Search results for 'Maile-Gene Sagen' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Maile-Gene Sagen (ed.) (1985). Ethics and the Law. Iowa Humanities Board.score: 870.0
     
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  2. Hajime Sato, Akira Akabayashi & Ichiro Kai (2006). Public, Experts, and Acceptance of Advanced Medical Technologies: The Case of Organ Transplant and Gene Therapy in Japan. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 14 (4):203-214.score: 30.0
    In 1997, after long social debates, the Japanese government enacted a law on organ transplantation from brain-dead bodies. Since 1993, on gene therapy, administrative agencies have issued a series of guidelines. This study seeks to elucidate when people became aware of the issues and when they formed their opinions on organ transplant and gene therapy. At the same time, it aims to examine at which point in time experts, those in university ethical committees and in academic societies, consider these technologies (...)
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  3. Matthew J. Barker (2007). The Empirical Inadequacy of Species Cohesion by Gene Flow. Philosophy of Science 74 (5):654-665.score: 22.0
    This paper brings needed clarity to the influential view that species are cohesive entities held together by gene flow, and then develops an empirical argument against that view: Neglected data suggest gene flow is neither necessary nor sufficient for species cohesion. Implications are discussed. ‡I'm grateful to Rob Wilson, Alex Rueger and Lindley Darden for important comments on earlier drafts, and to Joseph Nagel, Heather Proctor, Ken Bond, members of the DC History and Philosophy of Biology reading group, and audience (...)
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  4. Matthew J. Barker & Robert A. Wilson (2010). Cohesion, Gene Flow, and the Nature of Species. Journal of Philosophy 107 (2):59-77.score: 18.0
    A far-reaching and influential view in evolutionary biology claims that species are cohesive units held together by gene flow. Biologists have recognized empirical problems facing this view; after sharpening the expression of the view, we present novel conceptual problems for it. At the heart of these problems is a distinction between two importantly different concepts of cohesion, what we call integrative and response cohesion. Acknowledging the distinction problematizes both the explanandum of species cohesion and the explanans of gene flow that (...)
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  5. Péter Kakuk (2008). Gene Concepts and Genethics: Beyond Exceptionalism. Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):357-375.score: 18.0
    The discursive explosion that was provoked by the new genetics could support the impression that the ethical and social problems posed by the new genetics are somehow exceptional in their very nature. According to this view we are faced with special ethical and social problems that create a challenge so fundamental that the special label of genethics is needless to justify. The historical account regarding the evolution of the gene concepts could serve us to highlight the limits of what we (...)
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  6. Jordan Bartol (2013). Re-Examining the Gene in Personalized Genomics. Science and Education 22 (10):2529-2546.score: 18.0
    Personalized genomics companies (PG; also called ‘direct-to-consumer genetics’) are businesses marketing genetic testing to consumers over the Internet. While much has been written about these new businesses, little attention has been given to their roles in science communication. This paper provides an analysis of the gene concept presented to customers and the relation between the information given and the science behind PG. Two quite different gene concepts are present in company rhetoric, but only one features in the science. To explain (...)
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  7. Lenny Moss (2006). The Question of Questions: What is a Gene? Comments on Rolston and Griffths & Stotz. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (6):523-534.score: 18.0
    If the question ``What is a gene?'' proves to be worth asking it must be able to elicit an answer which both recognizes and address the reasons why the concept of the gene ever seemed to be something worth getting excited about in the first place as well analyzing and evaluating the latest develops in the molecular biology of DNA. Each of the preceding papers fails to do one of these and sufferrs the consequences. Where Rolston responds to the apparent (...)
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  8. Monika Piotrowska (2009). What Does It Mean to Be 75% Pumpkin? The Units of Comparative Genomics. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):838-850.score: 18.0
    Comparative genomicists seem to be convinced that the unit of measurement employed in their studies is a gene that drives the function of cells and ultimately organisms. As a result, they have come to some substantive conclusions about how similar humans are to other organisms based on the percentage of genetic makeup they share. I argue that the actual unit of measurement employed in the studies corresponds to a structural rather than a functional gene concept, thus rendering many of the (...)
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  9. David Ambuel (2013). Difference in Kind: Observations on the Distinction of the Megista Gene. In Beatriz Bossi & Thomas M. Robinson (eds.), Plato's Sophist Revisited. de Gruyter. 247-268.score: 18.0
    It is argued that the analysis by which the gene are differentiated in the dialogue is an exercise in studied ambiguities informed by an Eleatic logic of strict dichotomy that was the underpinning of the Sophist's method of division. By this dialectical drill, Plato shows that the metaphysics underlying the Visitor's method fails to adequately distinguish what it means to have a character from what it means to be a character, and therefore remains inadequate to track down the sophist or (...)
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  10. S. M. Reindal (2000). Disability, Gene Therapy and Eugenics - a Challenge to John Harris. Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (2):89 - 94.score: 18.0
    This article challenges the view of disability presented by Harris in his article, “Is gene therapy a form of eugenics?”1 It is argued that his definition of disability rests on an individual model of disability, where disability is regarded as a product of biological determinism or “personal tragedy” in the individual. Within disability theory this view is often called “the medical model” and it has been criticised for not being able to deal with the term “disability”, but only with impairment. (...)
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  11. Jonathan Birch (2014). Gene Mobility and the Concept of Relatedness. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):445-476.score: 18.0
    Cooperation is rife in the microbial world, yet our best current theories of the evolution of cooperation were developed with multicellular animals in mind. Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness is an important case in point: applying the theory in a microbial setting is far from straightforward, as social evolution in microbes has a number of distinctive features that the theory was never intended to capture. In this article, I focus on the conceptual challenges posed by the project of extending Hamilton’s (...)
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  12. Veikko Launis (2002). Human Gene Therapy and the Slippery Slope Argument. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 5 (2):169-179.score: 18.0
    The article investigates the validity of two different versions of the slippery slope argument construed in relation to human gene therapy: the empirical and the conceptual argument. The empirical version holds that our accepting somatic cell therapy will eventually cause our accepting eugenic medical goals. The conceptual version holds that we are logically committed to accepting such goals once we have accepted somatic cell therapy. It is argued that neither the empirical nor the conceptual version of the argument can provide (...)
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  13. Laurence Perbal (2013). The 'Warrior Gene' and the Mãori People: The Responsibility of the Geneticists. Bioethics 27 (7):382-387.score: 18.0
    The ‘gene of’ is a teleosemantic expression that conveys a simplistic and linear relationship between a gene and a phenotype. Throughout the 20th century, geneticists studied these genes of traits. The studies were often polemical when they concerned human traits: the ‘crime gene’, ‘poverty gene’, ‘IQ gene’, ‘gay gene’ or ‘gene of alcoholism’. Quite recently, a controversy occurred in 2006 in New Zealand that started with the claim that a ‘warrior gene’ exists in the Mãori community. This claim came from (...)
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  14. Alexis De Tiège, Koen Tanghe, Johan Braeckman & Yves Van de Peer (2014). From DNA- to NA-Centrism and the Conditions for Gene-Centrism Revisited. Biology and Philosophy 29 (1):55-69.score: 18.0
    First the ‘Weismann barrier’ and later on Francis Crick’s ‘central dogma’ of molecular biology nourished the gene-centric paradigm of life, i.e., the conception of the gene/genome as a ‘central source’ from which hereditary specificity unidirectionally flows or radiates into cellular biochemistry and development. Today, due to advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics, such as the discovery of complex post-genomic and epigenetic processes in which genes are causally integrated, many theorists argue that a gene-centric conception of the organism has become problematic. (...)
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  15. Isaac Rabino (2003). Gene Therapy: Ethical Issues. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (1):31-58.score: 18.0
    To discern the ethical issues involved incurrent gene therapy research, to explore theproblems inherent in possible future genetherapies, and to encourage debate within thescientific community about ethical questionsrelevant to both, we surveyed American Societyof Human Genetics scientists who engage inhuman genetics research. This study of theopinions of U.S. scientific experts about theethical issues discussed in the literature ongene therapy contributes systematic data on theattitudes of those working in the field as wellas elaborative comments. Our survey finds thatrespondents are highly supportive (...)
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  16. Degeng Wang (2005). “Molecular Gene”: Interpretation in the Right Context. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):453-464.score: 18.0
    How to interpret the “molecular gene” concept is discussed in this paper. I argue that the architecture of biological systems is hierarchical and multi-layered, exhibiting striking similarities to that of modern computers. Multiple layers exist between the genotype and system level property, the phenotype. This architectural complexity gives rise to the intrinsic complexity of the genotype-phenotype relationships. The notion of a gene being for a phenotypic trait or traits lacks adequate consideration of this complexity and has limitations in explaining the (...)
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  17. Marianne Sommer (2008). History in the Gene: Negotiations Between Molecular and Organismal Anthropology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (3):473 - 528.score: 18.0
    In the advertising discourse of human genetic database projects, of genetic ancestry tracing companies, and in popular books on anthropological genetics, what I refer to as the anthropological gene and genome appear as documents of human history, by far surpassing the written record and oral history in scope and accuracy as archives of our past. How did macromolecules become "documents of human evolutionary history"? Historically, molecular anthropology, a term introduced by Emile Zuckerkandl in 1962 to characterize the study of primate (...)
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  18. Andrew F. G. Bourke (2014). The Gene's-Eye View, Major Transitions and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):241-248.score: 18.0
    I argue that Grafen’s formal darwinism project could profitably incorporate a gene’s-eye view, as informed by the major transitions framework. In this, instead of the individual being assumed to maximise its inclusive fitness, genes are assumed to maximise their inclusive fitness. Maximisation of fitness at the individual level is not a straightforward concept because the major transitions framework shows that there are several kinds of biological individual. In addition, individuals have a definable fitness, exhibit individual-level adaptations and arise in a (...)
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  19. Mairi Levitt (1997). Natural Ways Are Better: Adolescents and the 'Anti-Obesity' Gene. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (3):305-315.score: 18.0
    Empirical research with young people in Finland, Germany, Spain and Britain was carried out as part of the BIOCULT project funded by the European Union. The project focused on their attitudes to biotechnology and, in particular, the formation of arguments about risk and safety. This paper looks at the responses of 14–18 year olds to a story about the so called anti-obesity gene, in the form of advice to a friend who is taking it. The majority advised against taking it (...)
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  20. Peter J. Taylor (2012). A Gene-Free Formulation of Classical Quantitative Genetics Used to Examine Results and Interpretations Under Three Standard Assumptions. Acta Biotheoretica 60 (4):357-378.score: 18.0
    Quantitative genetics (QG) analyses variation in traits of humans, other animals, or plants in ways that take account of the genealogical relatedness of the individuals whose traits are observed. “Classical” QG, where the analysis of variation does not involve data on measurable genetic or environmental entities or factors, is reformulated in this article using models that are free of hypothetical, idealized versions of such factors, while still allowing for defined degrees of relatedness among kinds of individuals or “varieties.” The gene (...)
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  21. Yukio Wakamatsu (1999). A Citizens' Conference on Gene Therapy in Japan: A Feasibility Study of the Consensus Conference Method in Japan. [REVIEW] AI and Society 13 (1-2):22-43.score: 18.0
    An experimental consensus conference on the topic of gene therapy was held in order to discover whether the method, a means for participatory technology assessment born in Denmark in 1986, could be feasible in Japan. This article summarises the overall experience of this experiment and concludes that the method is indeed feasible in Japan. Enumerating some issues and problems we faced in this project, I will discuss their meaning and significance from the viewpoint of practitioner or initiator of participatory technology (...)
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  22. James P. Morris Allison Jack, Jessica J. Connelly (2012). DNA Methylation of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene Predicts Neural Response to Ambiguous Social Stimuli. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    Oxytocin and its receptor (OXTR) play an important role in a variety of social perceptual and affiliative processes. Individual variability in social information processing likely has a strong heritable component, and as such, many investigations have established an association between common genetic variants of OXTR and variability in the social phenotype. However, to date, these investigations have primarily focused only on changes in the sequence of DNA without considering the role of epigenetic factors. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism by (...)
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  23. Shelly Benjaminy & Tania Bubela (2014). Ocular Gene Transfer in the Spotlight: Implications of Newspaper Content for Clinical Communications. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):58.score: 18.0
    Ocular gene transfer clinical trials are raising hopes for blindness treatments and attracting media attention. News media provide an accessible health information source for patients and the public, but are often criticized for overemphasizing benefits and underplaying risks of novel biomedical interventions. Overly optimistic portrayals of unproven interventions may influence public and patient expectations; the latter may cause patients to downplay risks and over-emphasize benefits, with implications for informed consent for clinical trials. We analyze the news media communications landscape about (...)
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  24. Sun-Wei Guo (2013). China's “Gene War of the Century” and Its Aftermath: The Contest Goes On. Minerva 51 (4):485-512.score: 18.0
    Following the successful cloning of genes for mostly rare genetic diseases in the early 1990s, there was a nearly universal enthusiasm that similar approaches could be employed to hunt down genes predisposing people to complex diseases. Around 1996, several well-funded international gene-hunting teams, enticed by the low cost of collecting biological samples and China’s enormous population, and ushered in by some well-connected Chinese intermediaries, came to China to hunt down disease susceptibility genes. This alarmed and, in some cases, enraged many (...)
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  25. David P. Hill, Barry Smith, Monica S. McAndrews-Hill & Judith A. Blake (2008). Gene Ontology Annotations: What They Mean and Where They Come From. BMC Bioinformatics( 9 (Suppl 5):S2.score: 18.0
    The computational genomics community has come increasingly to rely on the methodology of creating annotations of scientific literature using terms from controlled structured vocabularies such as the Gene Ontology (GO). We here address the question of what such annotations signify and of how they are created by working biologists. Our goal is to promote a better understanding of how the results of experiments are captured in annotations in the hope that this will lead to better representations of biological reality through (...)
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  26. Martin Reuter, Andrea Felten, Sabrina Penz, Anna Mainzer, Sebastian Markett & Christian Montag (2013). The Influence of Dopaminergic Gene Variants on Decision Making in the Ultimatum Game. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    One of the most prominent paradigms in neuroeconomics is the Ultimatum Game (UG) that provides a framework for the study of pro-social behavior in two players interacting anonymously with each other: Player 1 has to split an endowment with player 2. Player 2 can either accept or reject the offer from player 1. If player 2 accepts the offer then the money is split as proposed by player 1. In case of rejection both players get nothing. Until now only one (...)
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  27. Allison Jack, Jessica J. Connelly & James P. Morris (2012). DNA Methylation of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene Predicts Neural Response to Ambiguous Social Stimuli. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    Oxytocin and its receptor (OXTR) play an important role in a variety of social perceptual and affiliative processes. Individual variability in social information processing likely has a strong heritable component, and as such, many investigations have established an association between common genetic variants of OXTR and variability in the social phenotype. However, to date, these investigations have primarily focused only on changes in the sequence of DNA without considering the role of epigenetic factors. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism by (...)
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  28. Jacob Stegenga (2011). The Chemical Characterization of the Gene: Vicissitudes of Evidential Assessment. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (1):105-127.score: 15.0
    The chemical characterization of the substance responsible for the phenomenon of “transformation” of pneumococci was presented in the now famous 1944 paper by Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty. Reception of this work was mixed. Although interpreting their results as evidence that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the molecule responsible for genetic changes was, at the time, controversial, this paper has been retrospectively celebrated as providing such evidence. The mixed and changing assessment of the evidence presented in the paper was due to the (...)
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  29. Anna Lydia Svalastog, Petter Gustafsson & Stefan Jansson (2006). Comparative Analysis of the Risk-Handling Procedures for Gene Technology Applications in Medical and Plant Science. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (3):465-479.score: 15.0
    In this paper we analyse how the risks associated with research on transgenic plants are regulated in Sweden. The paper outlines the way in which pilot projects in the plant sciences are overseen in Sweden, and discusses the international and national background to the current regulatory system. The historical, and hitherto unexplored, reasons for the evolution of current administrative and legislative procedures in plant science are of particular interest. Specifically, we discuss similarities and differences in the regulation of medicine and (...)
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  30. Jean‐Pascal Capp (2012). Stochastic Gene Expression Stabilization as a New Therapeutic Strategy for Cancer. Bioessays 34 (3):170-173.score: 15.0
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  31. Ying Ge & Bo T. Porse (2014). The Functional Consequences of Intron Retention: Alternative Splicing Coupled to NMD as a Regulator of Gene Expression. Bioessays 36 (3):236-243.score: 15.0
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  32. Ariel D. Chipman (2010). Parallel Evolution of Segmentation by Co‐Option of Ancestral Gene Regulatory Networks. Bioessays 32 (1):60-70.score: 15.0
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  33. Lorenza S. Colzato, Jay Pratt & Bernhard Hommel (2010). Dopaminergic Control of Attentional Flexibility: Inhibition of Return is Associated with the Dopamine Transporter Gene (DAT1). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 15.0
  34. Donald R. Forsdyke (2012). Ohno's Hypothesis and Muller's Paradox: Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation May Serve Collective Gene Functions. Bioessays 34 (11):930-933.score: 15.0
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  35. Yushi Jiang, Soo H. Chew & Richard P. Ebstein (2013). The Role of D4 Receptor Gene Exon III Polymorphisms in Shaping Human Altruism and Prosocial Behavior. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 15.0
  36. Angelika Merkel & Roderic Guigó (2011). Review of 'Cap‐Analysis Gene Expression'. [REVIEW] Bioessays 33 (3):233-234.score: 15.0
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  37. Antónia Monteiro (2012). Gene Regulatory Networks Reused to Build Novel Traits. Bioessays 34 (3):181-186.score: 15.0
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  38. Francesco Catania & Michael Lynch (2013). A Simple Model to Explain Evolutionary Trends of Eukaryotic Gene Architecture and Expression. Bioessays 35 (6):561-570.score: 15.0
  39. Jeffery P. Demuth & Matthew W. Hahn (2009). The Life and Death of Gene Families. Bioessays 31 (1):29-39.score: 15.0
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  40. Raul Fernandez‐Lopez, Irene del Campo, Raúl Ruiz, Val Lanza, Luis Vielva & Fernando de la Cruz (2010). Numbers on the Edges: A Simplified and Scalable Method for Quantifying the Gene Regulation Function. Bioessays 32 (4):346-355.score: 15.0
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  41. Hunter B. Fraser (2011). Genome‐Wide Approaches to the Study of Adaptive Gene Expression Evolution. Bioessays 33 (6):469-477.score: 15.0
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  42. Mark Isalan (2009). Gene Networks and Liar Paradoxes. Bioessays 31 (10):1110-1115.score: 15.0
  43. Edward A. Neuwelt, Michael A. Pagel, Alfred Geller & Leslie L. Muldoon (1995). Gene Replacement Therapy in the Central Nervous System: Viral Vector-Mediated Therapy of Global Neurodegenerative Disease. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):1.score: 15.0
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  44. Diego Luiz Rovaris, Nina Roth Mota, Sidia Maria Callegari-Jacques & Claiton Henrique Dotto Bau (2013). Approaching “Phantom Heritability” in Psychiatry by Hypothesis-Driven Gene–Gene Interactions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 15.0
  45. Neil A. Youngson, Suyinn Chong & Emma Whitelaw (2011). Gene Silencing is an Ancient Means of Producing Multiple Phenotypes From the Same Genotype. Bioessays 33 (2):95-99.score: 15.0
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  46. Joseph Esfandiar Hannon Bozorgmehr (2011). Is Gene Duplication a Viable Explanation for the Origination of Biological Information and Complexity? Complexity 16 (6):17-31.score: 15.0
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  47. Philippe Collas, Eivind G. Lund & Anja R. Oldenburg (2014). Closing the (Nuclear) Envelope on the Genome: How Nuclear Lamins Interact with Promoters and Modulate Gene Expression. Bioessays 36 (1):75-83.score: 15.0
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  48. Mark Cooper & Dean W. Podlich (2002). The E(NK) Model: Extending the NK Model to Incorporate Gene‐by‐Environment Interactions and Epistasis for Diploid Genomes. Complexity 7 (6):31-47.score: 15.0
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  49. Verónica S. Di Stilio (2011). Empowering Plant Evo‐Devo: Virus Induced Gene Silencing Validates New and Emerging Model Systems. Bioessays 33 (9):711-718.score: 15.0
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  50. Jinling Huang (2013). Horizontal Gene Transfer in Eukaryotes: The Weak‐Link Model. Bioessays 35 (10):868-875.score: 15.0
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