, the problem of ignorance bears upon the following situation. A set of random variables V is studied but only partly tested for (conditional) independencies; i.e. for some variables A and B it is not known whether they are (conditionally) independent. Secondly, Judea Pearl’s most meritorious and influential algorithm for causal (...)
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  3. Scott A. Kleiner (1988). The Logic of Discovery and Darwin's Pre-Malthusian Researches. Biology and Philosophy 3 (3):293-315.score: 144.0
    Traditional logical empiricist and more recent historicist positions on the logic of discovery are briefly reviewed and both are found wanting. None have examined the historical detail now available from recent research on Darwin, from which there is evidence for gradual transition in descriptive and explanatory concepts. This episode also shows that revolutionary research can be directed by borrowed metascientific objectives and heuristics from other disciplines. Darwin's own revolutionary research took place within an ontological context borrowed from non (...)
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  4. David Castle (2001). A Gradualist Theory of Discovery in Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):547-571.score: 130.0
    The distinction between the context ofdiscovery and the context of justificationrestricts philosophy of science to the rationalreconstruction of theories, and characterizesscientific discovery as rare, theoreticalupheavals that defy rational reconstruction. Kuhnian challenges to the two contextsdistinction show that non-rational elementspersist in the justification of theories, butgo no further to provide a positive account ofdiscovery. A gradualist theory of discoverydeveloped in this paper shows, with supportfrom ecological cases, that discoveries areroutinely made in ecology by extending modelsto new domains, or by making (...)
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  5. Mehul Shah (2007). Is It Justifiable to Abandon All Search for a Logic of Discovery? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (3):253 – 269.score: 123.0
    In his influential paper, 'Why Was the Logic of Discovery Abandoned?', Laudan contends that there has been no philosophical rationale for a logic of discovery since the emergence of consequentialism in the 19th century. It is the purpose of this paper to show that consequentialism does not involve the rejection of all types of logic of discovery. Laudan goes too far in his interpretation of the historical shift from generativism to consequentialism, and his claim (...)
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  6. Patrick Maher (1988). Prediction, Accommodation, and the Logic of Discovery. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:273 - 285.score: 123.0
    A widely endorsed thesis in the philosophy of science holds that if evidence for a hypothesis was not known when the hypothesis was proposed, then that evidence confirms the hypothesis more strongly than would otherwise be the case. The thesis has been thought to be inconsistent with Bayesian confirmation theory, but the arguments offered for that view are fallacious. This paper shows how the special value of prediction can in fact be given Bayesian explanation. The explanation involves consideration of the (...)
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  7. Robert McLaughlin (1982). Invention and Induction Laudan, Simon and the Logic of Discovery. Philosophy of Science 49 (2):198-211.score: 123.0
    Although on opposite sides of the logic of discovery debate, Laudan and Simon share a thesis of divorce between discovery (invention) and justification (appraisal); but unlike some other authors, they do not base their respective versions of the divorce-thesis on the empirical/logical distinction. Laudan argues that, in contemporary science, invention is irrelevant to appraisal, and that this irrelevance renders epistemically pointless the inventionist program. Simon uses his divorce-thesis to defend his account of invention, which he claims to (...)
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  8. Kevin T. Kelly (1987). The Logic of Discovery. Philosophy of Science 54 (3):435-452.score: 123.0
    There is renewed interest in the logic of discovery as well as in the position that there is no reason for philosophers to bother with it. This essay shows that the traditional, philosophical arguments for the latter position are bankrupt. Moreover, no interesting defense of the philosophical irrelevance or impossibility of the logic of discovery can be formulated or defended in isolation from computation-theoretic considerations.
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  9. Imre Lakatos (1976). Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery. Cambridge University Press.score: 122.0
    Proofs and Refutations is essential reading for all those interested in the methodology, the philosophy and the history of mathematics. Much of the book takes the form of a discussion between a teacher and his students. They propose various solutions to some mathematical problems and investigate the strengths and weaknesses of these solutions. Their discussion (which mirrors certain real developments in the history of mathematics) raises some philosophical problems and some problems about the nature of mathematical discovery or creativity. (...)
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  10. Sami Paavola (2004). Abduction as a Logic and Methodology of Discovery: The Importance of Strategies. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 9 (3):267-283.score: 120.0
    There are various ``classical'' arguments against abduction as a logic of discovery,especially that (1) abduction is too weak a mode of inference to be of any use, and (2) in basic formulation of abduction the hypothesisis already presupposed to be known, so it is not the way hypotheses are discovered in the first place. In this paper I argue, by bringing forth the idea of strategies,that these counter-arguments are weaker than may appear. The concept of strategies suggests, inter (...)
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  11. Claude Savary (1995). Discovery and its Logic: Popper and the "Friends of Discovery". Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (3):318-344.score: 120.0
    This article compares the features of a logic of discovery for the "friends of discovery" and for Karl Popper. It argues that the account given by Popper is the same as that of the "friends of discovery." The comparison will unsystematically exhibit that Popper proposes such a logic and will submit that the epistemological significance of a logic of discovery is to be sought in a configuration of ideas and transactions deemed regulated by (...)
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  12. Avery Dulles (1970). Faith, Reason, and the Logic of Discovery. Thought 45 (4):485-502.score: 120.0
    The logic of discovery, accepting the seriousness of ultimate questions, ends in faith with an answer which, for the Christian, is not a statement but a person.
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  13. Gerhard Schurz & Georg J. W. Dorn (1988). Why Popper's Basic Statements Are Not Falsifiable. Some Paradoxes in Popper's “Logic of Scientific Discovery”. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 19 (1):124-143.score: 119.0
    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Basic statements play a central role in Popper's "The Logic of Scientific Discovery", since they permit a distinction between empirical and non-empirical theories. A theory is empirical iff it consists of falsifiable statements, and statements (of any kind) are falsifiable iff they are inconsistent with at least one basic statement. Popper obviously presupposes that basic statements are themselves empirical and hence falsifiable; at any rate, he claims several times that they are falsifiable. In this paper we (...)
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  14. Jan J. J. M. Wuisman (2005). The Logic of Scientific Discovery in Critical Realist Social Scientific Research. Journal of Critical Realism 4 (2):366-394.score: 118.0
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  15. Jan M. Zytkow & Herbert A. Simon (1988). Normative Systems of Discovery and Logic of Search. Synthese 74 (1):65 - 90.score: 116.0
    New computer systems of discovery create a research program for logic and philosophy of science. These systems consist of inference rules and control knowledge that guide the discovery process. Their paths of discovery are influenced by the available data and the discovery steps coincide with the justification of results. The discovery process can be described in terms of fundamental concepts of artificial intelligence such as heuristic search, and can also be interpreted in terms of (...)
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  16. Karl Popper (1992). Realism and the Aim of Science: From the Postscript to the Logic of Scientific Discovery. Routledge.score: 116.0
    Realism and the Aim of Science is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper’s Postscript to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The Postscript is the culmination of Popper’s work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science. Realism and the Aim of Science is the first volume of the Postcript . Popper here formulates and explains his non-justificationist theory of knowledge: science aims at true explanatory theories, yet it (...)
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  17. Antonino Freno (2009). Statistical Machine Learning and the Logic of Scientific Discovery. Iris 1 (2):375-388.score: 116.0
    One important problem in the philosophy of science is whether there can be a normative theory of discovery, as opposed to a normative theory of justification. Although the possibility of developing a logic of scientific discovery has been often doubted by philosophers, it is particularly interesting to consider how the basic insights of a normative theory of discovery have been turned into an effective research program in computer science, namely the research field of machine learning. In (...)
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  18. Karl Popper (2013). Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics: From the Postscript to the Logic of Scientific Discovery. Routledge.score: 116.0
    Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper’s Postscript to the Logic of scientific Discovery . The Postscript is the culmination of Popper’s work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science. Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is the third volume of the Postscript . It may be read independently, but it also forms part of Popper’s interconnected argument in (...)
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  19. Joachim Kurtz (2011). The Discovery of Chinese Logic. Brill.score: 114.0
    First encounters : Jesuit logica in the late Ming and early Qing -- Haphazard overtures : logic in nineteenth-century Protestant writings -- Great expectations : Yan Fu and the discovery of European logic -- Spreading the word : logic in late Qing education and popular discourse -- Heritage unearthed : the discovery of Chinese logic -- Textbooks on logic adapted from Japanese, 1902-1911 -- Logical terms in early-twentieth-century textbooks.
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  20. Cassiano Terra Rodrigues (2011). The Method of Scientific Discovery in Peirce's Philosophy: Deduction, Induction, and Abduction. [REVIEW] Logica Universalis 5 (1):127-164.score: 108.0
    In this paper we will show Peirce’s distinction between deduction, induction and abduction. The aim of the paper is to show how Peirce changed his views on the subject, from an understanding of deduction, induction and hypotheses as types of reasoning to understanding them as stages of inquiry very tightly connected. In order to get a better understanding of Peirce’s originality on this, we show Peirce’s distinctions between qualitative and quantitative induction and between theorematical and corollarial deduction, passing then to (...)
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  21. Stephen C. Angle (2012). The Discovery of Chinese Logic. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (3):293-296.score: 105.0
    History and Philosophy of Logic, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 293-296, August 2012.
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  22. Peter P. Kirschenmann (1991). Local and Normative Rationality of Science: The 'Content of Discovery' Rehabilitated. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 22 (1):61-72.score: 103.0
    Summary The recent turn to the ‘context of discovery’ and other ‘postmodernist’ developments in the philosophy of science have undermined the idea of a universal rationality of science. This parallels the fate of the classical dream of a logic of discovery. Still, justificational questions have remained as a distinct perspective, though comprising both consequential and generative justification — an insight delayed by certain confusions about the (original) context distinction. An examination of one particular heuristic strategy shows its local (...)
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  23. R. D. Carmichael (1930/1975). The Logic of Discovery. Arno Press.score: 102.0
  24. James F. Woodward (1992). Logic of Discovery or Psychology of Invention? Foundations of Physics 22 (2):187-203.score: 99.0
    It is noted that Popper separates the creation of concepts, conjectures, hypotheses and theories—the context of invention—from the testing thereof—the context of justification—arguing that only the latter is susceptible of rigorous logical analysis. Efforts on the part of others to shift or eradicate the demarcation established by this distinction are discussed and the relationship of these considerations to the claims of “strong artificial intelligence” is pointed out. It is argued that the mode of education of scientists, as well as reports (...)
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  25. Alonzo Church (1975). Review: Karl Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (3):471-472.score: 99.0
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  26. Thomas Uebel (2011). Carnap and Kuhn: On the Relation Between the Logic of Science and the History of Science. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 42 (1):129 - 140.score: 97.0
    This paper offers a refutation of J. C. Pinto de Oliveira's recent critique of revisionist Carnap scholarship as giving undue weight to two brief letters to Kuhn expressing his interest in the latter's work. First an argument is provided to show that Carnap and Kuhn are by no means divided by a radical mismatch of their conceptions of the rationality of science as supposedly evidenced by their stance towards the distinction of the contexts of discovery and justification. This is (...)
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  27. John R. Welch (1990). Llull and Leibniz: The Logic of Discovery. Catalan Review 4:75-83.score: 96.0
    Llull and Leibniz both subscribed to conceptual atomism, the belief that the majority of concepts are compounds constructed from a relatively small number of primitive concepts. Llull worked out techniques for finding the logically possible combinations of his primitives, but Leibniz criticized Llull’s execution of these techniques. This article argues that Leibniz was right about things being more complicated than Llull thought but that he was wrong about the details. The paper attempts to correct these details.
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  28. Nino B. Cocchiarella (2009). Mass Nouns in a Logic of Classes as Many. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (3):343 - 361.score: 96.0
    A semantic analysis of mass nouns is given in terms of a logic of classes as many. In previous work it was shown that plural reference and predication for count nouns can be interpreted within this logic of classes as many in terms of the subclasses of the classes that are the extensions of those count nouns. A brief review of that account of plurals is given here and it is then shown how the same kind of interpretation (...)
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  29. Andreas Herzig & Emiliano Lorini (2010). A Dynamic Logic of Agency I: Stit, Capabilities and Powers. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (1):89-121.score: 96.0
    The aim of this paper, is to provide a logical framework for reasoning about actions, agency, and powers of agents and coalitions in game-like multi-agent systems. First we define our basic Dynamic Logic of Agency ( ). Differently from other logics of individual and coalitional capability such as Alternating-time Temporal Logic (ATL) and Coalition Logic, in cooperation modalities for expressing powers of agents and coalitions are not primitive, but are defined from more basic dynamic logic operators (...)
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  30. Athanassios Tzouvaras (1998). Logic of Knowledge and Utterance and the Liar. Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (1):85-108.score: 96.0
    We extend the ordinary logic of knowledge based on the operator K and the system of axioms S₅ by adding a new operator Uφ, standing for "the agent utters φ", and certain axioms and a rule for U, forming thus a new system KU. The main advantage of KU is that we can express in it intentions of the speaker concerning the truth or falsehood of the claims he utters and analyze them logically. Specifically we can express in the (...)
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  31. Guido Governatori & Antonino Rotolo (2005). On the Axiomatisation of Elgesem's Logic of Agency and Ability. Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (4):403 - 431.score: 96.0
    In this paper we show that the Hilbert system of agency and ability presented by Dag Elgesem is incomplete with respect to the intended semantics. We argue that completeness result may be easily regained. Finally, we shortly discuss some issues related to the philosophical intuition behind his approach. This is done by examining Elgesem's modal logic of agency and ability using semantics with different flavours.
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  32. Alexej P. Pynko (2000). Subprevarieties Versus Extensions. Application to the Logic of Paradox. Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (2):756-766.score: 96.0
    In the present paper we prove that the poset of all extensions of the logic defined by a class of matrices whose sets of distinguished values are equationally definable by their algebra reducts is the retract, under a Galois connection, of the poset of all subprevarieties of the prevariety generated by the class of the algebra reducts of the matrices involved. We apply this general result to the problem of finding and studying all extensions of the logic of (...)
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  33. Brigitte Penther (1994). A Dynamic Logic of Action. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 3 (3):169-210.score: 94.0
    The paper presents a logical treatment of actions based on dynamic logic. This approach makes it possible to reflect clearly the differences between static and dynamic elements of the world, a distinction which seems crucial to us for a representation of actions.Starting from propositional dynamic logic a formal system (DLA) is developed, the programs of which are used to model action types. Some special features of this system are: Basic aspects of time are incorporated in DLA as far (...)
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  34. Norwood Russell Hanson (1958). The Logic of Discovery. Journal of Philosophy 55 (25):1073-1089.score: 93.0
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  35. Elie Zahar (1983). Logic of Discovery or Psychology of Invention? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 34 (3):243-261.score: 93.0
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  36. Davis Baird (1987). Exploratory Factor Analysis, Instruments and the Logic of Discovery. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (3):319-337.score: 93.0
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  37. Norwood Russell Hanson (1960). More on "the Logic of Discovery". Journal of Philosophy 57 (6):182-188.score: 93.0
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  38. Patricia A. Turrisi (1990). Peirce's Logic of Discovery: Abduction and the Universal Categories. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 26 (4):465 - 497.score: 93.0
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  39. Jan von Plato (2003). Skolem's Discovery of Gödel-Dummett Logic. Studia Logica 73 (1):153 - 157.score: 93.0
    Attention is drawn to the fact that what is alternatively known as Dummett logic, Gödel logic, or Gödel-Dummett logic, was actually introduced by Skolem already in 1913. A related work of 1919 introduces implicative lattices, or Heyting algebras in today's terminology.
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  40. Kenneth Schaffner (1974). Logic of Discovery and Justification in Regulatory Genetics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 4 (4):349-385.score: 93.0
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  41. Scott A. Kleiner (1983). An Aspect of the Logic of Discovery. Southern Journal of Philosophy 21 (4):513-536.score: 93.0
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  42. Donald Schon (1959). Comment on Mr. Hanson's "the Logic of Discovery". Journal of Philosophy 56 (11):500-503.score: 93.0
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  43. Arthur E. Falk (1966). Two Conceptions of a Logic of Discovery. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 40:203-208.score: 93.0
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  44. Mary Hesse (1973). Logic of Discovery in Maxwell's Electromagnetic Theory. In Ronald N. Giere & Richard S. Westfall (eds.), Foundations of Scientific Method: The Nineteenth Century. Bloomington,Indiana University Press. 86--114.score: 93.0
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  45. Dan Nesher (2001). Peircean Epistmology of Learning and the Function of Abduction as the Logic of Discovery. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 37 (1):23 - 57.score: 93.0
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  46. R. Pawson (1992). Book Reviews : Richard H. Brown, A Poetic for Sociology: Towards a Logic of Discovery for the Human Sciences. Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1989. Pp. Xiii, 302. $14.95. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (3):394-397.score: 93.0
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  47. Michael W. Tkacz (1994). Galileo's Logic of Discovery and Proof. Review of Metaphysics 48 (1):174-176.score: 93.0
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  48. Maarten De Rijke (1995). The Logic of Peirce Algebras. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 4 (3):227-250.score: 91.3
    Peirce algebras combine sets, relations and various operations linking the two in a unifying setting. This paper offers a modal perspective on Peirce algebras. Using modal logic a characterization of the full Peirce algebras is given, as well as a finite axiomatization of their equational theory that uses so-called unorthodox derivation rules. In addition, the expressive power of Peirce algebras is analyzed through their connection with first-order logic, and the fragment of first-order logic corresponding to Peirce algebras (...)
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  49. Maarten Rijke (1995). The Logic of Peirce Algebras. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 4 (3):227-250.score: 91.3
    Peirce algebras combine sets, relations and various operations linking the two in a unifying setting. This paper offers a modal perspective on Peirce algebras. Using modal logic as a characterization of the full Peirce algebras is given, as well as a finite axiomatization of their equational theory that uses so-called unorthodox derivation rules. In addition, the expressive power of Peirce algebras is analyzed through their connection with first-order logic and the fragment of first-order logic corresponding to Peirce (...)
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  50. Norwood Russell Hanson (1960). Is There a Logic of Scientific Discovery? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 38 (2):91 – 106.score: 90.0
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