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Michael Wheeler [34]M. Wheeler [13]Mark A. Wheeler [7]Mark Richard Wheeler [5]
Marion Wheeler [4]Mark Wheeler [4]Michael D. Wheeler [3]Mother M. C. Wheeler [3]

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Profile: Muriel E. Wheeler (Northern Illinois University)
  1.  1
    Michael Wheeler (2007). Reconstructing the Cognitive World: The Next Step. A Bradford Book.
    In _Reconstructing the Cognitive World_, Michael Wheeler argues that we should turn away from the generically Cartesian philosophical foundations of much contemporary cognitive science research and proposes instead a Heideggerian approach. Wheeler begins with an interpretation of Descartes. He defines Cartesian psychology as a conceptual framework of explanatory principles and shows how each of these principles is part of the deep assumptions of orthodox cognitive science. Wheeler then turns to Heidegger's radically non-Cartesian account of everyday cognition, which, he argues, can (...)
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  2. Michael Wheeler (2010). In Defence of Extended Functionalism. In Richard Menary (ed.), The Extended Mind. MIT Press
    According to the extended cognition hypothesis (henceforth ExC), there are conditions under which thinking and thoughts (or more precisely, the material vehicles that realize thinking and thoughts) are spatially distributed over brain, body and world, in such a way that the external (beyond-the-skin) factors concerned are rightly accorded fully-paid-up cognitive status.1 According to functionalism in the philosophy of mind, “what makes something a mental state of a particular type does not depend on its internal constitution, but rather on the way (...)
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  3.  59
    Mark A. Wheeler, Stuss, T. Donald & Endel Tulving (1997). Toward a Theory of Episodic Memory: The Frontal Lobes and Autonoetic Consciousness. Psychological Bulletin 121:331-54.
  4. M. Wheeler (2010). Extended Functionalism. In Richard Menary (ed.), The Extended Mind. MIT Press
     
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  5. Julian Kiverstein & Michael Wheeler (eds.) (2012). Heidegger and Cognitive Science. Palgrave Macmillan.
  6.  17
    Michael Wheeler (2011). In Search of Clarity About Parity. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 152 (3):417 - 425.
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  7.  22
    M. Wheeler & A. Clark (1999). Genic Representation: Reconciling Content and Causal Complexity. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (1):103-135.
    Some recent cognitive-scientific research suggests that a considerable amount of intelligent action is generated not by the systematic activity of internal representations, but by complex interactions involving neural, bodily, and environmental factors. Following an analysis of this threat to representational explanation, we pursue an analogy between the role of genes in the production of biological form and the role of neural states in the production of behaviour, in order to develop a notion of genic representation. In both cases an appeal (...)
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  8.  85
    Michael Wheeler (2012). Minds, Things, and Materiality. In Jay Schulkin (ed.), New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Adaptation and Cephalic Expression. Palgrave Macmillan
    In a rich and thought-provoking paper, Lambros Malafouris argues that taking material culture seriously means to be ‘systematically concerned with figuring out the causal efficacy of materiality in the enactment and constitution of a cognitive system or operation’ (Malafouris 2004, 55). As I understand this view, there are really two intertwined claims to be established. The first is that the things beyond the skin that make up material culture (in other words, the physical objects and artefacts in which cultural networks (...)
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  9.  17
    Julian Paul Keenan, Mark A. Wheeler, Gordon G. Gallup & Alvaro Pascual-Leone (2000). Self-Recognition and the Right Prefrontal Cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (9):338-344.
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  10. Michael Wheeler (2008). Cognition in Context: Phenomenology, Situated Robotics and the Frame Problem. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (3):323 – 349.
    The frame problem is the difficulty of explaining how non-magical systems think and act in ways that are adaptively sensitive to context-dependent relevance. Influenced centrally by Heideggerian phenomenology, Hubert Dreyfus has argued that the frame problem is, in part, a consequence of the assumption (made by mainstream cognitive science and artificial intelligence) that intelligent behaviour is representation-guided behaviour. Dreyfus' Heideggerian analysis suggests that the frame problem dissolves if we reject representationalism about intelligence and recognize that human agents realize the property (...)
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  11.  21
    Mike Wheeler (2011). Mind in Life or Life in Mind? Making Sense of Deep Continuity. Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (5-6):148-168.
  12.  15
    Michael Wheeler (forthcoming). The Revolution Will Not Be Optimised: Radical Enactivism, Extended Functionalism and the Extensive Mind. Topoi:1-16.
    Optimising the 4E revolution in cognitive science arguably requires the rejection of two guiding commitments made by orthodox thinking in the field, namely that the material realisers of cognitive states and processes are located entirely inside the head, and that intelligent thought and action are to be explained in terms of the building and manipulation of content-bearing representations. In other words, the full-strength 4E revolution would be secured only by a position that delivered externalism plus antirepresentationalism. I argue that one (...)
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  13.  58
    Anthony P. Atkinson & M. Wheeler (2004). The Grain of Domains: The Evolutionary-Psychological Case Against Domain-General Cognition. Mind and Language 19 (2):147-76.
    Prominent evolutionary psychologists have argued that our innate psychological endowment consists of numerous domainspecific cognitive resources, rather than a few domaingeneral ones. In the light of some conceptual clarification, we examine the central inprinciple arguments that evolutionary psychologists mount against domaingeneral cognition. We conclude (a) that the fundamental logic of Darwinism, as advanced within evolutionary psychology, does not entail that the innate mind consists exclusively, or even massively, of domainspecific features, and (b) that a mixed innate cognitive economy of domainspecific (...)
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  14.  9
    M. Wheeler (2004). Is Language the Ultimate Artifact? Language Sciences 26 (6):688-710.
    Andy Clark has argued that language is “in many ways the ultimate artifact” (Clark 1997, p.218). Fuelling this conclusion is a view according to which the human brain is essentially no more than a patterncompleting device, while language is an external resource which is adaptively fitted to the human brain in such a way that it enables that brain to exceed its unaided (pattern-completing) cognitive capacities, in much the same way as a pair of scissors enables us to “exploit our (...)
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  15.  3
    Simon M. Laham, Yoshihisa Kashima, Jennifer Dix, Melissa Wheeler & Bianca Levis (2014). Elaborated Contextual Framing is Necessary for Action-Based Attitude Acquisition. Cognition and Emotion 28 (6):1119-1126.
  16. Andy Clark & M. Wheeler (1999). Genie Representation: Reconciling Content and Causal Complexity. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (1):103 - 135.
    Some recent cognitive-scientific research suggests that a considerable amount of intelligent action is generated not by the systematic activity of internal representations, but by complex interactions involving neural, bodily, and environmental factors. Following an analysis of this threat to representational explanation, we pursue an analogy between the role of genes in the production of biological form and the role of neural states in the production of behaviour, in order to develop a notion of genic representation. In both cases an appeal (...)
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  17.  10
    Michael Wheeler (2015). Extended Consciousness: An Interim Report. Southern Journal of Philosophy 53:155-175.
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  18.  21
    Julian Paul Keenan, Mark A. Wheeler & Michael Ewers (2003). The Neural Correlates of Self-Awareness and Self-Recognition. In Tilo Kircher & Anthony S. David (eds.), The Self in Neuroscience and Psychiatry. Cambridge University Press 166-179.
  19.  80
    Anthony P. Atkinson & M. Wheeler (2003). Evolutionary Psychology's Grain Problem and the Cognitive Neuroscience of Reasoning. In David E. Over (ed.), Evolution and the Psychology of Thinking: The Debate. Psychology Press 61--99.
  20.  30
    Michael Wheeler (2007). Traits, Genes, and Coding. In Michael Ruse (ed.), Philosophy of Biology. Prometheus Books 369--401.
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  21. Michael Wheeler (1996). From Robots to Rothko: The Bringing Forth of Worlds. In M. Boden (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Oxford University Press 209-236.
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  22.  63
    Michael Wheeler (2001). Two Threats to Representation. Synthese 129 (2):211-231.
    I consider two threats to the idea that on-line intelligent behaviour (the production of fluid and adaptable responses to ongoing sensory input) must or should be explained by appeal to neurally located representations. The first of these threats occurs when extra-neural factors account for the kind of behavioural richness and flexibility normally associated with representation-based control. I show how this anti-representational challenge can be met, if we apply the thought that, to be a representational system, an action-oriented neural system must (...)
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  23.  26
    Michael Wheeler, Plastic Machines: Behavioural Diversity and the Turing Test.
    After proposing the Turing Test, Alan Turing himself considered a number of objections to the idea that a machine might eventually pass it. One of the objections discussed by Turing was that no machine will ever pass the Turing Test because no machine will ever “have as much diversity of behaviour as a man”. He responded as follows: the “criticism that a machine cannot have much diversity of behaviour is just a way of saying that it cannot have much storage (...)
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  24. Michael Wheeler (2002). Change in the Rules; Computers, Dynamical Systems and Searle. In John M. Preston & John Mark Bishop (eds.), Views Into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence. Oxford University Press 338--359.
  25. P. Husbands, O. Holland & M. Wheeler (eds.) (2008). The Mechanichal Mind in History. MIT Press.
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  26.  38
    Michael Wheeler (2008). Minimal Representing: A Response to Gallagher. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (3):371 – 376.
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  27.  19
    Michael Wheeler, God's Machines: Descartes on the Mechanization of Mind.
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  28.  2
    Marion Wheeler (1992). Applying Ethics to the Tourism Industry. Business Ethics: A European Review 1 (4):227-235.
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  29. Mark A. Wheeler (2000). Episodic Memory and Autonoetic Awareness. In Endel Tulving & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press 597-608.
  30. M. Wheeler (2000). Varieties of Consciousness and Memory in the Developing Child. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis
  31.  27
    Michael Wheeler (2013). Science Friction: Phenomenology, Naturalism and Cognitive Science. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 72:135-167.
    Recent years have seen growing evidence of a fruitful engagement between phenomenology and cognitive science. This paper confronts an in-principle problem that stands in the way of this (perhaps unlikely) intellectual coalition, namely the fact that a tension exists between the transcendentalism that characterizes phenomenology and the naturalism that accompanies cognitive science. After articulating the general shape of this tension, I respond as follows. First, I argue that, if we view things through a kind of neo-McDowellian lens, we can open (...)
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  32.  54
    Michael D. Wheeler (1977). Biography, Literary Influence and Allusion as Aspects of Source Studies. British Journal of Aesthetics 17 (2):149-160.
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  33.  22
    M. Wheeler & Anthony P. Atkinson (2001). Domains, Brains and Evolution. In D. Walsh (ed.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Cambridge University Press 239-266.
    According to Darwinian thinking, organisms are designed by natural selection, and so are integrated collections of adaptations, where an adaptation is a phenotypic trait that is a specialized response to a particular selection pressure. For animals that make their living in the Arctic, one adaptive problem is how to maintain body temperature above a certain minimum level necessary for survival. Polar bears' thick coats are a response to that selection pressure . A thick coat makes a positive difference to a (...)
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  34.  14
    Michael Wheeler, Is Cognition Embedded or Extended? The Case of Gestures.
    First paragraph: When we perform bodily gestures, are we ever literally thinking with our hands (arms, shoulders, etc.)? In the more precise, but correspondingly drier, technical language of contemporary philosophy of mind and cognition, essentially the same question might be asked as follows: are bodily gestures ever among the material vehicles that realize cognitive processes? More precisely still, is it ever true that a coupled system made up of neural activity and bodily gestures counts as realizing a process of thought, (...)
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  35.  29
    Michael Wheeler (2004). Minds, Brains and Gases. The Philosophers' Magazine 28 (28):65-69.
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  36.  2
    Michael Wheeler (2003). Do Genes Code for Traits? In A. Rojszczak, J. Cachro & G. Kurczewski (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers 151--164.
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  37.  29
    Mark R. Wheeler (2004). Aristotle on Meaning and Essence. Ancient Philosophy 24 (2):487-491.
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  38.  43
    Dwight Furrow & Mark Wheeler, Autonomy, Self-Appraisal, and the Motive of Care.
    Despite receiving considerable philosophical attention, the concept of autonomy remains contested. In this paper, we diagnose one source of the continuing problem—an excessive emphasis on reflective self-appraisal in the dominant procedural models of autonomy—and suggest a solution. We argue that minimalist conceptions of rational self-appraisal are subject to fatal counterexamples. Yet, attempts to provide a more robust account of rational self-appraisal are too demanding to capture our intuitions about who counts as an autonomous agent. We argue that no procedure of (...)
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  39. Michael Wheeler (1994). Francisco J. Varela, Evan Thompson, and Eleanor Rosch, The Embodied Mind-Cognitive Science and Human Experience Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 14 (1):68-70.
     
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  40. Michael Wheeler, John Ziman & Margaret Boden (2002). The Evolution of Cultural Entities. Proceedings of the British Academy 112.
    Notes on Contributors Preface John Ziman, Introduction: Selectionist Reasoning as a Tool of Thought W G Runciman, Heritable Variation and Competitive Selection as the Mechanism of Sociocultural Evolution Eva Jablonka, Between Development and Evolution: How to Model Cultural Change Tim Ingold, Between Evolution and History: Biology, Culture, and the Myth of Human Origins C A Hooker, An Integrating Scaffold: Toward an Autonomy-Theoretic Modelling of Cultural Change Adam Kuper, Culture Henry Plotkin, Learning from Culture Mary Midgley, Choosing the Selectors Richard R (...)
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  41.  24
    Michael Wheeler, Evolutionary Models in Psychology.
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  42.  10
    Marion Wheeler (1992). Applying Ethics to the Tourism Industry. Business Ethics 1 (4):227–235.
    The world's largest industry has received little ethical attention, yet it raises questions of consumer fairness, marketing and environmental and cultural integrity. The author has recently gained an MSc in Tourism Studies from the University of Surrey, and is currently working as an independent consultant in the tourism and leisure sector.
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  43.  4
    Mark Wheeler (2011). Office Hours. Philosophy 5 (2):5.
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  44.  7
    Marion Wheeler (1994). Ethics and the Sports Business. Business Ethics 3 (1):8–15.
    Action needs to be taken on the ethical issues raised by the commercialising of sport if its integrity is to be maintained and its ethical base is not to be eroded further. The author has worked as an independent consultant in the leisure sector for a number of years and has recently joined the Research Unit of Britain's Sports Council. The views expressed by her in this article are not necessarily those held by the Sports Council.
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  45.  13
    Mark Richard Wheeler (1999). Semantics in Aristotle's Organon. Journal of the History of Philosophy 37 (2):191-226.
  46.  21
    Michael Wheeler, The Devils in the Details: A Response to Kiverstein's 'Minimal Sense of Self, Temporality and the Brain'.
    While remaining in broad agreement with the overall position developed and defended by Kiverstein, I identify and discuss what I take to be a number of problems with the details of the argument. These concern (a) the claim that a certain temporal structure to conscious experience is necessary for there to be a minimal sense of self, (b) the alleged ubiquitous presence in experience of a minimal sense of self, and (c) the claim that the distinction between the constitutive background (...)
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  47.  7
    Mother M. C. Wheeler (1959). Thomistic Metaphysics. New Scholasticism 33 (2):244-246.
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  48.  6
    Mark Richard Wheeler (2011). A Deflationary Reading of Aristotle's Definitions of Truth and Falsehood at Metaphysics 1011b26–7. Apeiron 44 (1):67-90.
  49.  3
    Marcus Wheeler (2006). Motherland. Philosophy Now 54:43-44.
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  50.  9
    Dwight Furrow & Mark Wheeler (2013). Blunting the Blind Impress. Social Theory and Practice 39 (3):477-500.
    Contrary to hierarchical/procedural (HP) models of autonomous action, according to which reflective self-appraisal is essential to autonomous action, we argue that autonomous action essentially involves the way agents take up and respond to the normative demands of objects of care. To be autonomous, an action must track the genuine needs of some object the agent cares about. Thus, autonomous action is essentially teleological, governed by both an agent’s concerns and the object of care. It is not dependent only on the (...)
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