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Michael Parker [39]Malcolm Parker [32]M. Parker [29]Martin Parker [16]
Matthew W. Parker [10]Melissa Parker [7]M. H. Parker [6]Mike Parker [5]

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See also:
Profile: Malcolm Parker
Profile: Malcolm Parker
Profile: Michelle Parker (University of Warwick)
Profile: Matthew Parker (London School of Economics)
Profile: Morgan King (University of Wisconsin, Madison)
Profile: Marcia Parker
Profile: Mary Parker (Boise State University)
Profile: Monica Parker
Profile: Megan Parker (St.Patrick's College Maynooth)
Profile: Mallory Parker (Purdue University)
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  1.  59
    V. M. Marsh, D. K. Kamuya, M. J. Parker & C. S. Molyneux (2011). Working with Concepts: The Role of Community in International Collaborative Biomedical Research. Public Health Ethics 4 (1):26-39.
    The importance of communities in strengthening the ethics of international collaborative research is increasingly highlighted, but there has been much debate about the meaning of the term ‘community’ and its specific normative contribution. We argue that ‘community’ is a contingent concept that plays an important normative role in research through the existence of morally significant interplay between notions of community and individuality. We draw on experience of community engagement in rural Kenya to illustrate two aspects of this interplay: (i) that (...)
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  2.  14
    Michael Dunn, Mark Sheehan, Tony Hope & Michael Parker (2012). Toward Methodological Innovation in Empirical Ethics Research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (04):466-480.
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  3. M. Parker & S. Bull (2009). Ethics in Collaborative Global Health Research Networks. Clinical Ethics 4 (4):165-168.
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  4.  2
    Dorcas M. Kamuya, Vicki Marsh, Patricia Njuguna, Patrick Munywoki, Michael Parker & Sassy Molyneux (2014). “When They See Us, It’s Like They Have Seen the Benefits!”: Experiences of Study Benefits Negotiations in Community-Based Studies on the Kenyan Coast. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):90.
    Benefit sharing in health research has been the focus of international debates for many years, particularly in developing countries. Whilst increasing attention is being given to frameworks that can guide researchers to determine levels of benefits to participants, there is little empirical research from developing countries on the practical application of these frameworks, including in situations of extreme poverty and vulnerability. In addition, the voices of those who often negotiate and face issues related to benefits in practice - frontline researchers (...)
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  5.  31
    Geoffrey Lairumbi, Michael Parker, Raymond Fitzpatrick & Michael English (2012). Forms of Benefit Sharing in Global Health Research Undertaken in Resource Poor Settings: A Qualitative Study of Stakeholders' Views in Kenya. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7 (1):1-8.
    BackgroundIncrease in global health research undertaken in resource poor settings in the last decade though a positive development has raised ethical concerns relating to potential for exploitation. Some of the suggested strategies to address these concerns include calls for providing universal standards of care, reasonable availability of proven interventions and more recently, promoting the overall social value of research especially in clinical research. Promoting the social value of research has been closely associated with providing fair benefits to various stakeholders involved (...)
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  6.  22
    M. Parker (2007). The Best Possible Child. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (5):279-283.
    Julian Savulescu argues for two principles of reproductive ethics: reproductive autonomy and procreative beneficence, where the principle of procreative beneficence is conceptualised in terms of a duty to have the child, of the possible children that could be had, who will have the best opportunity of the best life. Were it to be accepted, this principle would have significant implications for the ethics of reproductive choice and, in particular, for the use of prenatal testing and other reproductive technologies for the (...)
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  7.  13
    Donna Dickenson, Richard Huxtable & Michael Parker (eds.) (2010). The Cambridge Medical Ethics Workbook. Cambridge University Press.
    This new edition of The Cambridge Medical Ethics Workbook builds on the success of the first edition by working from the 'bottom up', with a widely praised case ...
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  8. Matthew W. Parker (2013). Set Size and the Part-Whole Principle. Review of Symbolic Logic (4):1-24.
    Recent work has defended “Euclidean” theories of set size, in which Cantor’s Principle (two sets have equally many elements if and only if there is a one-to-one correspondence between them) is abandoned in favor of the Part-Whole Principle (if A is a proper subset of B then A is smaller than B). It has also been suggested that Gödel’s argument for the unique correctness of Cantor’s Principle is inadequate. Here we see from simple examples, not that Euclidean theories of set (...)
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  9.  3
    Anneke Lucassen, Guy Widdershoven, Suzanne Metselaar, Angela Fenwick & Michael Parker (2014). Genetic Testing of Children: The Need for a Family Perspective. American Journal of Bioethics 14 (3):26-28.
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  10.  9
    Siobhan M. Abeyesinghe, Jen Jamieson, Lucy Asher, David Allen, Matthew O. Parker, Christopher M. Wathes & Michael J. Reiss (2015). Adolescents Care but Don’T Feel Responsible for Farm Animal Welfare. Society and Animals 23 (3):269-297.
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  11.  5
    Jantina de Vries, Susan J. Bull, Ogobara Doumbo, Muntaser Ibrahim, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon, Dominic Kwiatkowski & Michael Parker (2011). Ethical Issues in Human Genomics Research in Developing Countries. BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):5.
    BackgroundGenome-wide association studies provide a powerful means of identifying genetic variants that play a role in common diseases. Such studies present important ethical challenges. An increasing number of GWAS is taking place in lower income countries and there is a pressing need to identify the particular ethical challenges arising in such contexts. In this paper, we draw upon the experiences of the MalariaGEN Consortium to identify specific ethical issues raised by such research in Africa, Asia and Oceania.DiscussionWe explore ethical issues (...)
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  12. P. Tindana, S. Bull, L. Amenga-Etego, J. Vries, R. Aborigo, K. Koram, D. Kwiatkowski & M. Parker (2011). Seeking Consent to Genetic and Genomic Research in a Rural Ghanaian Setting: A Qualitative Study of the MalariaGEN Experience. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):15-15.
    Seeking consent for genetic and genomic research can be challenging, particularly in populations with low literacy levels, and in emergency situations. All of these factors were relevant to the MalariaGEN study of genetic factors influencing immune responses to malaria in northern rural Ghana. This study sought to identify issues arising in practice during the enrolment of paediatric cases with severe malaria and matched healthy controls into the MalariaGEN study.
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  13.  17
    Andrew Smart, Paul Martin & Michael Parker (2004). Tailored Medicine: Whom Will It Fit? The Ethics of Patient and Disease Stratification. Bioethics 18 (4):322–343.
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  14.  29
    Malcolm Parker (2009). Two Concepts of Empirical Ethics. Bioethics 23 (4):202-213.
    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the first. Empirical (...)
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  15.  4
    Melissa Parker & Tim Allen (2013). Will Mass Drug Administration Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis? Evidence From Northern Coastal Tanzania. Journal of Biosocial Science 45 (4):517-545.
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  16. Matthew W. Parker, More Trouble for Regular Probabilitites.
    In standard probability theory, probability zero is not the same as impossibility. But many have suggested that only impossible events should have probability zero. This can be arranged if we allow infinitesimal probabilities, but infinitesimals do not solve all of the problems. We will see that regular probabilities are not invariant over rigid transformations, even for simple, bounded, countable, constructive, and disjoint sets. Hence, regular chances cannot be determined by space-time invariant physical laws, and regular credences cannot satisfy seemingly reasonable (...)
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  17.  1
    M. Parker (2003). Concern for Families and Individuals in Clinical Genetics. Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (2):70-73.
    Clinical geneticists are increasingly confronted with ethical tensions between their responsibilities to individual patients and to other family members. This paper considers the ethical implications of a “familial” conception of the clinical genetics role. It argues that dogmatic adherence to either the familial or to the individualistic conception of clinical genetics has the potential to lead to significant harms and to fail to take important obligations seriously.Geneticists are likely to continue to be required to make moral judgments in the resolution (...)
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  18.  19
    Paulina Tindana, Susan Bull, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Jantina de Vries, Raymond Aborigo, Kwadwo Koram, Dominic Kwiatkowski & Michael Parker (2012). Seeking Consent to Genetic and Genomic Research in a Rural Ghanaian Setting: A Qualitative Study of the MalariaGEN Experience. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):15-.
    Background: Seeking consent for genetic and genomic research can be challenging, particularly in populations with low literacy levels, and in emergency situations. All of these factors were relevant to the MalariaGEN study of genetic factors influencing immune responses to malaria in northern rural Ghana. This study sought to identify issues arising in practice during the enrolment of paediatric cases with severe malaria and matched healthy controls into the MalariaGEN study. Methods: The study used a rapid assessment incorporating multiple qualitative methods (...)
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  19.  32
    Malcolm Parker (2007). Two Into One Won't Go: Conceptual, Clinical, Ethical and Legal Impedimenta to the Convergence of Cam and Orthodox Medicine. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (1):7-19.
    The convergence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a prominent feature of healthcare in western countries, but it is currently undertheorised, and its implications have been insufficiently considered. Two models of convergence are described – the totally integrated evidence-based model (TI) and the multicultural-pluralistic model (MP). Both models are being incorporated into general medical practice. Against the background of the reasons for the increasing utilisation of CAM by the public and by general practitioners, TI-convergence is (...)
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  20.  2
    Phaik Y. Cheah & Michael Parker (2014). Consent and Assent in Paediatric Research in Low-Income Settings. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):22.
    In order to involve children in the decision-making process about participation in medical research it is widely recommended that the child’s assent be sought in addition to parental consent. However, the concept of assent is fraught with difficulties, resulting in confusion among researchers and ethics committees alike.
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  21.  5
    Sandra Bartels, Mike Parker, Tony Hope & Stella Reiter-Theil (2005). Wie hilfreich sind „ethische Richtlinien “am Einzelfall? Ethik in der Medizin 17 (3):191-205.
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  22.  7
    N. Hallowell, S. Cooke, G. Crawford, M. Parker & A. Lucassen (2009). Healthcare Professionals' and Researchers' Understanding of Cancer Genetics Activities: A Qualitative Interview Study. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (2):113-119.
    Aims: To describe individuals’ perceptions of the activities that take place within the cancer genetics clinic, the relationships between these activities and how these relationships are sustained. Design: Qualitative interview study. Participants: Forty individuals involved in carrying out cancer genetics research in either a clinical (n = 28) or research-only (n = 12) capacity in the UK. Findings: Interviewees perceive research and clinical practice in the subspecialty of cancer genetics as interdependent. The boundary between research and clinical practice is described (...)
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  23.  19
    Vicki Marsh, Francis Kombe, Raymond Fitzpatrick, Thomas N. Williams, Michael Parker & Sassy Molyneux (2013). Consulting Communities on Feedback of Genetic Findings in International Health Research: Sharing Sickle Cell Disease and Carrier Information in Coastal Kenya. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):41.
    International health research in malaria-endemic settings may include screening for sickle cell disease, given the relationship between this important genetic condition and resistance to malaria, generating questions about whether and how findings should be disclosed. The literature on disclosing genetic findings in the context of research highlights the role of community consultation in understanding and balancing ethically important issues from participants’ perspectives, including social forms of benefit and harm, and the influence of access to care. To inform research practice locally, (...)
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  24.  3
    Ilana Levene & Michael Parker (2011). Prevalence of Depression in Granted and Refused Requests for Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: A Systematic Review. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (4):205-211.
    Next SectionBackground There is an established link between depression and interest in hastened death in patients who are seriously ill. Concern exists over the extent of depression in patients who actively request euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and those who have their requests granted. Objectives To estimate the prevalence of depression in refused and granted requests for euthanasia/PAS and discuss these findings. Methods A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE and PsycINFO in July 2010, identifying studies reporting rates of depression in requests (...)
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  25.  17
    Andrew Crane, Ciaran Driver, John Kaler, Martin Parker & John Parkinson (2005). Stakeholder Democracy: Towards a Multi-Disciplinary View. Business Ethics 14 (1):67–75.
  26.  8
    Martin Parker (ed.) (1998). Ethics & Organizations. Sage.
    Ethics and Organizations provides a rich and valuable overview of an increasingly important issue for management and organizations in contemporary society. Debates about equal opportunities, environmental responsibility, consumer redress, and corporate governance have given ethics a prominent place in the study of organizations in their social and natural environments. Within the organization, new management styles that seek to energize employees by manipulating their beliefs have highlighted the moral-ethical principles at issue in contemporary management. At the same time, debates around postmodernism (...)
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  27.  26
    Martin Parker & Gordon Pearson (2005). Capitalism and its Regulation: A Dialogue on Business and Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 60 (1):91 - 101.
    This dialogue engages with the ethics of politics of capitalism, and enacts a debate between two participants who have divergent views on these matters. Beginning with a discussion concerning definitions of capitalism, it moves on to cover issues concerning our different understandings of the costs and benefits of global capitalist systems. This then leads into a debate about the nature and purposes of regulation, in terms of whether regulation is intended to make competition work better for consumers, or to prevent (...)
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  28. Malcolm Parker (2002). Principia Bioethica Universalia: Practical Rationality, Constitutive Altruism and Global Bioethical Principlism. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 225:243.
     
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  29.  8
    Malcolm Parker (2012). Shanachie and Norm. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):215-216.
    Shanachie and Norm Content Type Journal Article Category Case Studies Pages 1-2 DOI 10.1007/s11673-012-9356-0 Authors Malcolm Parker, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, 288 Herston Road, Herston, QLD 4006, Australia Journal Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Online ISSN 1872-4353 Print ISSN 1176-7529.
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  30.  2
    Matthew W. Parker (2005). Undecidable Long-Term Behavior in Classical Physics: Foundations, Results, and Interpretation. Dissertation, University of Chicago
    The behavior of some systems is non-computable in a precise new sense. One infamous problem is that of the stability of the solar system: Given the initial positions and velocities of several mutually gravitating bodies, will any eventually collide or be thrown off to infinity? Many have made vague suggestions that this and similar problems are undecidable: no finite procedure can reliably determine whether a given configuration will eventually prove unstable. But taken in the most natural way, this is trivial. (...)
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  31.  3
    Jeroen Veldman & Martin Parker (2012). Specters, Inc.: The Elusive Basis of the Corporation. Business and Society Review 117 (4):413-441.
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  32.  26
    Malcolm Parker (2002). Whither Our Art? Clinical Wisdom and Evidence-Based Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (3):273-280.
    The relationship between evidence-based medicine (EBM) and clinical judgement is the subject of conceptual and practical dispute. For example, EBM and clinical guidelines are seen to increasingly dominate medical decision-making at the expense of other, human elements, and to threaten the art of medicine. Clinical wisdom always remains open to question. We want to know why particular beliefs are held, and the epistemological status of claims based in wisdom or experience. The paper critically appraises a number of claims and distinctions, (...)
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  33.  52
    M. Parker (2005). False Dichotomies: EBM, Clinical Freedom, and the Art of Medicine. Medical Humanities 31 (1):23-30.
    Next SectionAccording to numerous commentators, clinical freedom, the art of medicine, and, by implication, a degree of patient welfare, are threatened by evidence based medicine (EBM). As EBM has developed over the last fifteen years, claims about better evidence for medical treatments, and improvements in healthcare delivery, have been matched by critiques of EBM’s reductionism and uniformity, its problematic application to individual patients, and its alleged denial of the continuing need for clinical interpretation, insight, and judgment. Most of these attacks (...)
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  34.  23
    Matthew W. Parker (2003). Undecidability in Rn: Riddled Basins, the KAM Tori, and the Stability of the Solar System. Philosophy of Science 70 (2):359-382.
    Some have suggested that certain classical physical systems have undecidable long-term behavior, without specifying an appropriate notion of decidability over the reals. We introduce such a notion, decidability in (or d- ) for any measure , which is particularly appropriate for physics and in some ways more intuitive than Ko's (1991) recursive approximability (r.a.). For Lebesgue measure , d- implies r.a. Sets with positive -measure that are sufficiently "riddled" with holes are never d- but are often r.a. This explicates Sommerer (...)
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  35.  3
    Geoffrey M. Lairumbi, Michael Parker, Raymond Fitzpatrick & Michael C. English, Ethics in Practice: The State of the Debate on Promoting the Social Value of Global Health Research in Resource Poor Settings Particularly Africa.
    Background: Promoting the social value of global health research undertaken in resource poor settings has become a key concern in global research ethics. The consideration for benefit sharing, which concerns the elucidation of what if anything, is owed to participants, their communities and host nations that take part in such research, and the obligations of researchers involved, is one of the main strategies used for promoting social value of research. In the last decade however, there has been intense debate within (...)
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  36.  3
    Geoffrey M. Lairumbi, Michael Parker, Raymond Fitzpatrick & English C. Mike (2011). Stakeholders Understanding of the Concept of Benefit Sharing in Health Research in Kenya: A Qualitative Study. BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):20.
    BackgroundThe concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research.The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the (...)
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  37.  16
    Gordon Pearson & Martin Parker (2001). The Relevance of Ancient Greeks to Modern Business? A Dialogue on Business and Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 31 (4):341 - 353.
    What follows is a dialogue, in the Platonic sense, concerning the justifications for "business ethics" as a vehicle for asking questions about the values of modern business organisations. The protagonists are the authors, Gordon Pearson – a pragmatist and sceptic where business ethics is concerned – and Martin Parker – a sociologist and idealist who wishes to be able to ask ethical questions of business. By the end of the dialogue we come to no agreement on the necessity or justification (...)
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  38.  15
    Malcolm Parker (2007). Rejoinder. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (1):29-31.
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  39.  9
    Matthew W. Parker (2003). Three Concepts of Decidability for General Subsets of Uncountable Spaces. Theoretical Computer Science 351 (1):2-13.
    There is no uniquely standard concept of an effectively decidable set of real numbers or real n-tuples. Here we consider three notions: decidability up to measure zero [M.W. Parker, Undecidability in Rn: Riddled basins, the KAM tori, and the stability of the solar system, Phil. Sci. 70(2) (2003) 359–382], which we abbreviate d.m.z.; recursive approximability [or r.a.; K.-I. Ko, Complexity Theory of Real Functions, Birkhäuser, Boston, 1991]; and decidability ignoring boundaries [d.i.b.; W.C. Myrvold, The decision problem for entanglement, in: R.S. (...)
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  40.  18
    Merryl Parker (2007). The Cunning Dingo. Society and Animals 15 (1):69-78.
    The Australian dingo, like the dog, descends from the wolf. However, although dogs have undergone a lengthy taming process that allows them to fit into human society, dingoes retain many wolf characteristics. Like the wolf and unlike the dog, dingoes do not bark. Dingoes howl; they come into season once a year, and they can dislocate their powerful jaws to seize prey. Since the arrival of settlers and their farming practices in Australia 200 years ago, dingoes have killed sheep, and (...)
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  41.  5
    Malcolm Parker (2005). End Games: Euthanasia Under Interminable Scrutiny. Bioethics 19 (5-6):523-536.
    It is increasingly asserted that the disagreements of abstract principle between adversaries in the euthanasia debate fail to account for the complex, particular and ambiguous experiences of people at the end of their lives. A greater research effort into experiences, meaning, connection, vulnerability and motivation is advocated, during which the euthanasia 'question' should remain open. I argue that this is a normative strategy, which is felicitous to the status quo and further medicalises the end of life, but which masquerades as (...)
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  42.  8
    Gordon Pearson & Martin Parker (2008). Management or Organizing? A Dialogue. Business and Society Review 113 (1):43-61.
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  43. Andrew Crane, Ciaran Driver, John Kaler, Martin Parker & John Parkinson (2005). Stakeholder Democracy: Towards a Multi-Disciplinary View. Business Ethics: A European Review 14 (1):67-75.
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  44.  12
    Melissa Parker, Helen Ward & Sophie Day (1998). Sexual Networks and the Transmission of Hiv in London. Journal of Biosocial Science 30 (1):63-83.
    This paper discusses ways in which empirical research investigating sexual networks can further understanding of the transmission of HIV in London, using information from a 24-month period of participant observation and 53 open-ended, in-depth interviews with eighteen men and one woman who have direct and indirect sexual links with each other. These interviews enabled the identification of a wider sexual network between 154 participants and contacts during the year August 1994-July 1995. The linked network data help to identify pathways of (...)
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  45.  11
    N. Hallowell, S. Cooke, G. Crawford, A. Lucassen, M. Parker & C. Snowdon (2010). An Investigation of Patients' Motivations for Their Participation in Genetics-Related Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (1):37-45.
    Design: Qualitative interview study. Participants: Fifty-nine patients with a family history of cancer who attend a regional cancer genetics clinic in the UK were interviewed about their current and previous research experiences. Findings: Interviewees gave a range of explanations for research participation. These were categorised as social—research participation benefits the wider society by progressing science and improving treatment for everyone; familial—research participation may improve healthcare and benefit current or future generations of the participant’s family; and personal—research participation provides therapeutic or (...)
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  46.  59
    M. Parker (1995). Autonomy, Problem-Based Learning, and the Teaching of Medical Ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (5):305-310.
    Autonomy has been the central principle underpinning changes which have affected the practice of medicine in recent years. Medical education is undergoing changes as well, many of which are underpinned, at least implicitly, by increasing concern for autonomy. Some universities have embarked on graduate courses which utilize problem-based learning (PBL) techniques to teach all areas, including medical ethics. I argue that PBL is a desirable method for teaching and learning in medical ethics. It is desirable because the nature of ethical (...)
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  47.  35
    Michael Parker (2013). The Ethics of Open Access Publishing. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):16.
    Should those who work on ethics welcome or resist moves to open access publishing? This paper analyses arguments in favour and against the increasing requirement for open access publishing and considers their implications for bioethics research. In the context of biomedical science, major funders are increasingly mandating open access as a condition of funding and such moves are also common in other disciplines. Whilst there has been some debate about the implications of open-access for the social sciences and humanities, there (...)
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  48.  5
    Phaik Yeong Cheah & Michael Parker (2015). Are Children Always Vulnerable Research Participants? Asian Bioethics Review 7 (2):151-163.
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  49.  13
    Michael Parker (2001). Genetics and the Interpersonal Elaboration of Ethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (5):451-459.
    Confidentiality in genetic testing posesimportant ethical challenges to the currentprimacy of respect for autonomy and patientchoice in health care. It also presents achallenge to approaches to decision-makingemphasising the ethical importance of theconsequences of health care decisions. In thispaper a case is described in which respect forconfidentiality calls both for disclosure andnon-disclosure, and in which respect forpatient autonomy and the demand to avoidcausing harm each appear to call both fortesting without consent, and testing only withconsent. This creates problems not only forclinicians, (...)
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  50.  20
    Malcolm Parker (2006). Patients as Rational Traders: Response to Stewart and DeMarco. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (3):133-136.
    Stewart and DeMarco’s economic theory of patient decision-making applied to the case of diabetes is flawed by clinical inaccuracies and an unrealistic depiction of patients as rational traders. The theory incorrectly represents patients’ struggles to optimize their management as calculated trade-offs against the costs of care, and gives an unrealistic, inflexible account of such costs. It imputes to physicians the view that their patients’ lack of compliance is unreasonable, but physicians are accustomed to the variety of human factors which contribute (...)
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