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  1. Ruth Chadwick, Mairi Levitt & Darren Shickle (eds.) (2014). The Right to Know and the Right Not to Know. Cambridge University Press.
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  2. Mairi Levitt, Genes, Environment and Responsibility for Violent Behaviour:‘Whatever Genes One has It is Preferable That You Are Prevented From Going Around Stabbing People’.
    For the legal system to function effectively people are generally viewed as autonomous actors able to exercise choice and responsible for their actions. It is conceivable that genetic traits associated with violent and antisocial behaviour could call into question an affected individual’s responsibility for acts of criminal violence. Evidence concerning genes associated with violent and antisocial behaviour has been introduced in criminal courts in USA and Italy, either alone or with associated environmental factors. One example of a ‘genetic defence’ is (...)
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  3. Mairi Levitt (2013). Perceptions of Nature, Nurture and Behaviour. Life Sciences, Society and Policy 9 (1):1-11.
    Trying to separate out nature and nurture as explanations for behaviour, as in classic genetic studies of twins and families, is now said to be both impossible and unproductive. In practice the nature-nurture model persists as a way of framing discussion on the causes of behaviour in genetic research papers, as well as in the media and lay debate. Social and environmental theories of crime have been dominant in criminology and in public policy while biological theories have been seen as (...)
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  4. Mairi Levitt (2011). Relating to Participants: How Close Do Biobanks and Donors Really Want to Be? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 19 (3):220-230.
    Modern biobanks typically rely on the public to freely donate genetic data, undergo physical measurements and tests, allow access to medical records and give other personal information by questionnaire or interview. Given the demands on participants it is not surprising that there has been extensive public consultation even before biobanks in the UK and elsewhere began to recruit. This paper considers the different ways in which biobanks have attempted to engage and appeal to their publics and the reaction of potential (...)
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  5. Mairi Levitt & Fiona K. O'Neill, Making Human Better and Making Better Humans.
    The last 10 years has seen the development and deployment of new biotechnologies not just as potential treatments but also as potential enhancements. The definition and differentiation of treatment from enhancement is an ongoing clinical, ethical and social debate that ranges across a proliferating number of convergent technologies. Many of these innovations will ‘come-on-line’ as present generations of young people will be reaching adulthood and considering parenthood. This paper reports on a project that explored the possibilities for human enhancement with (...)
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  6. Mairi Levitt & Hub Zwart (2010). Reply to Udo Schuklenk. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (1):89-90.
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  7. Richard Tutton & Mairi Levitt, Health and Wealth, Law and Order : Banking DNA Against Disease and Crime.
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  8. Mairi Levitt & Elisa Pieri, ‘It Could Just Be an Additional Test Couldn’T It?’:Genetic Testing for Susceptibility to Aggression and Violence.
    Much of the current genetic research into aggressive and violent behaviour focuses on young people and might appear to offer the hope of targeted prediction and intervention. In the UK data is collected on children from various agencies and collated to produce ‘at risk of offending’ identities used to justify intervention. Information from behavioural genetic tests could conceivably be included. Regulatory frameworks for collecting, storing and using information from DNA samples differ between the health service and the police particularly in (...)
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  9. Mairi Levitt & Hub Zwart (2009). Bioethics: An Export Product? Reflections on Hands-on Involvement in Exploring the “External” Validity of International Bioethical Declarations. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):367-377.
    As the technosciences, including genomics, develop into a global phenomenon, the question inevitably emerges whether and to what extent bioethics can and should become a globalised phenomenon as well. Could we somehow articulate a set of core principles or values that ought to be respected worldwide and that could serve as a universal guide or blueprint for bioethical regulations for embedding biotechnologies in various countries? This article considers one universal declaration, the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights ( 2005a (...)
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  10. Elisa Pieri & Mairi Levitt (2008). Risky Individuals and the Politics of Genetic Research Into Aggressiveness and Violence. Bioethics 22 (9):509-518.
    New genetic technologies promise to generate valuable insights into the aetiology of several psychiatric conditions, as well as a wider range of human and animal behaviours. Advances in the neurosciences and the application of new brain imaging techniques offer a way of integrating DNA analysis with studies that are looking at other biological markers of behaviour. While candidate 'genes for' certain conditions, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, are said to be 'un-discovered' at a faster rate than they are discovered, many (...)
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  11. Mairi Levitt, Forensic Databases: Benefits and Ethical and Social Costs.
    Introduction: This article discusses ethical, legal and social issues raised by the collection, storage and use of DNA in forensic databases. Review: The largest and most inclusive forensic database in the world, the UK National DNA database , leads the worldwide trend towards greater inclusivity. The performance of the NDNAD, criteria for inclusion, legislative framework and plans for integrating forensic databases across Europe are discussed. Comparisons are drawn with UK biobank that has started collecting DNA samples linked to medical records (...)
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  12. Mairi Levitt & Neil Manson (2007). My Genes Made Me Do It? The Implications of Behavioural Genetics for Responsibility and Blame. Health Care Analysis 15 (1):33-40.
    The idea of individual responsibility for action is central to our conception of what it is to be a person. Behavioural genetic research may seem to call into question the idea of individual responsibility with possible implications for the criminal justice system. These implications will depend on the understandings of the various agencies and professional groups involved in responding to violent and anti-social behaviour, and, the result of negotiations between them over resulting practice. The paper considers two kinds of approaches (...)
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  13. Mairi Levitt, Behavioural Genetics and Risk of 'Criminality' : Commentary.
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  14. Mairi Levitt, Perspectives on Public Engagement.
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  15. Mairi Levitt, Review of 'Wrestling with Behavioural Genetics, Science Ethics and Public Conversations'. [REVIEW]
    This book is one outcome of a project undertaken by the Hastings Center and the American Association for the Advancement of Science with an interdisciplinary group including social scientists, geneticists, lawyers and journalists. A project report is available at www.thehastingscenter.org.
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  16. Mairi Levitt (2006). Wrestling with Behavioral Genetics. Science Ethics and Public Conversation. Erik Parens, Audrey R. Chapman and Nancy Press . John Hopkins: Maryland, 2006. [REVIEW] Genomics, Society and Policy 2:132-133.
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  17. Mairi Levitt (2005). Uk Biobank. Genomics, Society and Policy 1:78-91.
     
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  18. Mairi Levitt & Matti Hayry, Overcritical, Overfriendly? : A Dialogue Between a Sociologist and a Philosopher on Genetic Technology and its Applications.
    Are sociologists always critical about genetics? Are philosophers always more supportive? This is the impression of many sociologists in the United Kingdom who argue that contemporary British philosophers criticise genetic technologies and applications in ways that scientists and medical doctors can deal with. They emphasise matters like informed consent, but pay less or no attention to the wider social consequences of technologies, practices and policies. Philosophers in their turn may see sociologists as irrationally hostile to science and medical practice. Some (...)
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  19. Mairi Levitt, Kate Weiner & John Goodacre, Gene Week: A Novel Way of Consulting the Public.
    Within academic circles, the “deficit” model of public understanding of science has been subject to increasing critical scrutiny by those who favor more constructivist approaches. These suggest that “the public” can articulate sophisticated ideas about the social and ethical implications of science regardless of their level of technical knowledge. The seminal studies following constructivist approaches have generally involved small-scale qualitative investigations, which have minimized the pre-framing of issues to a greater or lesser extent. This article describes the Gene Week Project, (...)
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  20. Mairi Levitt & Sue Weldon, A Well Placed Trust? Public Perceptions of the Governance of DNA Databases.
    Biobanks that are run on an opt-in basis depend on people having the motivation to give and to trust in those who control their samples. Yet in the UK trust in the healthcare system has been in decline and there have been a number of health-related scandals that have received widespread media and public attention. Given this background, and the previous public consultations on UK Biobank, the paper explores the way people express their trust and mistrust in the area of (...)
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  21. Mairi Levitt (2004). Assisted Reproduction: Managing an Unruly Technology. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 12 (1):41-49.
    Technology is “unruly” because it operates in a social context where it is shaped by institutions, organisations and individuals in ways not envisaged when it was first developed. In the UK assisted reproductive technology has developed from strictly circumscribed beginnings as a treatment for infertility within the NHS, to a service which is more often offered by commercial clinics and purchased by clients who are not necessarily infertile. The article considers the process by which assisted reproductive technology has been created (...)
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  22. Mairi Levitt (2004). Complementarity Rather Than Integration. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (1):81-83.
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  23. Mairi Levitt & S. Weldon, Genetic Databases and Public Trust.
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  24. Mairi Levitt & Garrath Williams (2004). Ethical Issues [in Social Measurement]: An Overview. In Kimberly Kempf-Leonard (ed.), Encyclopedia of Social Measurement. Elsevier.
    Ethical issues surrounding research are complex and multifaceted. There are issues concerning: the methods used, the intended purpose, the foreseen and unforeseen effects, the use and dissemination of findings, and, not least, what is and what fails to be researched. - In this article we break down the issues into two main categories: (I) how the research itself is done; and (II) how it is determined by and in turn affects a wider context. In the first section we discuss familiar (...)
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  25. Mairi Levitt (2003). Public Consultation in Bioethics. What's the Point of Asking the Public When They Have Neither Scientific nor Ethical Expertise? Health Care Analysis 11 (1):15-25.
    With the rapid development of genetic research and applications in health care there is some agreement among funding and regulatory bodies that the public(s) need to be equipped to deal with the choices that the new technologies will offer them, although this does not necessarily include a role for the public in influencing their development and regulation. This paper considers the methods and purpose of public consultations in the area of genetics including large-scale surveys of opinion, consensus conferences and focus (...)
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  26. Mairi Levitt & Garrath Williams (2003). Thirty Years of Bioethics: All Grown Up Now? New Review of Bioethics 1 (1):3-5.
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  27. Ruth Chadwick, Henk ten Have, Rogeer Hoedemaekers, Jrgen Husted, Mairi Levitt, Tony McGleenan, Darren Shickle & Urban Wiesing (2001). Euroscreen 2: Towards Community Policy on Insurance, Commercialization and Public Awareness. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (3):263-272.
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  28. Ruth Chadwick, Henk ten Have, Rogeer Hoedemaekers, Jrgen Husted, Mairi Levitt, Tony McGleenan, Darren Shickle & Urban Wiesing (2001). Euroscreen 2: Towards Community Policy on Insurance, Commercialization and Public Awareness. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (3):263 – 272.
    The project Euroscreen 2 has examined genetic screening and testing with particular reference to implications for insurance, commercialization through marketing of genetic tests direct to the public, and issues surrounding raising public awareness of these and other developments in genetics, including the practical experiment of a Gene Shop. This paper provides a snapshot of the three year project. The study groups work included monitoring developments in different European countries and exploring possibilities for regulation in insurance and commercialization together with public (...)
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  29. Mairi Levitt (2001). Let the Consumer Decide? The Regulation of Commercial Genetic Testing. Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (6):398-403.
    Objectives—The development of predictive genetic tests provides a new area where consumers can gain knowledge of their health status and commercial opportunities. “Over-the-counter” or mail order genetic tests are most likely to provide information on carrier status or the risk of developing a multifactorial disease. The paper considers the social and ethical implications of individuals purchasing genetic tests and whether genetic information is different from other types of health information which individuals can obtain for themselves.Design—The discussion is illustrated by findings (...)
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  30. Ruth Chadwick, Henk ten Have, Rogeer Hoedemaekers, Jørgen Husted, Mairi Levitt, Tony McGleenan, Darren Shickle & Urban Wiesing (2000). Euroscreen 2: Zu einer gemeinsamen Versicherungs- und Kommerzialisierungspolitik und zu einer Politik des öffentlichen Bewusstseins über Genetik. [REVIEW] Ethik in der Medizin 12 (4):269-273.
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  31. Mairi Levitt (2000). 'Not so Wrong That We Are Prepared to Threaten the Entire Service': The Regulation of Reproductive Technologies in the UK. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 7 (2):45-51.
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  32. Urban Wiesing, Ruth Chadwick, Henk ten Have, Rogeer Hoedemaekers, Joergen Husted, Mairi Levitt, Tony McGleenan & Darren Shickle (2000). Euroscreen 2: Zu einer gemeinsamen Versicherungs- und Kommerzialisierungspolitik und zu einer Politik des oeffentlichen Bewusstseins ueber Genetik. Ethik in der Medizin 12 (4):269-273.
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  33. Ruth Chadwick, Mairi Levitt, Darren Shickle & Jill Ryan (1999). Book Reviews-The Right to Know and the Right Not to Know. Bioethics 13 (1):84-87.
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  34. Ruth Chadwick & Mairi Levitt (1998). Genetic Technology: A Threat to Deafness. [REVIEW] Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (3):209-215.
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  35. Ruth Chadwick, Henk ten Have, Jfrgen Husted, Mairi Levitt, Tony McGleenan, Darren Shickle & Urban Wiesing (1998). Genetic Screening and Ethics: European Perspectives. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (3):255 – 273.
    Analysis and comparison of genetic screening programs shows that the extent of development of programs varies widely across Europe. Regional variations are due not only to genetic disease patterns but also reflect the novelty of genetic services. In most countries, the focus for genetic screening programs has been pregnant women and newborn children. Newborn children are screened only for disorders which are treatable. Prenatal screening when provided is for conditions for which termination may be offered. The only population screening programs (...)
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  36. Mairi Levitt & Ruth F. Chadwick (1998). Ethical Issues in Community Health Care.
     
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  37. Mairi Levitt (1997). Natural Ways Are Better: Adolescents and the 'Anti-Obesity' Gene. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (3):305-315.
    Empirical research with young people in Finland, Germany, Spain and Britain was carried out as part of the BIOCULT project funded by the European Union. The project focused on their attitudes to biotechnology and, in particular, the formation of arguments about risk and safety. This paper looks at the responses of 14–18 year olds to a story about the so called anti-obesity gene, in the form of advice to a friend who is taking it. The majority advised against taking it (...)
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  38. Darryl Macer, Mairi Levitt, Howard Bezar & Ken Daniels (1997). Biotechnology And Young Citizens: Biocult In New Zealand And Japan. Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 7 (4):111-114.
     
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