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J. R. Lucas [127]John R. Lucas [15]John Lucas [8]J. Lucas [6]
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Profile: João Lucas
Profile: Joe Lucas (University of Manchester)
Profile: Jean Lucas
Profile: Jacob Lucas (University of Exeter)
  1. John R. Lucas (1961). Minds, Machines and Godel. Philosophy 36 (April-July):112-127.
    Goedel's theorem states that in any consistent system which is strong enough to produce simple arithmetic there are formulae which cannot be proved-in-the-system, but which we can see to be true. Essentially, we consider the formula which says, in effect, "This formula is unprovable-in-the-system". If this formula were provable-in-the-system, we should have a contradiction: for if it were provablein-the-system, then it would not be unprovable-in-the-system, so that "This formula is unprovable-in-the-system" would be false: equally, if it were provable-in-the-system, then it (...)
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  2.  4
    John Lucas (2003). Minds, Machines and Gödel. Etica E Politica 5 (1):1.
    In this article, Lucas maintains the falseness of Mechanism - the attempt to explain minds as machines - by means of Incompleteness Theorem of Gödel. Gödel’s theorem shows that in any system consistent and adequate for simple arithmetic there are formulae which cannot be proved in the system but that human minds can recognize as true; Lucas points out in his turn that Gödel’s theorem applies to machines because a machine is the concrete instantiation of a formal system: therefore, for (...)
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  3.  46
    J. R. Lucas (1995). Responsibility. Clarendon Press.
    Responsibility is a key concept in our moral, social, and political thinking, but it is not itself properly understood. J.R. Lucas here presents a lively, broad, and accessible discussion of responsibility in various areas of human life, from personal and sexual relations to politics.
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  4. John R. Lucas (1989). The Future: An Essay on God, Temporality, and Truth. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
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  5. J. R. Lucas (1969). Euclides Ab Omni Naevo Vindicatus. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 20 (1):1-11.
    The issue is obscured by the fact that the word `space' can be used in four different ways. It can be used, first, as a term of pure mathematics, as when mathematicians talk of an `n-dimensional phase-space', an `n-dimensional vector-space', a `three-dimensional projective space' or a `twodimensional Riemannian space'. In this sense the word `space' means the totality of the abstract entities-the `points'-implicitly defined by the axioms. There is no doubt that there exist, iii this sense, non-Euclidean spaces, because all (...)
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  6. J. R. Lucas (1990). Spacetime and Electromagnetism: An Essay on the Philosophy of the Special Theory of Relativity. Oxford University Press.
    That space and time should be integrated into a single entity, spacetime, is the great insight of Einstein's special theory of relativity, and leads us to regard spacetime as a fundamental context in which to make sense of the world around us. But it is not the only one. Causality is equally important and at least as far as the special theory goes, it cannot be subsumed under a fundamentally geometrical form of explanation. In fact, the agent of propagation of (...)
     
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  7.  23
    J. R. Lucas, Wilberforce and Huxley: A Legendary Encounter.
    The legend of the encounter between Wilberforce and Huxley is well established. Almost every scientist knows, and every viewer of the BBC's recent programme on Darwin was shown,* how Samuel Wilberforce, bishop of Oxford, attempted to pour scorn on Darwin's Origin of Species at a meeting of the British Association in Oxford on 30 June 1860, and had the tables turned on him by T. H. Huxley. In this memorable encounter Huxley's simple scientific sincerity humbled the prelatical insolence and clerical (...)
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  8.  33
    J. R. Lucas (1979). The Nature of Law. Philosophica 23.
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  9. John R. Lucas (1970). Mechanism: A Rejoinder. Philosophy 45 (April):149-51.
    PROFESSOR LEWIS 1 and Professor Coder 2 criticize my use of Gödel's theorem to refute Mechanism. 3 Their criticisms are valuable. In order to meet them I need to show more clearly both what the tactic of my argument is at one crucial point and the general aim of the whole manoeuvre.
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  10. J. R. Lucas (1973). A Treatise on Time and Space. [London]Methuen.
     
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  11.  19
    Jeffrey W. Lucas (2003). Theory-Testing, Generalization, and the Problem of External Validity. Sociological Theory 21 (3):236-253.
    External validity refers to the generalization of research findings, either from a sample to a larger population or to settings and populations other than those studied. While definitions vary, discussions generally agree that experiments are lower in external validity than other methodological approaches. Further, external validity is widely treated as an issue to be addressed through methodological procedures. When testing theories, all measures are indirect indicators of theoretical constructs, and no methodological procedures taken alone can produce external validity. External validity (...)
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  12.  92
    John Lucas (2003). The Gödelian Argument: Turn Over the Page. Etica E Politica 5 (1):1.
    In this paper Lucas suggests that many of his critics have not read carefully neither his exposition nor Penrose’s one, so they seek to refute arguments they never proposed. Therefore he offers a brief history of the Gödelian argument put forward by Gödel, Penrose and Lucas itself: Gödel argued indeed that either mathematics is incompletable – that is axioms can never be comprised in a finite rule and so human mind surpasses the power of any finite machine – or there (...)
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  13.  8
    J. R. Lucas (1984). Space, Time, and Causality: An Essay in Natural Philosophy. Clarendon Press.
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  14.  15
    J. R. Lucas (2000). The Conceptual Roots of Mathematics: An Essay on the Philosophy of Mathematics. Routledge.
    The Conceptual Roots of Mathematics is a comprehensive study of the foundation of mathematics. Lucas, one of the most distinguished Oxford scholars, covers a vast amount of ground in the philosophy of mathematics, showing us that it is actually at the heart of the study of epistemology and metaphysics.
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  15. J. Lucas (2003). The Implications of Gödel Theorem. Etica E Politica 5 (1):1.
    After a brief and informal explanation of the Gödel’s theorem as a version of the Epimenides’ paradox applied to Elementary Number Theory formulated in first-order logic, Lucas shows some of the most relevant consequences of this theorem, such as the impossibility to define truth in terms of provability and so the failure of Verificationist and Intuitionist arguments. He shows moreover how Gödel’s theorem proves that first-order arithmetic admits non-standard models, that Hilbert’s programme is untenable and that second-order logic is not (...)
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  16. J. R. Lucas, The Unity of Science Without Reductionism.
    The Unity of Science is often thought to be reductionist, but this is because we fail to distinguish questions from answers. The questions asked by different sciences are different---the biologist is interested in different topics from the physicist, and seeks different explanations---but the answers are not peculiar to each particular science, and can range over the whole of scientific knowledge. The biologist is interested in organisms--- concept unknown to physics---but explains physiological processes in terms of chemistry, not a mysterious vital (...)
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  17. Norwood R. Hanson, G. B. Keene, J. L. Ackrill, J. R. Lucas, Thomas McPherson, E. J. Lemmon, W. von Leyden, C. H. Whiteley, Renford Bambrough, A. C. MacIntyre, W. Gerber & M. Kneale (1958). New Books. [REVIEW] Mind 67 (266):272-288.
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  18.  21
    J. R. Lucas (1995). Prospects for Realism in Quantum Mechanics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 9 (3):225 – 234.
    Abstract Quantum mechanics has seemed to defy all attempts to construe it realistically, but antirealism, like the many?worlds hypothesis, is even more difficult to accept. In order to give a realist construal of quantum mechanics, we need first to distinguish the objective and rational aspect of reality from the paradigmatic thing?like aspects of having determinate physical properties: quantum?mechanical entities may be real in the former sense though not in the latter. Anti?realist arguments are based on the difficulty of giving an (...)
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  19. J. R. Lucas (1980). On Justice =. Oxford University Press.
     
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  20.  55
    J. R. Lucas (1965). Against Equality. Philosophy 40 (154):296 - 307.
    Equality is the great political issue of our time. Liberty is forgotten: Fraternity never did engage our passions: the maintenance of Law and Order is at a discount: Natural Rights and Natural Justice are outmoded shibboleths. But Equality—there men have something to die for, kill for, agitate about, be miserable about. The demand for Equality obsesses all our political thought. We are not sure what it is—indeed, as I shall show later, we are necessarily not sure what it is—but we (...)
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  21. John R. Lucas (1967). Human and Machine Logic: A Rejoinder. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 19 (August):155-6.
    We can imagine a human operator playing a game of one-upmanship against a programmed computer. If the program is Fn, the human operator can print the theorem Gn, which the programmed computer, or, if you prefer, the program, would never print, if it is consistent. This is true for each whole number n, but the victory is a hollow one since a second computer, loaded with program C, could put the human operator out of a job.... It is useless for (...)
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  22.  19
    John R. Lucas (2010). Umysły, maszyny i Gödel (przełożył Michał Zawidzki). Hybris 8.
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  23.  9
    Judy Lucas (1993). Nursing Analysis. Health Care Analysis 1 (2):179-182.
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  24. M. R. Griffiths & John Randolph Lucas (1999). [Book Review] Ethical Economics. [REVIEW] Ethics 109 (2):442-444.
     
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  25.  7
    J. R. Lucas (2009). A Mind of One's Own. Philosophy 68 (266):457-.
    Whatever good or ill it did to Guy Fawkes, his resuscitation at the hands of Bernard Williams has, by any utilitarian reckoning, been a Good Thing. A casual glance at the literature that has accumulated over the past thirty five years leaves no doubt that the topic has been reduplicated many times over, to the great enjoyment of undergraduates, who have been able to write science fiction under the guise of essays in the Philosophy of Mind, and of dons, who (...)
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  26.  77
    J. R. Lucas, Chapter 9a What is Logic?
    Thus far the logic out of which mathematics has developed has been First-order Predicate Calculus with Identity, that is the logic of the sentential functors, ¬, →, ∧, ∨, etc., together with identity and the existential and universal quotifiers restricted to quotify- ing only over individuals, and not anything else, such as qualities or quotities themselves. Some philosophers—among them Quine— have held that this, First-order Logic, as it is often called, con- stitutes the whole of logic. But that is a (...)
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  27.  70
    John R. Lucas (1968). Satan Stultified: A Rejoinder to Paul Benacerraf. The Monist 52 (1):145-58.
    The argument is a dialectical one. It is not a direct proof that the mind is something more than a machine, but a schema of disproof for any particular version of mechanism that may be put forward. If the mechanist maintains any specific thesis, I show that [146] a contradiction ensues. But only if. It depends on the mechanist making the first move and putting forward his claim for inspection. I do not think Benacerraf has quite taken the point. He (...)
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  28.  48
    J. R. Lucas, .
    There was once a leak from Hebdomadal Council. The Assessor told her husband, who told my wife, who told me that Monday afternoon had been spent discussing what Lucas would say if various courses of action were adopted, leading to the conclusion that it would be best to do nothing. I was flattered, but a bit surprised. The tide of philosophical scepticism had ebbed, and it was generally allowed that a reasonable way of discovering what someone would say was to (...)
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  29.  6
    J. P. Day & J. R. Lucas (1973). The Concept of Probability. Philosophical Quarterly 23 (90):83.
  30.  63
    John R. Lucas & Michael Redhead (2007). Truth and Provability. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (2):331-2.
    The views of Redhead ([2004]) are defended against the argument by Panu Raatikainen ([2005]). The importance of informal rigour is canvassed, and the argument for the a priori nature of induction is explained. The significance of Gödel's theorem is again rehearsed.
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  31.  61
    J. R. Lucas, An Engagement with Plato's Republic.
    Plato was politically incorrect---gloriously incorrect: hard to ignore and difficult to refute. Read An Engagement with Plato's Republic to argue with him or against him, for contemporary orthodoxies or against them. ``Plato was the first feminist. Women were the same as men, only not so good.''.
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  32.  16
    Joseph Lucas & Charles W. Lucas Jr (2002). A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei—Part 1. Foundations of Science 5 (1):1-7.
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  33.  3
    Robin LePoidevin & J. R. Lucas (1991). The Future. Philosophical Quarterly 41 (164):333.
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  34.  2
    Jaakko Hintikka, Imre Lakatos, J. R. Lucas, R. Carnap, M. B. Hesse & J. Hintikka (1975). Induction by Enumeration and Induction by Elimination. Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (3):448-449.
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  35.  9
    J. R. Lucas, IΣOnomia.
    Equality is one of the great issues of our age, but few people stop to wonder at its being an issue in politics at all. Yet it is surprising that a concept which has its natural habitat in the mathematical sciences should have taken root in our thinking about how we should be governed. We do not naturally think of society in terms of group theory, or rings or fields, and have long been aware of the difficulties in establishing any (...)
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  36.  47
    J. R. Lucas, The Huxley-Wilberforce Debate Revisited.
    According to the legend, Bishop Wilberforce at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Oxford on Saturday, June 30th, 1860, turned to Thomas Huxley, and asked him ``Is it on your grandfather's or your grandmother's side that you claim descent from a monkey''; whereupon Huxley delivered a devastating rebuke, thereby establishing the primacy of scientific truth over ecclesiastical obscurantism. Although the legend is historically untrue in almost every detail, its persistence suggests that it may nonetheless (...)
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  37.  11
    J. R. Lucas (1968). Satan Stultified. The Monist 52 (1):145-158.
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  38.  47
    J. R. Lucas, Reason and Reality.
    At the end of each chapter there are places to click on which will take you to the next chapter, to the contents, or to this (the Home) page. In the Contents clicking on a chapter number will take you to that chapter.
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  39. J. R. Lucas, The Responsibilities of a Businessman.
    MANY thinkers deny the possibility of businessmen having responsibilities or ethical obligations. A businessman has no alternative, in view of the competition of the market-place, to do anything other than buy at the cheapest and sell at the dearest price he can. In any case, it would be irrational-if, indeed, it were possible-not to do so. Admittedly, there is a framework of law within which he has to operate, but that is all, and so long as he keeps the law (...)
     
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  40.  3
    J. R. Lucas (1968). Or Else. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 69:207 - 222.
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  41.  12
    J. R. Lucas (1987). The Worm and the Juggernaut. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 6 (2):51-59.
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  42. J. Lucas (1990). Lockwood, M., "Mind, Brain and the Quantum". [REVIEW] Mind 99:650.
     
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  43.  40
    J. R. Lucas, Jesus Barabbas.
    But still, I had heard it. It must have been in the New English Bible and the New English E 'o)# f&# Bible is sound on scholarship, so there must be good manuscript authority for s..
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  44.  38
    J. R. Lucas, The Ontological Argument.
    The ontological argument has run for a long time, regularly refuted, regularly re-appearing in a new form. Something can be learnt from its longevity. Its proponents must be on to something, or it would not have survived its many refutations. But equally, it must have been much misformulated, or it would not have seemed evidently fallacious to its many critics. Perhaps it does express a deep philosophical intimation. Certainly it has been taken to prove more than it really can establish. (...)
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  45.  2
    Judy Lucas (1993). Nursing Analysis. Health Care Analysis 1 (1):81-85.
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  46.  6
    J. R. Lucas (1989). Foreknowledge and the Vulnerability of God. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 25:119-128.
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  47.  25
    J. R. Lucas, Fellow of Merton College.
    It is meet and right that pride and humility should be the two human characteristics on which University sermons have to be preached. Left to myself, although I might have picked on my modesty as something I should share with you, I should have given the preeminence to other among my sins than pride. My greed, my sloth, my avarice or, in this salacious age my lust, are subjects on which I could tell you much that might interest you. Pride (...)
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  48.  23
    J. R. Lucas, Restoration of Man: A Lecture Given in Durham on Thursday October 22nd, 1992.
    In Epiphany Term, 1942, C.S. Lewis delivered the Riddell Memorial Lectures in the Physics Lecture Theatre, King's College, Newcastle, which was then a constituent college of the University of Durham. The Riddell Memorial Lectures were founded in 1928 in memory of Sir John Buchanan Riddell of Hepple, onetime High Sheriff of Northumberland, who had died in 1924. His son, Sir Walter, was, like his father, a devout Christian, active throughout his life in public affairs. He was Fellow, and subsequently Principal, (...)
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  49.  33
    J. R. Lucas (1958). On Not Worshipping Facts. Philosophical Quarterly 8 (31):144-156.
    My sights in this paper are trained on facts. Most people think that they know what facts are; that while their friends often, and themselves occasionally, are ignorant of the facts, at least they know what sort of things facts are---they can recognise a fact when they see it. Facts, in the popular philosophy of today, are good, simple souls; there is no guile in them, nor any room for subjective bias, and once we have made ourselves acquainted with them, (...)
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  50.  33
    John R. Lucas, Can the Theory of Games Save Mill's Utilitarianism?
    John Stuart Mill’s Utilitarianism engages our interest and sympathy because it is flawed. It reflects the crisis in Mill’s life, when he lost his faith. He had been brought up by his father in the straitest tenets of utilitarianism, but had had nervous breakdown in early adult life from emotional ill-nourishment. Utilitarianism might work as a guide for the well-governing of India by James Mill and his colleagues, but gave little sustenance to the aspiring spirit of the Romantic Movement. It (...)
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