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J. R. Lucas [104]John R. Lucas [17]J. Lucas [3]Joseph Lucas [3]
Juan de Sahagún Lucas [2]Jean-Pierre Lucas [1]Judy Lucas [1]Jeffrey W. Lucas [1]

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Profile: Joe Lucas (University of Manchester)
Profile: Jean Lucas
  1. J. R. Lucas, Criticisms and Discussions of the Gödelian Argument.
    based on a list which I distributed at the Turing Conference in Brighton some years ago, with some further additions. In the Proceedings, Machines and Thought, ed. Peter Millican and Andy Clark, Oxford, 1996, Robin Gandy gives a much earlier reference: Emil L. Post, `Absolutely Unsolvable Problems and Relatively Undecidable Propositions—Account of an Anticipation’, in Martin Davis, (ed.), The Undecidable (New York: Raven Press, 1965), pp.340-435, esp. pp.417-24. Chalmers gives a more up-to-date list in his bibliography—which used to be (...)
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  2. J. R. Lucas, Methodological Individualism.
    A section I had written for my Principles of Politics, but decided not to use. I recently dug it out for an American friend. I publish it here, in case it is of use to anyone else.
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  3. J. R. Lucas, Reason and Reality.
    At the end of each chapter there are places to click on which will take you to the next chapter, to the contents, or to this (the Home) page. In the Contents clicking on a chapter number will take you to that chapter.
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  4. J. R. Lucas, Fellow of Merton College, Oxford.
    I must start with an apologia. My original paper, ``Minds, Machines and Gödel'', was written in the wake of Turing's 1950 paper in Mind, and was intended to show that minds were not Turing machines. Why, then, didn't I couch the argument in terms of Turing's theorem, which is easyish to prove and applies directly to Turing machines, instead of Gödel's theorem, which is horrendously difficult to prove, and doesn't so naturally or obviously apply to machines? The reason was that (...)
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  5. J. R. Lucas, Fellow of Merton College.
    It is meet and right that pride and humility should be the two human characteristics on which University sermons have to be preached. Left to myself, although I might have picked on my modesty as something I should share with you, I should have given the preeminence to other among my sins than pride. My greed, my sloth, my avarice or, in this salacious age my lust, are subjects on which I could tell you much that might interest you. Pride (...)
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  6. J. R. Lucas, IΣOnomia.
    Equality is one of the great issues of our age, but few people stop to wonder at its being an issue in politics at all. Yet it is surprising that a concept which has its natural habitat in the mathematical sciences should have taken root in our thinking about how we should be governed. We do not naturally think of society in terms of group theory, or rings or fields, and have long been aware of the difficulties in establishing any (...)
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  7. J. R. Lucas, Philosophical.
    Plato began it. After thinking about the nature of argument he concluded that the correct way of reasoning was the axiomatic way, and formulated the programme of axiomatization that Eudoxus and Euclid subsequently carried out. Since then the axiomatic method has been firmly established, not only as the method for mathematics, but as a paradigm to which all other disciplines should strive to be assimilated; and in this present century not only has axiomatization been carried through as completely as it (...)
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  8. J. R. Lucas, Restoration of Man: A Lecture Given in Durham on Thursday October 22nd, 1992.
    In Epiphany Term, 1942, C.S. Lewis delivered the Riddell Memorial Lectures in the Physics Lecture Theatre, King's College, Newcastle, which was then a constituent college of the University of Durham. The Riddell Memorial Lectures were founded in 1928 in memory of Sir John Buchanan Riddell of Hepple, onetime High Sheriff of Northumberland, who had died in 1924. His son, Sir Walter, was, like his father, a devout Christian, active throughout his life in public affairs. He was Fellow, and subsequently Principal, (...)
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  9. J. R. Lucas, The Lay-Out of Arguments.
    Arguments have been much misunderstood. Not only has it been assumed that they must be deductive, but it has been assumed also that, although often expressed in loose and elliptical form, they must be capable, if they are valid at all, of being expressed with absolute precision, as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the action in question to be appropriate. Mathematical arguments are capable of being stated precisely, and it has long been a reproach to workers in (...)
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  10. J. R. Lucas, The Nature of Things.
    It would be improper for a President to play safe. After two years of curbing my tongue and not making all sorts of observations that have sprung to my mind, in order to let you have an opportunity of having your say, I am now off the leash. And whereas mostly in academic life it is appropriate to adopt a prudential strategy, and not say anything that might be wrong, I owe it to you on this occasion to play a (...)
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  11. J. R. Lucas, The Open Society €“ and ..
    There was once a leak from Hebdomadal Council. The Assessor told her husband, who told my wife, who told me that Monday afternoon had been spent discussing what Lucas would say if various courses of action were adopted, leading to the conclusion that it would be best to do nothing. I was flattered, but a bit surprised. The tide of philosophical scepticism had ebbed, and it was generally allowed that a reasonable way of discovering what someone would say was (...)
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  12. J. R. Lucas, Wilberforce and Huxley: A Legendary Encounter.
    The legend of the encounter between Wilberforce and Huxley is well established. Almost every scientist knows, and every viewer of the BBC's recent programme on Darwin was shown,* how Samuel Wilberforce, bishop of Oxford, attempted to pour scorn on Darwin's Origin of Species at a meeting of the British Association in Oxford on 30 June 1860, and had the tables turned on him by T. H. Huxley. In this memorable encounter Huxley's simple scientific sincerity humbled the prelatical insolence and clerical (...)
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  13. J. R. Lucas, An Academy for Non-Academics.
    One of the great virtues of Oxford is that most of its members are not academics, nor ever supposed that they sould be. They come to Oxford for three or four years and then go on their way to other occupations in "the service of God in Church and State". It is not that they were not good enough to become dons: it is simply that they had other fish to fry, and would rather be a barrister, a Member of (...)
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  14. J. R. Lucas, An Engagement with Plato's Republic.
    Plato was politically incorrect---gloriously incorrect: hard to ignore and difficult to refute. Read An Engagement with Plato's Republic to argue with him or against him, for contemporary orthodoxies or against them. ``Plato was the first feminist. Women were the same as men, only not so good.''.
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  15. J. R. Lucas, A Plea for Incompetence.
    Of course I have an axe to grind. I am one of the old school of tutors, generally regarded as outmoded and amateurish by our more up-to-date successors, who are anxious to introduce more professionalism into Oxford's academic life. I probably shan't be replaced, but if I am, it will be by somebody competent, capable of looking the twenty-first century in the face, who knows what he is about, and adopts effective means to bringing it about.
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  16. J. R. Lucas, A View of One's Own.
    Two questions are distinguished: how to program a machine so that it behaves in a manner that would lead us to ascribe consciousness to it; and what is involved in saying that something is conscious. The distinction can be seen in cases where anaesthetics have failed to work on patients temporarily paralysed.
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  17. J. R. Lucas, Contents.
    x1.1 Wrong? x1.2 Is Metaphysics Possible? x1.3 Is Metaphysics Necessary? x1.4 The Natural History of Reason x1.5 Pro and Con x1.6 Argument and Agreement x1.7 Authority and Autonomy..
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  18. J. R. Lucas, Chapter 8 Appearance and Unreality.
    x8.1 `Real' The word `real' has many senses, and has been much misunderstood in consequence. It was, along with other philosophical terms, such as quality, quantity, entity, identity, essence and substance, coined by the Schoolmen in the Middle Ages|realis, reale from the Latin res, a thing|to mark the distinction between what really existed and what mere existed in intellectu, in the mind; and the word still carries connotations of thinginess, which can confuse our thinking about reality in the present age.
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  19. J. R. Lucas, Chapter 9a What is Logic?
    Thus far the logic out of which mathematics has developed has been First-order Predicate Calculus with Identity, that is the logic of the sentential functors, ¬, →, ∧, ∨, etc., together with identity and the existential and universal quotifiers restricted to quotify- ing only over individuals, and not anything else, such as qualities or quotities themselves. Some philosophers—among them Quine— have held that this, First-order Logic, as it is often called, con- stitutes the whole of logic. But that is a (...)
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  20. J. R. Lucas, Charles Dodgson.
    When Charles Dodgson died in 1898, my father succeeded to his rooms, which had been cleared, rather rapidly, by the College. Among the items that had been disposed of were some tiles which had surrounded the fireplace, and which were evidently the inspiration for "The Hunting of the Snark". My father bought them back from a second-hand shop, and they have been in Christ Church ever since.
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  21. J. R. Lucas, Chapter 10 Points of View.
    x10.1 Locality Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation was always open to the complaint that it involved \Action at a Distance", contrary to the Principle of Locality. But it was very well established empirically, and had to be accepted. Similarly in contemporary quantum me- chanics we seem to have correlations between measurements that defy the Principle of Locality, but have to be accepted none the less.1 Although locality is a characteristic mark of causal con- nexion, it is not, as Hume supposed,2 (...)
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  22. J. R. Lucas, Chapter 13 Reductionism.
    x13.1 Pervasive Pressures „here —re m—ny intelle™tu—l pressures tow—rds redu™tionismF ‡e —re heirs of ™l—ssi™—l ™orpus™ul—ri—nismD —nd —re often unwilling m—teri—lists under our skinF „here —re —rguments from the su™™ess of s™ien™e —nd for the unity of s™ien™eD —nd for the unity of the world in whi™h we —nd s™ientists oper—teF „hese give rise to dierent redu™tionist thesesD whi™h —re usu—lly ™onfusedD (...)
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  23. J. R. Lucas, Chapter 2 the Development of Normative Reason.
    x2.1 Non-contradiction One can think wrong. The fact that after much thought one has reached a conclusion is no guarantee that the conclusion reached is right. Only a very opinionated man would refuse to concede the possibility of error, and once the admission of fallibility is made, the problem of justifying one's beliefs becomes acute. So we formulate our reasons as best we can. But even when formulated, they may fail to convince. Only if people are willing to be reasonable (...)
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  24. J. R. Lucas, Exploiting the Young.
    We were discussing the retirement age. Many of my colleagues said that of course existing interests must be preserved, but they had noticed that some of their colleagues had been past their prime by the time they reached 67, and that it would be a good thing if in future dons were retired at 65. I agreed, but pointed out that the argument went further. Quite a few of us were already deteriorating before they were 65. Nor was it clear (...)
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  25. J. R. Lucas, I Have Recently Had an E-Mail From Mr Evin Harris of Trinity College Dublin:.
    Dear Mr. Lucas, I was wondering if you had come across Query 44 of George Berkeley's ``Analyst: A discourse addressed to an infidel mathematician"?. It reads: ``Whether the difference between a mere computer and a man of science be not that one computes on principles clearly conceived and by rules evidently demonstrated, whereas the other [i.e a man] doth not?" Not bad for 1734!
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  26. J. R. Lucas, Jesus Barabbas.
    But still, I had heard it. It must have been in the New English Bible and the New English E 'o)# f&# Bible is sound on scholarship, so there must be good manuscript authority for s..
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  27. J. R. Lucas, Memorandum Submitted to Franks Commission.
    I am a tutor, aged 35, who was brought up in Durham, and who have been since graduating, at Cambridge, Princeton and Leeds. I want to explain why I think Oxford and Cambridge to be, in spite of many defects, the best universities in the world, and why I brush off all tentative approaches from other places in the U. K. and North America. I believe my views are shared by a large number of other tutors, who are less (...)
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  28. J. R. Lucas, Norrington Blues.
    Sir Arthur Norrington deserved better of the world than to be known for his table. The Norrington Room, his presidency of Trinity, his long service to the University Press, deserve repeated coverage in the papers. But the only thing they say about him year after year is that he devised the table for comparing the academic prowess of the colleges in the Schools. It is not even true. Long before the Norrington table was first published, when I was an Assistant (...)
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  29. J. R. Lucas, Philosophy.
    "Ich liebe dich 3" the swains in mountain valleys of Austria inscribe on their presents to those to whom they plight their troth. The pun is a rare one in German. Only in remote valleys does the word for `three' rhyme with joy; and the word for `true' is usually..
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  30. J. R. Lucas, Recovering the Vacs.
    Much of the vac is wasted. Although many undergraduates are sensible, and use the vacations wisely, not only for holiday but for all the reading they cannot do in term, others---perhaps the majority---fritter it away in paid employment or jaunts to Katmandu, or wherever is fashionable at the time.
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  31. J. R. Lucas, Sxolh.
    Workahol is the curse of the thinking classes. Though popular opinion has it that Oxford dons are given to claret and gluttony, no public recognition is given to our much more dangerous addiction to work. As we move into an era of great financial stringency, and are increasingly having to cut our coat according to our cloth, we need to review not only our resources but our use of them, and press home the question whether we are using them aright.
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  32. J. R. Lucas, Size and Shapelessness.
    As the last College Meeting drew to its weary close, the Warden was moved to address the empty pews on the wickedness of not making attendance at meetings of the Governing Body a first call on one's time. Of course, it was waste of words to address them to absent auditors, but the sentiment was apposite. But it is inevitable with a Governing Body of fifty that each fellow feels on average only a 2% say in, and responsibility for, the (...)
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  33. J. R. Lucas, Summary of Memorandum Submitted to Royal Commission on Reform of the Lords.
    The first task of the Royal Commission, in my view, is to decide what functions the House of Lords should perform. That will determine what powers it ought to have and how it should be constituted.
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  34. J. R. Lucas, Tables.
    The Norrington Table is scotched, but not killed. It still appears each year in a national daily, having been compiled by an enterprising graduate with more need for money than time. Some people argue that this shows the futility of trying to suppress the table. But that is not so. In a free society it is open to anyone to obtain information and publish his results. There are many things that people might like to know about colleges. Of greater interest (...)
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  35. J. R. Lucas, The Huxley-Wilberforce Debate Revisited.
    According to the legend, Bishop Wilberforce (``Soapy Sam'') at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Oxford on Saturday, June 30th, 1860, turned to Thomas Huxley, and asked him ``Is it on your grandfather's or your grandmother's side that you claim descent from a monkey''; whereupon Huxley delivered a devastating rebuke, thereby establishing the primacy of scientific truth over ecclesiastical obscurantism. Although the legend is historically untrue in almost every detail, its persistence suggests that (...)
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  36. J. R. Lucas, The M.A.
    Critics of Oxbridge take unkindly to our M.A. When I had to fill in one of those innumerable time-wasting forms to show how unqualified I was to hold an academic post, I was specifically instructed to describe myself as a B.A., which I was proud to do, since our B.A. is our best degree (everything in Oxford being the opposite of what it seems). But the real equivalent of a mediaeval M.A. is a modern D.Phil, with every academic wanting to (...)
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  37. J. R. Lucas, Too Much Teaching.
    The latest round of cuts will be painful. There is little fat left. But there are some areas where we are, although lean, extravagant. We are extravagant in our provision of lectures and our use of tutorials. Although we are justly proud of our teaching, it is worth looking at our practices to see whether we could not be more economical in our use of resources without damaging our achievement.
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  38. J. R. Lucas, The Ontological Argument.
    The ontological argument has run for a long time, regularly refuted, regularly re-appearing in a new form. Something can be learnt from its longevity. Its proponents must be on to something, or it would not have survived its many refutations. But equally, it must have been much misformulated, or it would not have seemed evidently fallacious to its many critics. Perhaps it does express a deep philosophical intimation. Certainly it has been taken to prove more than it really can establish. (...)
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  39. J. R. Lucas, The Phenomenon of Law.
    IT is ungenerous to pick holes in The Concept of Law. It is a great work. Its clarity is luminous, and its argument sustained and convincing. Hart is eminently successful in rescuing the concept of law from the Legal Realists, the Positivists, and the Formalists, who attempt to straitjacket it within schemata which are too narrow or too vague to give an adequate elucidation of it. But sometimes Hart is not carried along by his arguments as far as he should. (...)
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  40. J. R. Lucas, The Polity of Academe.
    Henry Rosovsky, a former dean at Harvard, sings a paeon of praise to American Highest Education. 1 He cites from The Asian Wall Street Journal a list of the ten top universities, which puts Harvard first, followed by a place called Cambridge/Oxford, a number of American universities, Tokyo, the Sorbonne, Cornell and Michigan. Tokyo and the Sorbonne are, he thinks, mentioned among the top ten only as a consequence of excessive Oriental courtesy.
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  41. J. R. Lucas, The Responsibilities of a Businessman.
    MANY thinkers deny the possibility of businessmen having responsibilities or ethical obligations. A businessman has no alternative, in view of the competition of the market-place, to do anything other than buy at the cheapest and sell at the dearest price he can. In any case, it would be irrational-if, indeed, it were possible-not to do so. Admittedly, there is a framework of law within which he has to operate, but that is all, and so long as he keeps the law (...)
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  42. J. R. Lucas, The Unity of Science Without Reductionism.
    The Unity of Science is often thought to be reductionist, but this is because we fail to distinguish questions from answers. The questions asked by different sciences are different---the biologist is interested in different topics from the physicist, and seeks different explanations---but the answers are not peculiar to each particular science, and can range over the whole of scientific knowledge. The biologist is interested in organisms--- concept unknown to physics---but explains physiological processes in terms of chemistry, not a mysterious vital (...)
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  43. J. R. Lucas, Under the Grill.
    viva was unmistakable; I had sat in when a friend was being done, to spot the form; it was the same room, which I had not been into since my own viva in Greats many years ago, the same table, the lonely candidate on one side, the sombre Inquisitors on the other, courteous, considerate, anxious that the candidate should acquit himself well, but sure to notice every fallacy or error. Others, too, had sensed the likeness. ``Yes, I think the candidate (...)
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  44. John R. Lucas, Can the Theory of Games Save Mill's Utilitarianism?
    John Stuart Mill’s Utilitarianism engages our interest and sympathy because it is flawed. It reflects the crisis in Mill’s life, when he lost his faith. He had been brought up by his father in the straitest tenets of utilitarianism, but had had nervous breakdown in early adult life from emotional ill-nourishment. Utilitarianism might work as a guide for the well-governing of India by James Mill and his colleagues, but gave little sustenance to the aspiring spirit of the Romantic Movement. It (...)
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  45. John R. Lucas, The Implications of Godel's Theorem.
    In 1931 Kurt Gödel proved two theorems about the completeness and consistency of first-order arithmetic. Their implications for philosophy are profound. Many fashionable tenets are shown to be untenable: many traditional intuitions are vindicated by incontrovertible arguments.
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  46. J. Lucas, D. Schroeder, G. Arnason, P. Andanda, J. Kimani, V. Fournier & M. Krishnamurthy (2013). Donating Human Samples: Who Benefits? – Cases From Iceland, Kenya, and Indonesia. In D. Schroeder & J. Lucas (eds.), Benefit Sharing from Biodiversity to Human Genetics. Springer.
    This piece outlines concrete cases of benefit sharing that occur in relation to the sharing of human (biological) samples. For example, it surveys Indonesia’s decision, in 2006, to stop sharing virus samples of H5N1 (avian influenza) with the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN). It also outlines some of the ethical issues that arise in these cases.
     
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  47. D. Schroeder & J. Lucas (eds.) (2013). Benefit Sharing From Biodiversity to Human Genetics. Springer.
    After setting out the legal, ethical and conceptual frameworks for benefit sharing, this collection analyses seven historical cases to identify the ethical and policy challenges that arise in relation to benefit sharing.
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  48. J. R. Lucas (2011). Conceptual Roots of Mathematics. Routledge.
    The Conceptual Roots of Mathematics is a comprehensive study of the foundation of mathematics. J.R. Lucas, one of the most distinguished Oxford scholars, covers a vast amount of ground in the philosophy of mathematics, showing us that it is actually at the heart of the study of epistemology and metaphysics.
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  49. J. R. Lucas (2011). Feferman on Gödel and Free Will : A Response to Chapter 6. In Richard Swinburne (ed.), Free Will and Modern Science. Oup/British Academy.
  50. Jean-Pierre Lucas (2011). Prendre Soin: Anamnèse, Témoignages, Aveux, Preuves documentaires. Études Ricoeuriennes / Ricoeur Studies 2 (1):179-197.
    La relation de soin est une aventure historique partagée et bien singulière. Le sujet souffrant, ses proches et les soignants sont les co-auteurs de l'historiographie des rencontres itératives. Cela construit un système complexe de sens lié à l'interaction entre l'ensemble des témoignages avec les aveux à soi-même et avec l'archivage de preuves documentaires sous la forme d'un dossier médical partagé. L'anamnèse est un travail sur les mémoires enchevêtrées, elle s'élabore sur les oublis réactivés dans la trame du texte qui se (...)
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