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Martin Carrier [76]M. Carrier [7]Marc Carrier [4]
  1.  6
    Martin Carrier & Wolfgang Krohn (forthcoming). Scientific Expertise: Epistemic and Social Standards—The Example of the German Radiation Protection Commission. Topoi:1-12.
    In their self-understanding, expert committees solely draw on scientific knowledge to provide policy advice. However, we try to show, first, on the basis of material related to the German Radiation Protection Commission that much of their work consists in active model building. Second, expert advice is judged by criteria that diverge from standards used for judging epistemic research. In particular, the commitment to generality or universality is replaced by the criterion of specificity, and the value of precision gives way to (...)
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  2. Martin Carrier (2004). Knowledge and the World Challenges Beyond the Science Wars.
     
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  3.  24
    Martin Carrier, Don Howard & Janet A. Kourany (eds.) (2008). The Challenge of the Social and the Pressure of Practice: Science and Values Revisited. University of Pittsburgh Press.
    ISBN-13: 978-0-8229-4317-4 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-8229-4317-4 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Science — Philosophy. 2. Science — Social aspects. 3. Values. 4. Science and civilization. I. Carrier, Martin. II. Howard, Don, professor. III. Kourany ...
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  4. Gottfried Gabriel, Martin Carrier & Jürgen Mittelstrass (eds.) (2005). Enzyklopädie Philosophie Und Wissenschaftstheorie. Metzler.
    Bd. 1. A-B -- Bd. 2. C-F -- Bd. 3. G-Inn -- Bd. 4. Ins-Loc.
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  5.  54
    Martin Carrier (1991). What is Wrong with the Miracle Argument??☆. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 22 (1):23-36.
    One of the arguments advanced in favor of scientific realism is the 'miracle argument'. It says that for the anti-realist the predictive success of science appears as an utter miracle. This argument indeed has some prima facie plausibility, provided that it is sharpened by construing "predictive success" as prediction of previously unknown laws and the occurrence of a consilience of inductions. Still, the history of science teaches us that it is possible to arrive at predictive success in this sense by (...)
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  6.  94
    Martin Carrier (2011). Underdetermination as an Epistemological Test Tube: Expounding Hidden Values of the Scientific Community. Synthese 180 (2):189 - 204.
    Duhem—Quine underdetermination plays a constructive role in epistemology by pinpointing the impact of non-empirical virtues or cognitive values on theory choice. Underdetermination thus contributes to illuminating the nature of scientific rationality. Scientists prefer and accept one account among empirical equivalent alternatives. The non-empirical virtues operating in science are laid open in such theory choice decisions. The latter act as an epistemological test tube in making explicit commitments to how scientific knowledge should be like.
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  7.  48
    Martin Carrier (2010). Theories for Use: On the Bearing of Basic Science on Practical Problems. In M. Dorato M. Suàrez (ed.), Epsa Epistemology and Methodology of Science. Springer 23--33.
    Funding policies for science are usually directed at supporting technological innovations. The im-pact and success of such policies depend crucially on how science and technology are connected to each other. I propose an “interactive view” of the relationship between basic science and technol-ogy development which comprises the following four claims: First, technological change derives from science but only in part. The local models used in accounting for technologically relevant phenomena contain theoretical and non-theoretical elements alike. Second, existing technologies and rules (...)
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  8.  52
    Martin Carrier (2001). Changing Laws and Shifting Concepts. In Paul Hoyningen-Huene & Howard Sankey (eds.), Incommensurability and Related Matters. Kluwer 65--90.
  9.  63
    Martin Carrier (2004). Semantic Incommensurability and Empirical Comparability: The Case of Lorentz and Einstein. Philosophia Scientiae 8 (1):73-94.
    Semantic incommensurability is understood as non-translatability of concepts taken from different theories. My aim is to give a rational reconstruction of the notion of incommensurability underlying the writings of Feyerabend and the later Kuhn. I claim that incommensurability can be reconstructed on this basis as a coherent conception and that relevant instances can be identified. The translation failure between incommensurable concepts arises from the impossibility to jointly fulfil two conditions of adequacy that the context theory of meaning places on translations. (...)
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  10.  42
    Martin Carrier (2002). Explaining Scientific Progress: Lakatos' Methodological Account of Kuhnian Patterns of Theory Change. In G. Kampis, L.: Kvasz & M. Stöltzner (eds.), Appraising Lakatos: Mathematics, Methodology and the Man. Kluwer 53--72.
  11.  11
    Martin Carrier (2014). Prediction in Context: On the Comparative Epistemic Merit of Predictive Success. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 45 (1):97-102.
    The considerations set out in the paper are intended to suggest that in practical contexts predictive power does not play the outstanding roles sometimes accredited to it in an epistemic framework. Rather, predictive power is part of a network of other merits and achievements. Predictive power needs to be judged differently according to the specific conditions that apply. First, predictions need to be part of an explanatory framework if they are supposed to guide actions reliably. Second, in scientific expertise, the (...)
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  12. Martin Carrier (1998). In Defense of Psychological Laws. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 12 (3):217 – 232.
    Abstract It is argued that psychological explanations involve psychological generalizations that exhibit the same features as laws of physics. On the basis of the ?systematic theory of lawhood?, characteristic features of laws of nature are elaborated. Investigating some examples of explanations taken from cognitive psychology shows that these features can also be identified in psychological generalizations. Particular attention is devoted to the notion of ?ccteris?paribus laws?. It is argued that laws of psychology are indeed ceteris?paribus laws. However, this feature does (...)
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  13. Martin Carrier, Evolutionary Change and Lawlikeness : Beatty on Biological Generalizations.
  14.  3
    Martin Carrier (2004). Knowledge and Control. In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Science, Values, and Objectivity. University of Pittsburgh Press 275.
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  15.  18
    Martin Carrier (2015). Systematizität: Eine systematische Charakterisierung der Wissenschaft? Kommentar zu Paul Hoyningen-Huenes Systematicity. Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 69 (2):230-234.
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  16.  12
    Martin Carrier (2011). Knowledge, Politics, and Commerce: Science Under the Pressure of Practice. In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer 11--30.
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  17. M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.) (2011). Science in the Context of Application. Springer.
     
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  18. Martin Carrier (1994). The Completeness of Scientific Theories on the Derivation of Empirical Indicators Within a Theoretical Framework : The Case of Physical Geometry.
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  19.  31
    Martin Carrier (2003). Emergence and the Final Theory, Or: How to Make Scientific Progress Sustainable. Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 28 (1):7.
    Convergent scientific realism entails that science will sooner or later arrive at the final theory of the fundamental constituents of matter. At that stage, all fundamental truths about nature will be discovered so that the search for basic principle seems bound to come to a halt. I explore options for a non-convergent scientific realism that allows for sustained progress in basic research. I defend the views that the coherence of non-convergent realism requires an emergence claim and that this claim can (...)
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  20.  29
    Martin Carrier & Alfred Nordmann (2011). Science in the Context of Application: Methodological Change, Conceptual Transformation, Cultural Reorientation. In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer 1--7.
  21.  6
    James W. McAllister, Lars Bergström, James Robert Brown, Martin Carrier, Nancy Cartwright, Jiwei Ci, David Davies, Catherine Elgin, Márta Fehér & Michel Ghins (2010). First Page Preview. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (4).
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  22.  14
    Martin Carrier (1990). Kants Theorie der Materie Und Ihre Wirkung Auf Die Zeitgenössische Chemie. Kant-Studien 81 (2):170-210.
    Kant's theory of matter is reconstructed and his views about and impact on chemistry are studied. His early "monadological" conception is analyzed and compared to other dynamical approaches of the period. His later attempt to regard matter as a continuum and to derive some of its properties from the interaction of forces is reconstructed. His conception of chemistry is examined and compared to the notion of some chemists who were inspired by Kant's work.
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  23.  47
    Martin Carrier (1992). Kant's Relational Theory of Absolute Space. Kant-Studien 83 (4):399-416.
  24.  33
    Martin Carrier & Patrick Finzer (2006). Explanatory Loops and the Limits of Genetic Reductionism. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (3):267 – 283.
    We reconstruct genetic determinism as a reductionist thesis to the effect that the molecular properties of cells can be accounted for to a great extent by their genetic outfit. The non-reductionist arguments offered at this molecular level often use the relationship between structure and function as their point of departure. By contrast, we develop a non-reductionist argument that is confined to the structural characteristics of biomolecules; no appeal to functions is made. We raise two kinds of objections against the reducibility (...)
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  25.  21
    Martin Carrier, Circles Without Circularity : Testing Theories by Theory-Laden Observations.
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  26.  64
    Martin Carrier & Peter Weingart (2009). The Politicization of Science: The Esf-Zif-Bielefeld Conference on Science and Values. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (2):373 - 378.
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  27. Martin Carrier (2010). Scientific Knowledge and Scientific Expertise: Epistemic and Social Conditions of Their Trustworthiness. Analyse & Kritik 32 (2):195-212.
    The article explores epistemic and social conditions of the trustworthiness of scientific expertise. I claim that there are three kinds of conditions for the trustworthiness of scientific expertise. The first condition is epistemic and means that scientific knowledge enjoys high credibility. The second condition concerns the significance of scientific knowledge. It means that scientific generalizations are relevant for elucidating the particular cases that constitute the challenges for expert judgment. The third condition concerns the social processes involved in producing science-based recommendations. (...)
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  28.  13
    Matthias Adam, Martin Carrier & Torsten Wilholt (2006). How to Serve the Customer and Still Be Truthful: Methodological Characteristics of Applied Research. Science and Public Policy 33 (6):435-444.
    Transdisciplinarity includes the assumption that within new institutional settings, scientific research becomes more closely responsive to practical problems and user needs and is therefore often subject to considerable application pressure. This raises the question whether transdisciplinarity affects the epistemic standards and the fruitfulness of research. Case studies show how user-orientation and epistemic innovativeness can be combined. While the modeling involved in all cases under consideration was local and focused primarily on features of immediate practical relevance, it was informed by theoretical (...)
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  29.  1
    Martin Carrier (2000). Multiplicity and Heterogeneity: On the Relations Between Functions and Their Realizations. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 31 (1):179-192.
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  30.  45
    Martin Carrier & Jürgen Mittelstrass (1990). The Unity of Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 4 (1):17-31.
    Abstract The paper addresses the question of how the unity of science can adequately be characterized. A mere classification of scientific fields and disciplines does not express the unity of science unless it is supplemented with a perspective that establishes a systematic coherence among the different branches of science. Four ideas of this kind are discussed. Namely, the unity of scientific language, of scientific laws, of scientific method and of science as a practical?operational enterprise. Whereas reference to the unity of (...)
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  31.  18
    M. Carrier (2003). How to Tell Causes From Effects: Kant's Causal Theory of Time and Modern Approaches. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (1):59-71.
    I attempt a reconstruction of Kant's version of the causal theory of time that makes it appear coherent. Two problems are at issue. The first concerns Kant's reference to reciprocal causal influence for characterizing simultaneity. This approach is criticized by pointing out that Kant's procedure involves simultaneous counterdirected processes-which seems to run into circularity. The problem can be defused by drawing on instantaneous processes such as the propagation of gravitation in Newtonian mechanics. Another charge of circularity against Kant's causal theory (...)
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  32.  17
    Martin Carrier (1990). Constructing or Completing Physical Geometry? On the Relation Between Theory and Evidence in Accounts of Space-Time Structure. Philosophy of Science 57 (3):369-394.
    The aim of this paper is to discuss the relation between the observation basis and the theoretical principles of General Relativity. More specifically, this relation is analyzed with respect to constructive axiomatizations of the observation basis of space-time theories, on the one hand, and in attempts to complete them, on the other. The two approaches exclude one another so that a choice between them is necessary. I argue that the completeness approach is preferable for methodological reasons.
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  33.  11
    Martin Carrier (1995). Lars-Göran Johansson, Understanding Quantum Mechanics. Philosophical Books 36.
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  34. J. Mittelstraß, G. Gabriel & M. Carrier (2005). Art.“ähnlich/Ähnlichkeit”. In Gottfried Gabriel, Martin Carrier & Jürgen Mittelstrass (eds.), Enzyklopädie Philosophie Und Wissenschaftstheorie. Metzler 1--52.
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  35.  28
    Martin Carrier (1993). What is Right with the Miracle Argument: Establishing a Taxonomy of Natural Kinds. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (3):391-409.
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  36.  19
    Martin Carrier (1986). Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Rationale Rekonstruktion Und Die Begründung Von Methodologien. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 17 (2):201-228.
    The paper exposes the principal procedures of assessing methodological theories. The first one is based on a consensus about the aims of science, the second uses epistemological criteria, and the third checks the adequacy of methodological requirements against the history of science. This third procedure is singled out for a more detailed treatment. It is argued that rational reconstruction constitutes a separate level of historiography and concerns historical explanation. The subject of a rational reconstruction is the methodological explanation of all (...)
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  37.  10
    Martin Carrier (2012). Die Struktur der Raum-Zeit in der klassischen Physik und der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. In Michael Esfeld (ed.), Philosophie der Physik.
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  38.  10
    Martin Carrier, Geometric Facts and Geometric Theory : Helmholtz and 20th-Century Philosophy of Physical Geometry.
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  39.  84
    Martin Carrier & J. Mittelstrass (1991). Mind, Brain, Behavior: The Mind-Body Problem and the Philosophy of Psychology. De Gruyter.
  40. M. Carrier (1990). The Theory of Matter of Kant and its Impact on Contemporary Chemistry. Kant-Studien 81 (2):170-210.
     
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  41. Martin Carrier & Jürgen Mittelstrass (1989). Geist, Gehirn, Verhalten Das Leib-Seele-Problem Und Die Philosophie der Psychologie.
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  42.  4
    Martin Carrier (2012). Historical Epistemology: On the Diversity and Change of Epistemic Values in Science. Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 35 (3):239-251.
    Historische Epistemologie: Vielfalt und Wandel epistemischer Werte in der Wissenschaft. Die historische Epistemologie beinhaltet die Auffassung, dass das System des Wissens nicht durch die Beobachtungen festgelegt ist, sondern auch von epistemischen Anforderungen geprägt ist, die sich im historischen Forschungsprozess wandeln können. In der Folge ist das System des Wissens pfadabhängig in dem Sinn, dass seine Gestalt von epistemischen Entscheidungen beeinflusst ist, die zu bestimmten historischen Zeitpunkten getroffen wurden. Die vorliegende Arbeit zielt darauf ab, diesen Denkansatz auszuarbeiten, indem die doppelte Rolle (...)
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  43.  3
    Martin Carrier (2015). Zur Beschaffenheit des Mentalen: Naturalismus, Bewusstsein, Willensfreiheit. In Anna Wehofsits, David Löwenstein, Dirk Koppelberg & Gregor Betz (eds.), Weiter Denken - Über Philosophie, Wissenschaft Und Religion. De Gruyter 249-262.
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  44.  6
    Martin Carrier (1988). Some Aspects of Hélène Metzger's Philosophy of Science. Corpus 8:135-150.
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  45.  8
    Martin Carrier (1983). Lakatos Und Bohrs Programm. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 14 (2):368-371.
    In a paper published in this Journal, Hans Radder argues that a detailed analysis of the degenerating phase of Bohr's programme reveals the basic incorrectness of Lakatos' own reconstruction of this period. Furthermore the corrected version shows the impossibility to account for the development in Lakatosian concepts. In this reply I try to point out that a slight modification of Lakatos' reconstruction is sufficient for reconciling the theory with the historical data. It is not Lakatos's theory itself that causes the (...)
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  46.  3
    Martin Carrier (1999). Freiheit und Indeterminismus: zu den Naturbedingungen menschlicher Freiheit. Facta Philosophica 1.
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  47.  5
    Martin Carrier (1989). Paul Hoyningen-Huene & Gertrude Hirsch (eds.), Wozu Wissenschaftsphilosophie? Positionen und Fragen zur gegenwärtigen Wissenschaftsphilosophie. Studia Philosophica 48.
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  48.  5
    Martin Carrier (1993). Tamara Horowitz & Gerald J. Massey (Eds.), Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy. Erkenntnis 39.
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  49.  16
    Martin Carrier (1993). Critical Discussion. Erkenntnis 39 (3):413-419.
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  50.  13
    Martin Carrier (1988). On Novel Facts. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 19 (2):205-231.
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