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Profile: Makoto Usami (Kyoto University)
  1. Makoto Usami (2013). Global Justice: From Responsibility to Rights. Discussion Paper, No. 2013–02, Department of Social Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology:1-12.
    In the past decade, a growing number of authors, notably Thomas Pogge, have maintained that citizens in economically advanced societies are responsible for extreme and extensive poverty in the developing world. Iris Marion Young proposed the social connection model of responsibility, which asserts that these citizens participate in networks that give rise to global structural injustices. While Pogge’s argument for the existence of citizens’ responsibility has been the subject of widespread debate, few efforts have been made to scrutinise the solidity (...)
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  2. Makoto Usami (2011). Intergenerational Justice: Rights Versus Fairness. Philosophy Study 1 (4):237-246.
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  3. Makoto Usami (2011). Intergenerational Justice: The Rights of Future People or the Duty of Fair Play. Tokyo Institute of Technology Department of Social Engineering Discussion Paper (2011-05):1-19.
    Among various views on intergenerational justice, the most widely accepted theory invokes the rights of future generations. However, the rights theory seems to suffer from the non-identity problem addressed by Derek Parfit. Some rights theorists attempt to circumvent the problem by examining causal links between actions taken by preceding generations and their effects on succeeding ones. Others try to do so by replacing future individual rights with such collective rights. This paper argues that both individualist and collectivist versions of the (...)
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  4. Makoto Usami (2011). Intergenerational Rights: A Philosophical Examination. In Patricia Hanna (ed.), An Anthology of Philosophical Studies, Vol. 5. Athens Institute of Education and Research.
    One of the primary views on our supposed obligation towards our descendants in the context of environmental problems invokes the idea of the rights of future generations. A growing number of authors also hold that the descendants of those victimized by historical injustices, including colonialism and slavery, have the right to demand financial reparations for the sufferings of their distant ancestors. However, these claims of intergenerational rights face theoretical difficulties, notably the non-identity problem. To circumvent this problem in a relationship (...)
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  5. Makoto Usami (2011). The Non-Identity Problem, Collective Rights, and the Threshold Conception of Harm. Tokyo Institute of Technology Department of Social Engineering Discussion Paper (2011-04):1-17.
    One of the primary views on our supposed obligation towards our descendants in the context of environmental problems invokes the idea of the rights of future generations. A growing number of authors also hold that the descendants of those victimized by historical injustices, including colonialism and slavery, have the right to demand financial reparations for the sufferings of their distant ancestors. However, these claims of intergenerational rights face theoretical difficulties, notably the non-identity problem. To circumvent this problem in a relationship (...)
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  6. Makoto Usami (2008). Law as Public Policy: Combining Justice with Interest. In Tadeusz Biernat & Marek Zirk-Sadowski (eds.), Politics of Law and Legal Policy: Between Modern and Post-Modern Jurisprudence. Wolters Kluwer Polska. 292--315.
    In newly emerging democracies, succeeding governments have numerous policy tasks for the purpose of developing the free market and the democratic process. In such legal systems, policy-oriented views of law, which regard law as a policy tool for diminishing public problems, seem descriptively pertinent and prescriptively helpful. This is also the case in mature democratic legal systems, where the public problems faced by governments become more and more complex. Policy-directional views of law do not necessarily imply that law is a (...)
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  7. Makoto Usami (2005). World Poverty and Justice Beyond Borders. Tokyo Institute of Technology Department of Social Engineering Discussion Paper (05-04):1-18.
    Most cosmopolitans who are concerned about world poverty assume that for citizens of affluent societies, justice beyond national borders is a matter of their positive duty to provide aid to distant people suffering from severe poverty. This assumption is challenged by some authors, notably Tomas Pogge, who maintains that these citizens are actively involved in the incidence of poverty abroad and therefore neglect their negative duty of refraining from harming others. This paper examines the extent to which it is pertinent (...)
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  8. Makoto Usami (2001). Retroactive Justice: Trials for Human Rights Violations Under a Prior Regime. In Burton M. Leiser & Tom D. Campbell (eds.), Human Rights in Philosophy and Practice. Ashgate. 423--442.
    In the transition from a repressive to a democratic society, the successor government faces the problem of how to deal with grave human rights violations such as killings and torture committed under its predecessor. This paper analyzes the dilemma a new government may encounter when it attempts to prosecute and punish those found responsible. On one hand, trials of chargeable officers may be able to prevent human rights abuses in the future and to facilitate instituting or restoring democracy. On the (...)
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