Search results for 'Macroevolution' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Anya Plutynski (2008). Speciation and Macroevolution. In Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.), Blackwell's Companion to Philosophy of Biology. Blackwell's/Routledge
    Speciation is the process by which one or more species arises from a common ancestor, and “macroevolution” refers to patterns and processes at and above the species level – or, transitions in higher taxa, such as new families, phyla or genera. “Macroevolution” is contrasted with “microevolution,” evolutionary change within populations, due to migration, assortative mating, selection, mutation and drift. In the evolutionary synthesis of the 1930’s and 40’s, Haldane , Dobzhansky , Mayr , and Simpson argued that (...)
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  2.  28
    Leonid Grinin, Alexander Markov, Markov & Andrey Korotayev (2009). Aromorphoses in Biological and Social Evolution: Some General Rules for Biological and Social Forms of Macroevolution. Social Evolution and History 8 (2).
    The comparison between biological and social macroevolution is a very important (though insufficiently studied) subject whose analysis renders new significant possibilities to comprehend the processes, trends, mechanisms, and peculiarities of each of the two types of macroevolution. Of course, there are a few rather important (and very understandable) differences between them; however, it appears possible to identify a number of fundamental similarities. One may single out at least three fundamental sets of factors determining those similarities. First of all, (...)
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  3.  4
    Ross H. Nehm & Kostas Kampourakis (2014). History and Philosophy of Science and the Teaching of Macroevolution. In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer 401-421.
    Although macroevolution has been the subject of sustained attention in the history and philosophy of science (HPS) community, only in recent years have science educators begun to more fully engage with the topic. This chapter first explores how science educators have conceptualized macroevolution and how their perspectives align with the views from HPS. Second, it illustrates how science educators’ limited engagement with HPS scholarship on macroevolution has influenced construct delineation, measurement instrument development, and educational arguments about which (...)
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  4.  6
    Maureen A. O’Malley & Russell Powell (forthcoming). Major Problems in Evolutionary Transitions: How a Metabolic Perspective Can Enrich Our Understanding of Macroevolution. Biology and Philosophy:1-31.
    The model of major transitions in evolution devised by Maynard Smith and Szathmáry has exerted tremendous influence over evolutionary theorists. Although MTE has been criticized for inconsistently combining different types of event, its ongoing appeal lies in depicting hierarchical increases in complexity by means of evolutionary transitions in individuality. In this paper, we consider the implications of major evolutionary events overlooked by MTE and its ETI-oriented successors, specifically the biological oxygenation of Earth, and the acquisitions of mitochondria and plastids. By (...)
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  5. Ricard V. Solé (1996). On Macroevolution, Extinctions and Critical Phenomena. Complexity 1 (6):40-44.
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  6.  96
    Roberta L. Millstein (2000). Chance and Macroevolution. Philosophy of Science 67 (4):603-624.
    When philosophers of physics explore the nature of chance, they usually look to quantum mechanics. When philosophers of biology explore the nature of chance, they usually look to microevolutionary phenomena, such as mutation or random drift. What has been largely overlooked is the role of chance in macroevolution. The stochastic models of paleobiology employ conceptions of chance that are similar to those at the microevolutionary level, yet different from the conceptions of chance often associated with quantum mechanics and Laplacean (...)
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  7.  14
    Mary C. Towner, Mark N. Grote, Jay Venti & Monique Borgerhoff Mulder (2012). Cultural Macroevolution on Neighbor Graphs. Human Nature 23 (3):283-305.
    What are the driving forces of cultural macroevolution, the evolution of cultural traits that characterize societies or populations? This question has engaged anthropologists for more than a century, with little consensus regarding the answer. We develop and fit autologistic models, built upon both spatial and linguistic neighbor graphs, for 44 cultural traits of 172 societies in the Western North American Indian (WNAI) database. For each trait, we compare models including or excluding one or both neighbor graphs, and for the (...)
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  8.  11
    Francisco J. Ayala (1982). Beyond Darwinism? The Challenge of Macroevolution to the Synthetic Theory of Evolution. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:275 - 291.
    The theory of punctuated equilibrium has been proposed as a challenge to the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory. Two important issues are raised. The first is scientific: whether morphological change as observed in the paleontological record is essentially always associated with speciation events. This paper argues that there is at present no empirical support for this claim: the alleged evidence is based on a definitional fallacy. The second issue is epistemological: whether macroevolution is an autonomous field of study, independent (...)
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  9.  12
    Andrey Korotayev & Leonid Grinin (2009). Social Macroevolution: Growth of the World System Integrity and a System of Phase Transitions. World Futures 65 (7):477-506.
    There are very significant conceptual links between theories of social macroevolution and theories of the World System development. It is shown that the growth of the World System complexity and integrity can be traced through a system of phase transitions of macroevolution. The first set of phase transition is connected with the agrarian, industrial, and information-scientific revolutions (that are interpreted as changes of “production principles”). The second set consists of phase transitions within one production principle. These phase transitions (...)
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  10.  11
    Leonid Grinin & Andrey Korotayev (2009). Social Macroevolution: Growth of the World System Integrity and a System of Phase Transitions. World Futures 65 (7):477 – 506.
    There are very significant conceptual links between theories of social macroevolution and theories of the World System development. It is shown that the growth of the World System complexity and integrity can be traced through a system of phase transitions of macroevolution. The first set of phase transition is connected with the agrarian, industrial, and information-scientific revolutions (that are interpreted as changes of “production principles”). The second set consists of phase transitions within one production principle. These phase transitions (...)
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  11.  13
    Luis Boto, Ignacio Doadrio & Rui Diogo (2009). Prebiotic World, Macroevolution, and Darwin's Theory: A New Insight. Biology and Philosophy 24 (1):119-128.
    Darwin’s main contribution to modern biology was to make clear that all history of life on earth is dominated by a simple principle, which is usually summarised as 'descent with modification'. However, interpretations about how this modification is produced have been controversial. In light of the data provided by recent studies on molecular biology, developmental biology, genomics, and other biological disciplines we discuss, in this paper, how Darwin's theory may apply to two main 'types' of evolution: that occurring in the (...)
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  12. Massimo Pigliucci (2003). Genetic Assimilation and a Possible Evolutionary Paradox: Can Macroevolution Sometimes Be so Fast to Pass Us By? Evolution 57 (7):1455-1464.
    The idea of genetic assimilation, that environmentally induced phenotypes may become genetically fixed and no longer require the original environmental stimulus, has had varied success through time in evolutionary biology research. Proposed by Waddington in the 1940s, it became an area of active empirical research mostly thanks to the efforts of its inventor and his collaborators. It was then attacked as of minor importance during the ‘‘hardening’’ of the neo-Darwinian synthesis and was relegated to a secondary role for decades. (...)
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  13. Russell Powell (2009). Contingency and Convergence in Macroevolution: A Reply to John Beatty. Journal of Philosophy 106 (7):390-403.
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  14.  9
    Kevin J. Peterson, Michael R. Dietrich & Mark A. McPeek (2009). MicroRNAs and Metazoan Macroevolution: Insights Into Canalization, Complexity, and the Cambrian Explosion. Bioessays 31 (7):736-747.
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  15.  20
    Kim Sterelny (2007). Macroevolution, Minimalism, and the Radiation of the Animals. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press
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  16. David Sepkoski (2008). Macroevolution. In Michael Ruse (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Biology. Oxford University Press 211--237.
     
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  17.  5
    Brian S. Leander, Heather J. Esson & Susana A. Breglia (2007). Macroevolution of Complex Cytoskeletal Systems in Euglenids. Bioessays 29 (10):987-1000.
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  18.  10
    Massimo Pigliucci (2003). Genetic Assimilation and a Possible Evolutionary Paradox: Can Macroevolution Sometimes Be so Fast to Pass Us By? Evolution 57 (7):1455-1464.
    The idea of genetic assimilation, that environmentally induced phenotypes may become genetically fixed and no longer require the original environmental stimulus, has had varied success through time in evolutionary biology research. Proposed by Waddington in the 1940s, it became an area of active empirical research mostly thanks to the efforts of its inventor and his collaborators. It was then attacked as of minor importance during the ‘‘hardening’’ of the neo-Darwinian synthesis and was relegated to a secondary role for decades. (...)
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  19.  6
    S. Yu Maslov (1978). Macroevolution as Deduction Process. Synthese 39 (3):417 - 434.
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  20.  1
    Jo''brien Michael (2006). Archaeology and Cultural Macroevolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4).
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  21.  1
    Douglas H. Erwin (2010). Microevolution and Macroevolution Are Not Governed by the Same Processes. In Francisco José Ayala & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology. Wiley-Blackwell Pub. 180--193.
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  22.  3
    Michael J. O'Brien (2006). Archaeology and Cultural Macroevolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):359-360.
    Given the numerous parallels between the archaeological and paleontological records, it is not surprising to find a considerable fit between macroevolutionary approaches and methods used in biology – for example, cladistics and clade-diversity measures – and some of those that have long been used in archaeology – for example, seriation. Key, however, is recognizing that this methodological congruence is illusory in terms of how evolution has traditionally been viewed in biology and archaeology. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  23. Lindell Bromham (2016). Testing Hypotheses in Macroevolution. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 55:47-59.
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  24. Michael R. Dietrich (2010). Microevolution and Macroevolution Are Governed by the Same Processes. In Francisco José Ayala & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology. Wiley-Blackwell Pub.
     
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  25. Robert Root‐Bernstein (2009). Macroevolution. Bioessays 31 (2):253-254.
  26.  55
    Russell Powell (2012). Convergent Evolution and the Limits of Natural Selection. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):355-373.
    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the “tape of life” would result in a radically different evolutionary outcome. Some biologists and philosophers, however, have pointed to convergent evolution as evidence for robust replicability in macroevolution. These authors interpret homoplasy, or the independent origination of similar biological forms, as evidence for the power of natural selection to guide form toward certain morphological attractors, notwithstanding the diversionary tendencies of drift and the constraints of phylogenetic inertia. In this paper, I consider the (...)
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  27.  54
    Kim Sterelny (1996). Explanatory Pluralism in Evolutionary Biology. Biology and Philosophy 11 (2):193-214.
    The ontological dependence of one domain on another is compatible with the explanatory autonomy of the less basic domain. That autonomy results from the fact that the relationship between two domains can be very complex. In this paper I distinguish two different types of complexity, two ways the relationship between domains can fail to be transparent, both of which are relevant to evolutionary biology. Sometimes high level explanations preserve a certain type of causal or counterfactual information which would be lost (...)
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  28.  7
    Morten Tønnessen (2009). Umwelt Transitions: Uexküll and Environmental Change. [REVIEW] Biosemiotics 2 (1):47-64.
    What role does environmental change play in Jakob von Uexküll’s thought? And what role can it play in a up-to-date Uexküllian framework? Admittedly, in hindsight it appears that the Umwelt theory suffers from its reliance on Uexküll’s false premise that the environment (including its mixture of species) is generally stable. In this article, the Umwelt theory of Uexküll is reviewed in light of modern findings related to environmental change, especially from macroevolution. Uexküll’s thought is interpreted as a distinctive theory (...)
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  29.  33
    Bernd Rosslenbroich (2006). The Notion of Progress in Evolutionary Biology – the Unresolved Problem and an Empirical Suggestion. Biology and Philosophy 21 (1):41-70.
    Modern biology is ambivalent about the notion of evolutionary progress. Although most evolutionists imply in their writings that they still understand large-scale macroevolution as a somewhat progressive process, the use of the term “progress” is increasingly criticized and avoided. The paper shows that this ambivalence has a long history and results mainly from three problems: (1) The term “progress” carries historical, theoretical and social implications which are not congruent with modern knowledge of the course of evolution; (...)
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  30.  16
    Jean Chaline (2010). Does Species Evolution Follow Scale Laws? First Applications of the Scale Relativity Theory to Fossil and Living-Beings. Foundations of Science 15 (3):279-302.
    We have demonstrated, using the Cantor dust method, that the statistical distribution of appearance and disappearance of rodents species (Arvicolid rodent radiation in Europe) follows power laws strengthening the evidence for a fractal structure set. Self-similar laws have been used as model for the description of a huge number of biological systems. With Nottale we have shown that log-periodic behaviors of acceleration or deceleration can be applied to branching macroevolution, to the time sequences of major evolutionary leaps (global life (...)
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  31.  13
    Marcello Barbieri (2011). Origin and Evolution of the Brain. Biosemiotics 4 (3):369-399.
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  32.  27
    Marcello Barbieri (2012). Code Biology – A New Science of Life. Biosemiotics 5 (3):411-437.
    Systems Biology and the Modern Synthesis are recent versions of two classical biological paradigms that are known as structuralism and functionalism, or internalism and externalism. According to functionalism (or externalism), living matter is a fundamentally passive entity that owes its organization to external forces (functions that shape organs) or to an external organizing agent (natural selection). Structuralism (or internalism), is the view that living matter is an intrinsically active entity that is capable of organizing itself from within, with purely internal (...)
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  33.  19
    Marcello Barbieri (2013). Organic Semiosis and Peircean Semiosis. Biosemiotics 6 (2):273-289.
    The discovery of the genetic code has shown that the origin of life has also been the origin of semiosis, and the discovery of many other organic codes has indicated that organic semiosis has been the sole form of semiosis present on Earth in the first three thousand million years of evolution. With the origin of animals and the evolution of the brain, however, a new type of semiosis came into existence, a semiosis that is based on interpretation and is (...)
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  34.  6
    Yuval Laor & Eva Jablonka (2013). The Evolution and Development of Culture. History and Theory 52 (2):290-299.
    In his thought-provoking book, Alex Mesoudi argues for an evolutionary, unifying framework for the social sciences, which is based on the principles of Darwinian theory. Mesoudi maintains that cultural change can be illuminated by using the genotype-phenotype distinction, and that it is sufficiently similar to biological change to warrant a theory of culture-change based on evolutionary models. He describes examples of cultural microevolution, within-population changes, and the biologically inspired population genetics models used to study them. He also shows that some (...)
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  35.  18
    Ehud Lamm (2010). Review Of: Julian Huxley, Evolution: The Modern Synthesis – The Definitive Edition. [REVIEW] Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science.
    The review focuses on Huxley’s debt to Richard Goldschmidt and Cyril Darlington. I discuss the conceptions of the genome developed by Goldschmidt and Darlington and their continuing relevance.
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  36.  68
    Stepi Ien Jay Gould, The Hardening of the Modern Synthesis.
    In 1937, just as Dobzhansky published the book that later generations would laud as the foundation of the modern synthesis, the American Naturnlist published a symposium on "supraspecific variation in nature and in classification." Alfred C. Kinsey, who later became one of America's most controversial intellectuals for his study of basic behaviors in another sort of WASP,1 led off the symposium with a summary of his extensive work on a family of gall wasps, the Cynipidae. In his article, Kinsey strongly (...)
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  37.  48
    John Damuth & I. Lorraine Heisler (1988). Alternative Formulations of Multilevel Selection. Biology and Philosophy 3 (4):407-430.
    Hierarchical expansions of the theory of natural selection exist in two distinct bodies of thought in evolutionary biology, the group selection and the species selection traditions. Both traditions share the point of view that the principles of natural selection apply at levels of biological organization above the level of the individual organism. This leads them both to considermultilevel selection situations, where selection is occurring simultaneously at more than one level. Impeding unification of the theoretical approaches of the multilevel selection traditions (...)
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  38.  91
    Roberta L. Millstein (2003). Interpretations of Probability in Evolutionary Theory. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1317-1328.
    Evolutionary theory (ET) is teeming with probabilities. Probabilities exist at all levels: the level of mutation, the level of microevolution, and the level of macroevolution. This uncontroversial claim raises a number of contentious issues. For example, is the evolutionary process (as opposed to the theory) indeterministic, or is it deterministic? Philosophers of biology have taken different sides on this issue. Millstein (1997) has argued that we are not currently able answer this question, and that even scientific realists ought to (...)
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  39.  25
    Russell Powell (2007). Is Convergence More Than an Analogy? Homoplasy and its Implications for Macroevolutionary Predictability. Biology and Philosophy 22 (4):565-578.
    A number of authors have pointed to “convergent evolution” as evidence for the central role of natural selection in shaping predictable trajectories of macroevolution. However, there are numerous conceptual and empirical difficulties that arise in broadly appealing to the frequency of homoplasy as evidence for a non-contingently constrained adaptational design space. Most important is the need to distinguish between convergent (externally constrained) and parallel (internally constrained) evolution, and to consider how the respective frequencies of these significantly different sources of (...)
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  40.  28
    Derek Turner (2011). Gould's Replay Revisited. Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):65-79.
    This paper develops a critical response to John Beatty’s recent (2006) engagement with Stephen Jay Gould’s claim that evolutionary history is contingent. Beatty identifies two senses of contingency in Gould’s work: an unpredictability sense and a causal dependence sense. He denies that Gould associates contingency with stochastic phenomena, such as drift. In reply to Beatty, this paper develops two main claims. The first is an interpretive claim: Gould really thinks of contingency has having to do with stochastic effects at the (...)
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  41.  60
    Jean Gayon (2005). Chance, Explanation, and Causation in Evolutionary Theory. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 27 (3/4):395 - 405.
    Chance comes into plays at many levels of the explanation of the evolutionary process; but the unity of sense of this category is problematic. The purpose of this talk is to clarify the meaning of chance at various levels in evolutionary theory: mutations, genetic drift, genetic revolutions, ecosystems, macroevolution. Three main concepts of chance are found at these various levels: luck (popular concept), randomness (probabilistic concept), and contingency relative to a given theoretical system (epistemological concept). After identifying which concept(s) (...)
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  42.  81
    Douglas H. Erwin (2004). One Very Long Argument. Biology and Philosophy 19 (1):17-28.
    The distribution of organisms in morphologic space is clumpy. Cats are like felids, dogs are like canids and snails are (mostly) like gastropods. But cats are not like dogs and snails are not like clams. This clumpy distribution of morphology has long posed one of the greatest challenges to evolutionary biologists. Does it represent the extinction and disappearance of a oncecontinuous distribution of morphologies, clades perched on the summits of persistent selective peaks ala Sewell Wright, or a primary signature of (...)
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  43.  16
    Alex Mesoudi (2007). A Darwinian Theory of Cultural Evolution Can Promote an Evolutionary Synthesis for the Social Sciences. Biological Theory 2 (3):263-275.
    The evolutionary synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s integrated the study of biological microevolution and biological macroevolution into the theoretically consistent and hugely productive field of evolutionary biology. A similar synthesis has yet to occur for the study of culture, and the social sciences remain fragmented and theoretically incompatible. Here, it is suggested that a Darwinian theory of cultural evolution can promote such a synthesis. Earlier non-Darwinian theories of cultural evolution, such as progress theories, lacked key elements of a (...)
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  44.  41
    Shi Huang (2010). The Overlap Feature of the Genetic Equidistance Result—A Fundamental Biological Phenomenon Overlooked for Nearly Half of a Century. Biological Theory 5 (1):40-52.
    The genetic equidistance result shows that different species are approximately equidistant to a simpler outgroup in protein sequence similarity, as first reported by Margoliash in 1963. This result, together with those of Zuckerkandl and Pauling in 1962 inspired the molecular clock and in turn the neutral theory of evolution. Here it is shown that the clock/neutral theory had from the beginning overlooked another characteristic of the equidistance result, the overlap feature, which shows a large number of overlapped mutant amino acid (...)
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  45.  6
    Robert J. O'Hara (2007). Essay-Review of Valentine's 'On the Origin of Phyla'. [REVIEW] International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (1): 109–112.
    James Valentine's "On the Origin of Phyla" is divided into three main sections: "Evidence of the Origins of Metazoan Phyla," "The Metazoan Phyla," and "The Evolution of the Phyla." The second section is the zoological core of the book, a more or less conventional treatment of major animal taxa, arranged in chain-of-being fashion from sponges to cnidarians to "worms" of many kinds, and so onward to arthropods, echinoderms, chordates, and all others in between. Philosophically inclined readers will be most interested (...)
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  46.  11
    Elliott R. Sober (1982). The Modern Synthesis: Its Scope and Limits. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:314 - 321.
    This paper locates the contributions of Kauffman and Ayala to this symposium in the context of recent discussions of the adequacy of the Modern Synthesis. The neglect of morphology and development described by Kauffman is understandable in view of the belief that selection is the most powerful evolutionary force. His idea that properties of order may be explained by nonselective mechanisms is also examined. The paper subsequently takes up Ayala's criticism of S.J. Gould's view that macroevolution is a process (...)
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  47.  21
    Davida E. Kellogg (1988). “And Then a Miracle Occurs” — Weak Links in the Chain of Argument From Punctuation to Hierarchy. Biology and Philosophy 3 (1):3-28.
    Weak links, in the form of inadequacies in both reasoning and supporting evidence, exist at several critical steps in the derivation of an hierarchical concept of evolution from punctuated equilibria. Punctuation itself is predicated on a distorted reading of phyletic change as phyletic gradualism, and of allopatric speciation as the instantaneous formation of unchanging typological taxa. The concept of punctuation is further confounded by the indescriminate employment of the same term to denote both a causal explanation for evolutionary change and (...)
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  48.  15
    Benton M. Stidd & David L. Wade (1995). Is Species Selection Dependent Upon Emergent Characters? Biology and Philosophy 10 (1):55-76.
    The architects of punctuated equilibrium and species selection as well as more recent workers (Vrba) have narrowed the original formulation of species selection and made it dependent upon so-called emergent characters. One criticism of this narrow version is the dearth of emergent characters with a consequent diminution in the robustness of species selection as an important evolutionary process. We argue that monomorphic species characters may at times be the focus of selection and that under these (...)
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  49.  7
    Kim Kleinman (2013). Systematics and the Origin of Species From the Viewpoint of a Botanist: Edgar Anderson Prepares the 1941 Jesup Lectures with Ernst Mayr. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (1):73-101.
    The correspondence between Edgar Anderson and Ernst Mayr leading into their 1941 Jesup Lectures on “Systematics and the Origin of Species” addressed population thinking, the nature of species, the relationship of microevolution to macroevolution, and the evolutionary dynamics of plants and animals, all central issues in what came to be known as the Evolutionary Synthesis. On some points, they found ready agreement; for others they forged only a short term consensus. They brought two different working styles to this (...)
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  50.  13
    J. C. Vaupel Klein (1994). Punctuated Equilibria and Phyletic Gradualism: Even Partners Can Be Good Friends. Acta Biotheoretica 42 (1).
    The allegedly alternative theories of Phyletic Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibria are examined as regards the nature of their differences. The explanatory value of both models is determined by establishing their actual connection with reality. It is concluded that they are to be considered complementary rather than mutually exclusive at all levels of infraspecific, specific, and supraspecific evolution. So, in order to be described comprehensively, the pathways of evolution require at least two distinct models, each based on a discrete range of (...)
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