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Michael Friedman [126]Marilyn Friedman [63]Maurice Friedman [20]Maurice S. Friedman [20]
Milton Friedman [12]M. Friedman [10]Marilyn A. Friedman [5]Mordechai A. Friedman [4]

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Profile: Michael Friedman (Stanford University)
Profile: Marilyn Friedman (Washington University in St. Louis)
Profile: Michelle Friedman (University of the Witwatersrand)
  1. Eva Feder Kittay, Carol Gilligan, Annette C. Baier, Michael Stocker, Christina H. Sommers, Kathryn Pyne Addelson, Virginia Held, Thomas E. Hill Jr, Seyla Benhabib, George Sher, Marilyn Friedman, Jonathan Adler, Sara Ruddick, Mary Fainsod, David D. Laitin, Lizbeth Hasse & Sandra Harding (1989). Women and Moral Theory. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    To find more information about Rowman and Littlefield titles, please visit www.rowmanlittlefield.com.
     
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  2. Michael Friedman (2001). Dynamics of Reason: The 1999 Kant Lectures at Stanford University. Csli Publications.
    This book introduces a new approach to the issue of radical scientific revolutions, or "paradigm-shifts," given prominence in the work of Thomas Kuhn. The book articulates a dynamical and historicized version of the conception of scientific a priori principles first developed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant. This approach defends the Enlightenment ideal of scientific objectivity and universality while simultaneously doing justice to the revolutionary changes within the sciences that have since undermined Kant's original defense of this ideal. Through a modified (...)
     
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  3. Michael Friedman (1999). Reconsidering Logical Positivism. Cambridge University Press.
    In this collection of essays one of the preeminent philosophers of science writing today offers a reinterpretation of the enduring significance of logical positivism, the revolutionary philosophical movement centered around the Vienna Circle in the 1920s and '30s. Michael Friedman argues that the logical positivists were radicals not by presenting a new version of empiricism (as is often thought to be the case) but rather by offering a new conception of a priori knowledge and its role in empirical knowledge. This (...)
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  4.  49
    Milton Friedman (1953). Essays in Positive Economics. University of Chicago Press.
    There is not, of course, a one-to-one relation between policy conclusions and the conclusions of positive economics; if there were, there would be no ...
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  5.  95
    Michael Friedman (1992). Kant and the Exact Sciences. Harvard University Press.
    In this new book, Michael Friedman argues that Kant's continuing efforts to find a metaphysics that could provide a foundation for the sciences is of the utmost ...
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  6.  65
    Marilyn Friedman (2002). Autonomy, Gender, Politics. Oxford University Press.
    Women have historically been prevented from living autonomously by systematic injustice, subordination, and oppression. The lingering effects of these practices have prompted many feminists to view autonomy with suspicion. Here, Marilyn Friedman defends the ideal of feminist autonomy. In her eyes, behavior is autonomous if it accords with the wants, cares, values, or commitments that the actor has reaffirmed and is able to sustain in the face of opposition. By her account, autonomy is socially grounded yet also individualizing and sometimes (...)
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  7. Michael Friedman (1974). Explanation and Scientific Understanding. Journal of Philosophy 71 (1):5-19.
  8. Michael Friedman (2000). A Parting of the Ways Carnap, Cassirer, and Heidegger.
     
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  9.  58
    Marilyn Friedman (1993). What Are Friends For?: Feminist Perspectives on Personal Relationships and Moral Theory. Cornell University Press.
  10. Michael Friedman (2012). Kant on Geometry and Spatial Intuition. Synthese 186 (1):231-255.
    I use recent work on Kant and diagrammatic reasoning to develop a reconsideration of central aspects of Kant’s philosophy of geometry and its relation to spatial intuition. In particular, I reconsider in this light the relations between geometrical concepts and their schemata, and the relationship between pure and empirical intuition. I argue that diagrammatic interpretations of Kant’s theory of geometrical intuition can, at best, capture only part of what Kant’s conception involves and that, for example, they cannot explain why Kant (...)
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  11. Michael Friedman (2010). Einstein, Kant, and the A Priori. In Mauricio Suarez, Mauro Dorato & Miklos Redei (eds.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Springer 65--73.
    Kant's original version of transcendental philosophy took both Euclidean geometry and the Newtonian laws of motion to be synthetic a priori constitutive principles—which, from Kant's point of view, function as necessary presuppositions for applying our fundamental concepts of space, time, matter, and motion to our sensible experience of the natural world. Although Kant had very good reasons to view the principles in question as having such a constitutively a priori role, we now know, in the wake of Einstein's work, that (...)
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  12. Michael Friedman (2011). Carnap on Theoretical Terms: Structuralism Without Metaphysics. [REVIEW] Synthese 180 (2):249 - 263.
    Both realists and instrumentalists have found it difficult to understand (much less accept) Carnap's developed view on theoretical terms, which attempts to stake out a neutral position between realism and instrumentalism. I argue that Carnap's mature conception of a scientific theory as the conjunction of its Ramsey sentence and Carnap sentence can indeed achieve this neutral position. To see this, however, we need to see why the Newman problem raised in the context of recent work on structural realism is no (...)
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  13. Michael Friedman (2003). Kuhn and Logical Empiricism. In Thomas Nickles (ed.), Thomas Kuhn. Cambridge University Press 34.
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  14.  76
    Michael Friedman (1991). The Re-Evaluation of Logical Positivism. Journal of Philosophy 88 (10):505-519.
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  15. William Demopoulos & Michael Friedman (1985). Bertrand Russell's the Analysis of Matter: Its Historical Context and Contemporary Interest. Philosophy of Science 52 (4):621-639.
  16. Michael Friedman (2011). Extending the Dynamics of Reason. Erkenntnis 75 (3):431-444.
    What I call the dynamics of reason is a post-Kuhnian approach to the history and philosophy of science articulating a relativized and historicized version of the Kantian conception of the rationality and objectivity of the modern physical sciences. I here discuss two extensions of this approach. I argue that, although the relativized standards of rationality in question change over time, the particular way in which they do this still preserves the trans-historical rationality of the entire process. I also make a (...)
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  17. Michael Friedman (2002). Kant, Kuhn, and the Rationality of Science. Philosophy of Science 69 (2):171-90.
    This paper considers the evolution of the problem of scientific rationality from Kant through Carnap to Kuhn. I argue for a relativized and historicized version of the original Kantian conception of scientific a priori principles and examine the way in which these principles change and develop across revolutionary paradigm shifts. The distinctively philosophical enterprise of reflecting upon and contextualizing such principles is then seen to play a key role in making possible rational intersubjective communication between otherwise incommensurable paradigms.
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  18.  11
    Maurice S. Friedman (2002). Martin Buber: The Life of Dialogue. Routledge.
    Martin Buber: The Life of Dialogue , the first study in any language to provide a complete overview of Buber's thought, remains the definitive guide to the full range of his work and the starting point for all modern Buber scholarship. As well as summarizing Buber's early intellectual development and attitudes - his mysticism, his youthful existentialism, his philosophy of Judaism and religious socialism - it focuses on the two crucial issues of his mature thought: his dialogic or I-Thou philosophy, (...)
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  19.  64
    Marilyn Friedman (1989). The Impracticality of Impartiality. Journal of Philosophy 86 (11):645-656.
  20.  3
    Michael Friedman & Richard Creath (2009). The Cambridge Companion to Carnap. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 15 (4):428-431.
    Rudolf Carnap is increasingly regarded as one of the most important philosophers of the twentieth century. He was one of the leading figures of the logical empiricist movement associated with the Vienna Circle and a central figure in the analytic tradition more generally. He made major contributions to philosophy of science and philosophy of logic, and, perhaps most importantly, to our understanding of the nature of philosophy as a discipline. In this volume a team of contributors explores the major themes (...)
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  21. Michael Friedman (2010). Synthetic History Reconsidered. In Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.), Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court
     
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  22.  39
    Michael Friedman, Mary Domski & Michael Dickson (eds.) (2010). Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Open Court.
    Addressing a wide range of topics, from Newton to Post-Kuhnian philosophy of science, these essays critically examine themes that have been central to the influential work of philosopher Michael Friedman.
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  23. Michael Friedman (2008). Ernst Cassirer and Thomas Kuhn: The Neo-Kantian Tradition in History and Philosophy of Science. Philosophical Forum 39 (2):239-252.
  24. Michael Friedman (2006). Carnap and Quine: Twentieth-Century Echoes of Kant and Hume. Philosophical Topics 34 (1/2):35-58.
  25.  99
    Michael Friedman (2014). Laws of Nature and Causal Necessity. Kant-Studien 105 (4):531-553.
  26.  33
    Michael Friedman (1992). Causal Laws and the Foundations of Natural Science. In Paul Guyer (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant. Cambridge University Press 3--161.
  27. Michael Friedman (2010). A Post-Kuhnian Approach to the History and Philosophy of Science. The Monist 93 (4):497-517.
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  28. Marilyn Friedman (1989). Feminism and Modern Friendship: Dislocating the Community. Ethics 99 (2):275-290.
  29. Lawrence Blum, Claudia Card, Marilyn Friedman, Carol C. Gould, Mark S. Halfon, Virginia Held, Eva Feder Kittay, Leo Kittay, John W. Lango, Patricia S. Mann, Larry May, Diana T. Meyers, Kai Nielsen, Nel Noddings, Sara Ruddick, Michael Slote & Sue Weinberg (1998). Norms and Values: Essays on the Work of Virginia Held. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Virginia Held, best known for her landmark book Rights and Goods, has made an indelible mark on the fields of ethics, feminist philosophy, and social and political thought. Her impact on a generation of feminist thinkers is unrivaled and she has been at the forfront of discussions about the way in which an ethic of care can affect social and political matters. These new essays by leading contemporary philosophers range over all of these areas. While each stands alone, the essays (...)
     
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  30.  72
    Michael Friedman (1987). Carnap's Aufbau Reconsidered. Noûs 21 (4):521-545.
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  31. Milton Friedman (1953). The Methodology of Positive Economics. In Essays in Positive Economics. University of Chicago Press 3-43.
  32. Marilyn A. Friedman (1986). Autonomy and the Split-Level Self. Southern Journal of Philosophy 24 (1):19-35.
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  33. Marilyn Friedman (1995). Multicultural Education and Feminist Ethics. Hypatia 10 (2):56 - 68.
    Feminist ethics supports the contemporary educational trend toward increased multiculturalism and a diminished emphasis on the Western canon. First, I outline a feminist ethical justification for this development. Second, I argue that Western canon studies should not be altogether abandoned in a multicultural curriculum. Third, I suggest that multicultural education should help combat oppression in addition to simply promoting awareness of diversity. Fourth, I caution against an arrogant moralism in the teaching of multiculturalism.
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  34.  57
    Michael Friedman (1997). Philosophical Naturalism. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 71 (2):5 - 21.
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  35.  71
    Marilyn Friedman (1991). The Practice of Partiality. Ethics 101 (4):818-835.
    This essay counteracts that trend [regarding the debate about whether partiality can be justified, those supporting impartiality have generally been on the offensive arguing that morality calls for impartiality] by taking a closer look at the moral complexity of our social practices of partiality. My adoption of this approach does not represent an endorsement of current notions of impartiality. The ideal of impartiality, in my view, should be substantially reformulated. However, that the concept of partiality is transparently defensible. In this (...)
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  36. Marilyn Friedman (1997). Autonomy and Social Relationships: Rethinking the Feminist Critique. In Diana T. Meyers (ed.), Feminists Rethink the Self. Westview Press 40--61.
     
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  37.  13
    Marilyn Friedman (2013). Women in Philosophy. In Katrina Hutchison & Fiona Jenkins (eds.), Women in Philosophy: What Needs to Change? OUP Usa 21.
  38. Michael Friedman (2008). Wissenschaftslogik : The Role of Logic in the Philosophy of Science. Synthese 164 (3):385 - 400.
    Carl Hempel introduced what he called "Craig's theorem" into the philosophy of science in a famous discussion of the "problem of theoretical terms." Beginning with Hempel's use of 'Craig's theorem," I shall bring out some of the key differences between Hempel's treatment of the "problem of theoretical terms" and Carnap's in order to illuminate the peculiar function of Wissenschaftslogik in Carnap's mature philosophy. Carnap's treatment, in particular, is fundamentally antimetaphysical—he aims to use the tools of mathematical logic to dissolve rather (...)
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  39. L. May, Michael Friedman & A. Clark (eds.) (1996). Mind and Morals: Essays on Ethics and Cognitive Science. MIT Press.
  40.  65
    Michael Friedman (2012). Reconsidering the Dynamics of Reason: Response to Ferrari, Mormann, Nordmann, and Uebel. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (1):47-53.
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  41. Michael Friedman (1996). Exorcising the Philosophical Tradition: Comments on John McDowell's Mind and World. Philosophical Review 105 (4):427-467.
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  42. Michael Friedman (2000). Geometry, Construction, and Intuition in Kant and His Successors. In Gila Sher & Richard L. Tieszen (eds.), Between Logic and Intuition: Essays in Honor of Charles Parsons. Cambridge University Press 186--218.
  43. Samantha Brennan, Claudia Card, Bernard Dauenhauer, Marilyn A. Friedman, Dale Jamieson, Richard Arneson, Clark Wolf, Robert Nagle, James Nickel, Christoph Fehige & Norman Daniels (2000). The Idea of a Political Liberalism: Essays on Rawls. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    In this unique volume, some of today's most eminent political philosophers examine the thought of John Rawls, focusing in particular on his most recent work. These original essays explore diverse issues, including the problem of pluralism, the relationship between constitutive commitment and liberal institutions, just treatment of dissident minorities, the constitutional implications of liberalism, international relations, and the structure of international law. The first comprehensive study of Rawls's recent work, The Idea of Political Liberalism will be indispensable for political philosophers (...)
     
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  44.  48
    M. Friedman (1998). On the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and its Philosophical Agenda. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (2):239-271.
  45. Michael Friedman (1995). Poincaré's Conventionalism and the Logical Positivists. Foundations of Science 1 (2):299-314.
    The logical positivists adopted Poincare's doctrine of the conventionality of geometry and made it a key part of their philosophical interpretation of relativity theory. I argue, however, that the positivists deeply misunderstood Poincare's doctrine. For Poincare's own conception was based on the group-theoretical picture of geometry expressed in the Helmholtz-Lie solution of the space problem, and also on a hierarchical picture of the sciences according to which geometry must be presupposed be any properly physical theory. But both of this pictures (...)
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  46.  51
    Michael Friedman (1992). Epistemology in Theaufbau. Synthese 93 (1-2):15 - 57.
  47. Michael Friedman (2006). Kant, Skepticism, and Idealism. Inquiry 49 (1):26 – 43.
    Skeptical problems arising for Kant's version of transcendental idealism have been raised from Kant's own time to the present day. By focussing on how such problems originally arose in the wake of Kant's work, and on the first formulations of absolute idealism by Schelling, I argue that the skeptical problems in question ultimately depend on fundamental features of Kant's philosophy of natural science. As a result, Naturphilosophie and the organic conception of nature cannot easily be separated from the deep and (...)
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  48. Marilyn Friedman (2000). Autonomy, Social Disruption and Women. In Catriona Mackenzie & Natalie Stoljar (eds.), Relational Autonomy: Feminist Perspectives on Autonomy, Agency, and the Social Self. OUP Usa
     
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  49. Michael Friedman, Stanley Cavell & Henry E. Allison (1997). Presidential Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 71 (2):5-21.
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  50. M. Friedman (forthcoming). Overcoming Metaphysics: Carnap and Heidegger. Origins of Logical Empiricism:45--79.
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