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Michael Smith [101]Mick Smith [32]Martin L. Smith [29]Martin Smith [27]
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Profile: Michael Smith (Manchester Metropolitan University)
Profile: Michael Smith (Alberta Vocational College - Calgary)
Profile: Michael Smith
Profile: Michael Smith (Princeton University)
Profile: Michael B. Smith
Profile: Martin Smith (University of Liverpool)
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  1. Michael Smith (1994/1995). The Moral Problem. Blackwell.
    What is the Moral Problem? NORMATIVE ETHICS VS. META-ETHICS It is a common fact of everyday life that we appraise each others' behaviour and attitudes from ...
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  2. Martin Smith (forthcoming). The Cost of Treating Knowledge as a Mental State. In A. Carter, E. Gordon & B. Jarvis (eds.), Knowledge First, Approaches to Epistemology and Mind. Oxford University Press
    My concern in this paper is with the claim that knowledge is a mental state – a claim that Williamson places front and centre in Knowledge and Its Limits. While I am not by any means convinced that the claim is false, I do think it carries certain costs that have not been widely appreciated. One source of resistance to this claim derives from internalism about the mental – the view, roughly speaking, that one’s mental states are determined by one’s (...)
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  3. Martin Smith (2010). What Else Justification Could Be. Noûs 44 (1):10 - 31.
    According to a captivating picture, epistemic justification is essentially a matter of epistemic or evidential likelihood. While certain problems for this view are well known, it is motivated by a very natural thought – if justification can fall short of epistemic certainty, then what else could it possibly be? In this paper I shall develop an alternative way of thinking about epistemic justification. On this conception, the difference between justification and likelihood turns out to be akin to the more widely (...)
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  4.  89
    Michelle Renée Smith (2012). Book Review: Democracy's Reconstruction: Thinking Politically with WEB Du Bois. [REVIEW] Political Theory 40 (3):394-397.
  5.  81
    Mitzi J. Smith (2013). 1 Corinthians 15: 12–20. Interpretation 67 (3):287-289.
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  6.  31
    David Rodríguez-Arias, Maxwell J. Smith & Neil M. Lazar (2011). Donation After Circulatory Death: Burying the Dead Donor Rule. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):36-43.
    Despite continuing controversies regarding the vital status of both brain-dead donors and individuals who undergo donation after circulatory death (DCD), respecting the dead donor rule (DDR) remains the standard moral framework for organ procurement. The DDR increases organ supply without jeopardizing trust in transplantation systems, reassuring society that donors will not experience harm during organ procurement. While the assumption that individuals cannot be harmed once they are dead is reasonable in the case of brain-dead protocols, we argue that the DDR (...)
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  7. Michael Smith, David Lewis & Mark Johnston (1989). Dispositional Theories of Value. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 63:89-174.
  8. Michael Smith (1987). The Humean Theory of Motivation. Mind 96 (381):36-61.
  9.  94
    Michael Smith (2004). Ethics and the a Priori: Selected Essays on Moral Psychology and Meta-Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    Over the last fifteen years, Michael Smith has written a series of seminal essays about the nature of belief and desire, the status of normative judgment, and the relevance of the views we take on both these topics to the accounts we give of our nature as free and responsible agents. This long awaited collection comprises some of the most influential of Smith's essays. Among the topics covered are: the Humean theory of motivating reasons, the nature of normative reasons, Williams (...)
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  10. Martin Smith (2014). The Epistemology of Religion. Analysis 74 (1):135-147.
    The epistemology of religion is the branch of epistemology concerned with the rationality, the justificatory status and the knowledge status of religious beliefs – most often the belief in the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient and loving God as conceived by the major monotheistic religions. While other sorts of religious beliefs – such as belief in an afterlife or in disembodied spirits or in the occurrence of miracles – have also been the focus of considerable attention from epistemologists, I shall (...)
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  11. Martin Smith (2014). Review of Justification and the Truth Connection by Clayton Littlejohn. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly.
  12.  16
    Martin Smith (forthcoming). Full Blooded Entitlement. In Nikolaj Pedersen & Peter Graham (eds.), Epistemic Entitlement. Oxford University Press
    Entitlement is defined as a sort of epistemic justification that one can possess by default – a sort of epistemic justification that does not need to be earned or acquired. Epistemologists who accept the existence of entitlement generally have a certain anti-sceptical role in mind for it – entitlement is intended to help us resist what would otherwise be compelling radical sceptical arguments. But this role leaves various details unspecified and, thus, leaves scope for a number of different potential conceptions (...)
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  13. M. Smith (1985). Taking Blood From Children Causes No More Than Minimal Harm. Journal of Medical Ethics 11 (3):127-131.
    The ethical question of whether taking blood from normal children for research purposes is justified, is determined in part at least, by whether or not the children are harmed. To try to assess the risks, the effects of venepuncture on a group of healthy subjects were studied, by means of a parental questionnaire completed approximately eighteen months after the venepuncture had taken place. Ninety-two healthy children aged between 6 and 8 had a blood sample taken for non-therapeutic reasons as part (...)
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  14.  1
    Eric Kodish, Joseph J. Fins, Clarence Braddock, Felicia Cohn, Nancy Neveloff Dubler, Marion Danis, Arthur R. Derse, Robert A. Pearlman, Martin Smith, Anita Tarzian, Stuart Youngner & Mark G. Kuczewski (2013). Quality Attestation for Clinical Ethics Consultants: A Two‐Step Model From the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. Hastings Center Report 43 (5):26-36.
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  15. Michael Smith (2003). Rational Capacities, Or: How to Distinguish Recklessness, Weakness, and Compulsion. In Sarah Stroud & Christine Tappolet (eds.), Weakness of Will and Practical Irrationality. Oxford: Clarendon Press 17-38.
  16. Martin Smith (2009). Transmission Failure Explained. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (1):164-189.
    In this paper I draw attention to a peculiar epistemic feature exhibited by certain deductively valid inferences. Certain deductively valid inferences are unable to enhance the reliability of one's belief that the conclusion is true—in a sense that will be fully explained. As I shall show, this feature is demonstrably present in certain philosophically significant inferences—such as GE Moore's notorious 'proof' of the existence of the external world. I suggest that this peculiar epistemic feature might be correlated with the much (...)
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  17. Michael Smith (1995). Internal Reasons. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (1):109-131.
    The idea that there is such an analytic connection will hardly come as news. It amounts to no more and no less than an endorsement of the claim that all reasons are 'internal', as opposed to 'external', to use Bernard Williams's terms (Williams 1980). Or, to put things in the way Christine Korsgaard favours, it amounts to an endorsement of the 'internalism requirement' on reasons (Korsgaard 1986). But how exactly is the internalism requirement to be understood? What does it tell (...)
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  18.  14
    Frank Jackson, Philip Pettit & Michael Smith (2000). Ethical Particularism and Patterns. In Brad Hooker & Margaret Olivia Little (eds.), Moral Particularism. Oxford University Press 79--99.
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  19.  77
    Frank Jackson & Michael Smith (eds.) (2005). The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy is the definitive guide to what's going on in this lively and fascinating subject. Jackson and Smith, themselves two of the world's most eminent philosophers, have assembled more than thirty distinguished scholars to contribute incisive and up-to-date critical surveys of the principal areas of research. The coverage is broad, with sections devoted to moral philosophy, social and political philosophy, philosophy of mind and action, philosophy of language, metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophy of the sciences. This (...)
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  20.  84
    Philip Pettit & Michael Smith (1996). Freedom in Belief and Desire. Journal of Philosophy 93 (9):429-449.
  21.  0
    Ruth M. Farrell, Patricia K. Agatisa, Mary Beth Mercer, Marissa B. Smith & Elliot Philipson (2015). Balancing Risks: The Core of Women's Decisions About Noninvasive Prenatal Testing. Ajob Empirical Bioethics 6 (1):42-53.
  22.  67
    Philip Pettit & Michael Smith (1990). Backgrounding Desire. Philosophical Review 99 (4):565-592.
    Granted that desire is always present in the genesis of human action, is it something on the presence of which the agent always reflects? I may act on a belief without coming to recognize that I have the belief. Can I act on a desire without recognizing that I have the desire? In particular, can the desire have a motivational presence in my decision making, figuring in the background, as it were, without appearing in the content of my deliberation, in (...)
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  23. Martin Smith (2010). A Generalised Lottery Paradox for Infinite Probability Spaces. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (4):821-831.
    Many epistemologists have responded to the lottery paradox by proposing formal rules according to which high probability defeasibly warrants acceptance. Douven and Williamson ([2006]) present an ingenious argument purporting to show that such rules invariably trivialise, in that they reduce to the claim that a probability of 1 warrants acceptance. Douven and Williamson’s argument does, however, rest upon significant assumptions—among them a relatively strong structural assumption to the effect that the underlying probability space is both finite and uniform . In (...)
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  24.  2
    Courtenay R. Bruce, Martin L. Smith, Sabahat Hizlan & Richard R. Sharp (2011). A Systematic Review of Activities at a High-Volume Ethics Consultation Service. Journal of Clinical Ethics 22 (2):151.
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  25.  86
    Mark Smith & Linda Wheeldon (2000). Syntactic Priming in Spoken Sentence Production – an Online Study. Cognition 78 (2):123-164.
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  26. F. Jackson, G. Oppy & M. Smith (1994). Minimalism and Truth Aptness. Mind 103 (411):287-302.
  27. Martin Smith (2007). Ceteris Paribus Conditionals and Comparative Normalcy. Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (1):97 - 121.
    Our understanding of subjunctive conditionals has been greatly enhanced through the use of possible world semantics and, more precisely, by the idea that they involve variably strict quantification over possible worlds. I propose to extend this treatment to ceteris paribus conditionals - that is, conditionals that incorporate a ceteris paribus or 'other things being equal' clause. Although such conditionals are commonly invoked in scientific theorising, they traditionally arouse suspicion and apprehensiveness amongst philosophers. By treating ceteris paribus conditionals as a species (...)
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  28. Martin Smith (2013). Entitlement and Evidence. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):735-753.
    Entitlement is conceived as a kind of positive epistemic status, attaching to certain propositions, that involves no cognitive or intellectual accomplishment on the part of the beneficiary — a status that is in place by default. In this paper I will argue that the notion of entitlement — or something very like it — falls out of an idea that may at first blush seem rather disparate: that the evidential support relation can be understood as a kind of variably strict (...)
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  29.  2
    Paula N. Kagan, Marlaine C. Smith, W. Richard Cowling Iii & Peggy L. Chinn (2010). A Nursing Manifesto: An Emancipatory Call for Knowledge Development, Conscience, and Praxis. Nursing Philosophy 11 (1):67-84.
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  30.  95
    Michael Smith (1997). In Defense of "the Moral Problem": A Reply to Brink, Copp, and Sayre-McCord. Ethics 108 (1):84-119.
  31.  2
    Martin L. Smith, Richard R. Sharp, Kathryn Weise & Eric Kodish (2010). Toward Competency-Based Certification of Clinical Ethics Consultants: A Four-Step Process. Journal of Clinical Ethics 21 (1):14.
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  32.  38
    Michael Smith (2003). Neutral and Relative Value After Moore. Ethics 113 (3):576-598.
  33. Martin Smith, Justification, Normalcy and Evidential Probability.
    NOTE: This paper is a reworking of some aspects of a previous paper of mine – ‘What else justification could be’ published in Noûs in 2010. I’m currently in the process of writing a book developing and defending some of the ideas from this paper. What follows will, I hope, fall into place as one of the chapters of this book – though it is still very much at the draft stage. Comments are welcome. -/- My concern in this paper (...)
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  34. Michael Smith (2003). Rational Capacities. In Sarah Stroud & Christine Tappolet (eds.), Weakness of Will and Varities of Practical Irrationality. Oxford University Press 17-38.
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  35. Cynthia A. Freeland, Thomas E. Wartenberg, Richard Allen, Murray Smith, Noël Carroll & Oxford Clarendon (1999). Is Analytic Philosophy the Cure for Film Theory? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (3):416-440.
  36. Michael Smith & Frank Jackson (2006). Absolutist Moral Theories and Uncertainty. Journal of Philosophy 103 (6):267-283.
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  37.  45
    Martin Smith (2015). Evidential Incomparability and the Principle of Indifference. Erkenntnis 80 (3):605-616.
    The _Principle of Indifference_ was once regarded as a linchpin of probabilistic reasoning, but has now fallen into disrepute as a result of the so-called _problem of multiple of partitions_. In ‘Evidential symmetry and mushy credence’ Roger White suggests that we have been too quick to jettison this principle and argues that the problem of multiple partitions rests on a mistake. In this paper I will criticise White’s attempt to revive POI. In so doing, I will argue that what underlies (...)
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  38.  2
    Marilyn C. Smith & David Burrows (1974). Memory Scanning: Effect of Unattended Input. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (4):722.
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  39.  75
    Mitzi J. Smith (forthcoming). Book Review: Of Widows and Meals: Communal Means in the Book of Acts. [REVIEW] Interpretation 62 (2):210-210.
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  40.  1
    Marilyn C. Smith & Mary Groen (1974). Evidence for Semantic Analysis of Unattended Verbal Items. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (4):595.
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  41.  1
    Jonathan C. Davis & Marilyn C. Smith (1972). Memory for Unattended Input. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (2):380.
  42.  64
    Michael Smith (2006). Moore on the Right, the Good, and Uncertainty. In Terry Horgan & Mark Timmons (eds.), Metaethics After Moore. Oxford University Press 2006--133.
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  43.  94
    Jeanette Kennett & Michael Smith (1996). Frog and Toad Lose Control. Analysis 56 (2):63–73.
    It seems to be a truism that whenever we do something - and so, given the omnipresence of trying (Hornsby 1980), whenever we try to do something - we want to do that thing more than we want to do anything else we can do (Davidson 1970). However, according to Frog, when we have will power we are able to try not to do something that we ‘really want to do’. In context the idea is clearly meant to be that (...)
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  44.  82
    Michael Smith (2004). Instrumental Desires, Instrumental Rationality. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 78 (1):93–109.
    The requirements of instrumental rationality are often thought to be normative conditions on choice or intention, but this is a mistake. Instrumental rationality is best understood as a requirement of coherence on an agent's non-instrumental desires and means-end beliefs. Since only a subset of an agent's means-end beliefs concern possible actions, the connection with intention is thus more oblique. This requirement of coherence can be satisfied either locally or more globally, it may be only one among a number of such (...)
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  45.  14
    Muriel Smith (2012). Chesterton and The French Revolution. The Chesterton Review 15 (4/1):585-606.
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  46.  50
    Michael Smith (1994). Why Expressivists About Value Should Love Minimalism About Truth. Analysis 54 (1):1 - 11.
  47. Michael J. Smith (1998). Humanitarian Intervention: An Overview of the Ethical Issues. Ethics and International Affairs 12 (1):63–79.
    This essay analyzes the arguments justifying or opposing the notion of humanitarian intervention from realist and liberal perspectives and considers the difficulties of undertaking such interventions effectively and consistently.
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  48.  17
    Matthew Noah Smith (2010). Practical Imagination and its Limits. Philosophers' Imprint 10 (3):1-20.
    It is common to talk about options, where an option is a course of action an agent can take. A course of action, in turn, is that which can be the object of intention. It has not often been noticed in the literature, though, that there are two ways to understand what makes something an option: first, an option just is some course of action physically open (or, to be maximally liberal, logically open) to an agent; second, an option just (...)
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  49. Michael A. Smith (1998). The Possibility of Philosophy of Action. In Jan Bransen & Stefaan Cuypers (eds.), Human Action, Deliberation and Causation. Kluwer Academic Publishers 17--41.
    This article was conceived as a sequel to “The Humean Theory of Motivation.” The paper addresses various challenges to the standard account of the explanation of intentional action in terms of desire and means-end belief, challenges that didn’t occur to me when I wrote “The Humean Theory of Motivation.” I begin by suggesting that the attraction of the standard account lies in the way in which it allows us to unify a vast array of otherwise diverse types of action explanation. (...)
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  50.  90
    Michael Smith (1996). The Argument for Internalism: Reply to Miller. Analysis 56 (3):175–184.
    Alexander Miller objects to the argument for moral judgement internalism that I provide in _The Moral Problem. Miller's objection suggests a misunderstanding of the argument. In this reply I take the opportunity to restate the argument in slightly different terms, and to explain why Miller's objection betrays a misunderstanding.
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