En este artículo tratamos de hacer plausible la hipótesis de que las conectivas de diferentes lógicas no necesariamente difieren en significado. Utilizando el tratamiento categorista de las conectivas, argumentaremos contra la tesis quineana de que la diferencia de lógicas implica diferencia de significado entre sus conectivas, y ubicamos el cambio de tema en la diferencia de objetos más bien que en una tal diferencia de significado. Finalmente, intentamos mostrar que ese tratamiento categorista es una forma de minimalismo semántico, de acuerdo (...) con el cual no todos los elementos semánticos usuales son relevantes para determinar el significado de las conectivas. (shrink)
En este artículo se examina la fundación putnamiana del así llamado "funcionalismo de la tabla de máquina", para después, y sobre todo, pasar revista a las razones que llevaron al pensador americano a abandonar la teoría funcionalista de la mente y a impugnar el programa de naturalización de la intencionalidad. Desde aquí, y a la vista de la pobreza de los argumentos que se le han venido oponiendo a Putnam desde que consumó su ruptura con la ortodoxia funcionalista, y de (...) lo poco convincente de los mismos, se concluye apuntando la necesidad de someter a crítica los presupuestos filosóficos del modelo computacional de la mente en psicología cognitiva como desarrollo sofisticado del materialismo moderno, en el sentido de la crítica de las ideologías. (shrink)
La Ley Orgánica General Penitenciaria (en lo sucesivo LOGP) en el año 1979 creó la figura del juez de vigilancia penitenciaria, dedicándole 3 artículos (76,77 y 78). Fueron necesarios dos años más, para que un Acuerdo del Consejo General del Poder Judicial de 9 de julio de 1981, pusiera en funcionamiento esa clase de juzgados, los cuales se constituyeron formalmente el 1 de octubre de 1981.
En este trabajo se estudia la lectura hermenéutica de la obra freudiana que propusieron pensadores como Habermas o Ricoeur, y su continuación en el llamado "psicoanálisis narrativo", no sólo desde el punto de vista epistemológico sino también como una importante contribución a la discusión sobre la identidad personal.
A critical review of the crucial Freudian change in the general explanation of hysterics and neurosis that took place in 1897 would not let us assess in a definite way the epistemic import of Psychoanalysis. However some difficulties that appear in Freud’s works, related for instance to the no-contradiction principle, demand that we make an epistemic and a moral decision. But only if we wanted to maintain the critical attitude that modern science and philosophy have brought to us, a decision (...) that would allow us to see Freudianism as a faith and as “a testimony of a man in our age”. (shrink)
In preparation for the development of a rapid tissue donation (RTD) programme, we surveyed healthcare providers (HCPs) in our institution about knowledge and attitudes related to RTD with lung cancer patients. A 31-item web based survey was developed collecting data on demographics, knowledge and attitudes about RTD. The survey contained three items measuring participants’ knowledge about RTD, five items assessing attitudes towards RTD recruitment and six items assessing HCPs’ level of agreement with factors influencing decisions to discuss RTD. Response options (...) were presented on a 5-point Likert scale. Ninety-one HCPs participated in the study. 66% indicated they had never heard of RTD prior to the survey, 78% rated knowledge of RTD as none or limited and 95.6% reported not having ethical or religious concerns about discussing RTD with patients. The majority were either not comfortable (17.8%) or not sure if they felt comfortable discussing RTD with cancer patients (42.2%). 56.1% indicated their knowledge of RTD would play an integral role in their decision to discuss RTD with patients. 71.4% reported concerns with RTD discussion and the emotional state of the patient. Physicians and nurses play an important role in initiating conversations about recruitment and donation to research that can ultimately influence uptake. Increasing HCP knowledge about RTD is a necessary step towards building an RTD programme. Our study provides important information about characteristics associated with low levels of knowledge and practice related to RTD where additional education and training may be warranted. (shrink)
The analysis of difference and identity questions brought Iris Marion Young to develop a metaphor of collective identity, the city, which included the diversity that characterizes all human groups. This article honors Iris Marion Young by challenging the question of identity in contemporary feminism and social sciences. María Martínez González argues that we need new identity and collective identity metaphors in order to understand the complexity of contemporary feminist praxis.
The two authors of this paper have diametrically opposed views of the prevalence and strength of adaptation in nature. Hendry believes that adaptation can be seen almost everywhere and that evidence for it is overwhelming and ubiquitous. Gonzalez believes that adaptation is uncommon and that evidence for it is ambiguous at best. Neither author is certifiable to the knowledge of the other, leaving each to wonder where the other has his head buried. Extensive argument has revealed that each author thinks (...) his own view is amply supported by both theory and empirical evidence. Further reflection has revealed that the differences in opinion may start with the different disciplines in which we work: evolutionary ecology for Hendry and community ecology for Gonzalez. In the present paper, we each present devastating evidence supporting our own position and thus refuting that of the other. We then identify the critical differences that led to such opposing views. We close by combining our two perspectives into a common framework based on the adaptive landscape, and thereby suggest means by which to assess the prevalence and strength of adaptation. (shrink)
The present paper uses the theme of dialectic and dialogue to begin unraveling the similarities and differences between the hermeneutics of Paul Ricoeur and H.G. Gadamer. Ricoeur is shown to distance himself from Heidegger by insisting on a dimension of explanation and distanciation (which he sometimes identifies with Plato's `descending dialectic') that cannot be reduced to, or absorbed by, understanding and appropriation. This same move, however, leads him to reject Platonic dialogue, with the attendant prioritizing of oral conversation over the (...) written text, as a model for hermeneutics. Ricoeur therefore sees in Gadamer's recourse to such a model a regression to the problematic position of Heidegger. Yet the conception of philosophy as dialectical and dialogical which Gadamer finds in Plato is capable of responding to Ricoeur's objections. Where the fundamental difference between the hermeneutics of Ricoeur and Gadamer emerges is in the question of whether experience is fundamentally dialectical and whether language is inherently dialogical. (shrink)
Although Kant is not usually counted among the forerunners of social sciences, any look at the work of the most prominent social theorists of the past century shows the pervasive influence of Kant's philosophy. This influence is obvious and crucial at the epistemological level, if only because Kant himself set the frame for subsequent discussion of the difference between human and natural sciences. Yet, Kant's work is also rich in substantive contributions to social theory, which may be articulated around his (...) conception of culture and cultural progress. (shrink)
“Prediction” and “prescription” are crucial notions for economics. This paper offers a philosophical and methodological approach and takes into account the connection with the problem of science and values. To do this, two steps are followed: firstly, prediction in economics -its characteristics and limits- will be examined and, secondly, the role of prescription in economics (and its relations with internal and external values) will be studied. Thus; the underlying aims of this paper are to make explicit the characters of economic (...) prediction, to show its nexus with the economic prescription and to point out the links of both -especially, the latter- with the specific values of “economic activity” and the values of “economics as activity” (i. e., values of economic undertaking as an activity interconnected with others in the social context). (shrink)