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  1. M. S. Singer (forthcoming). Paradigms Linked: A Normative-Empirical Dialogue About Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly.
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  2. M. S. Singer (2000). Ethical and Fair Work Behaviour: A Normative-Empirical Dialogue Concerning Ethics and Justice. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 28 (3):187 - 209.
    Towards the general goal of generating a normative-empirical dialogue about ethics and justice, the present study explored three issues: (1) the extent to which the normative criteria of ethics and justice prescribed by moral philosophers are indeed reflected in managerial professionals' subjective beliefs of what ethical and just work behaviour ought to be, (2) the relationship between people's ought beliefs and their perceptions of actual ethical and just work behaviour, and (3) the relationship between the notions of ethics and justice. (...)
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  3. M. S. Singer (1998). Paradigms Linked. Business Ethics Quarterly 8 (3):481-496.
    The present paper focuses on the linkage between two academic paradigms in the enquiry into business ethics: normative philosophy and empirical social sciences. The paper first reviews existing research pertaining to a normative-empirical dialogue. Further empirical data on the relationship between various standards of morality are discussed in relation to the normative frameworks of ethics. Lastly, future directions for such a dialogue in business ethics are suggested.
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  4. Alan E. Singer & M. S. Singer (1997). Management-Science and Business-Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (4):385-395.
    Many leading management scientists have advocated ethicalism: the incorporation of social and ethical concerns into traditional "rational" OR-MS techniques and management decisions. In fact, elementary forms of decision analysis can readily be augmented, using ethical theory, in ways that sweep in ethical issues. In addition, alternative conceptual models of Decision-Analysis, Game-Theory and Optimality are now available, all of which have brought OR-MS and Business-Ethics into a closer alignment.
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  5. M. S. Singer & A. E. Singer (1997). Observer Judgements About Moral Agents' Ethical Decisions: The Role of Scope of Justice and Moral Intensity. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (5):473 - 484.
    The study ascertained (1) whether an observer's scope of justice with reference to either the moral agent or the target person of a moral act, would affect his/her judgements of the ethicality of the act, and (2) whether observer judgements of ethicality parallel the moral agent's decision processes in systematically evaluating the intensity of the moral issue. A scenario approach was used. Results affirmed both research questions. Discussions covered the implications of the findings for the underlying cognitive processes of moral (...)
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  6. M. S. Singer (1996). The Role of Moral Intensity and Fairness Perception in Judgments of Ethicality: A Comparison of Managerial Professionals and the General Public. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (4):469 - 474.
    Using a scenario approach involving hypothetical moral decisions, the study aims to (1) compare managerial professionals' ethicality judgments with those made by the general public, and (2) ascertain the roles of perceived intensity (Jones, 1991) as well as perceived fairness of the moral issue in judgments of ethicality. While the two respondent groups made similar ratings on variables of moral intensity, fairness, and ethicality; the evaluation processes underlying their ethicality judgments were different. Empirically, the study has also established a link (...)
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  7. M. S. Singer & A. E. Singer (1991). Justice in Preferential Hiring. Journal of Business Ethics 10 (10):797 - 803.
    s This paper reports studies designed to examine perceptions of preferential selection. Subjects evaluated the fairness of hypothetical cases of selection decisions based on either candidate sex or ethnic origin. A within-subjects design and a between-subjects design yielded convergent results showing that (1) preferential selection was perceived as unfair, irrespective of respondent sex or the basis for the preferential treatment (i.e., candidate sex or ethnic origin), (2) the level of perceived injustice was directly related to the discrepancy in merits between (...)
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