Corporate governance (CG) can be seen to operate through a 'double agency' relationship: one between the shareholders and corporate management, and another between the corporate management and the firm's employees. The CG and labour management of firms are closely related. A particularly productive way to study how CG affects and is affected by the employment relationship has been to compare CG across countries. The contributions of this paper to that literature are threefold. (1) An integration of aspects of the labour (...) management literature in the CG debate. (2) Based on a sample of about 1000 firms from 31 countries, we find evidence of complementarities between the CG and the labour management of firms. Extreme cases, in general, outperform mixed cases. (3) Firm differences within countries are more important than scholars have assumed so far. We present the results of the study and implications for future research and for practice. (shrink)
Discussion about values education has begun to dominate the educational policy agenda in a number of countries over the last 5 years. Of particular relevance are questions on what to teach, how and why. This discussion seems to be more prominent among those countries undergoing vigorous political, economic and social change. In the last few years, Mexico has intensified its active search for democracy and invigorated its march toward modernisation. Both of these intentions have proven to have important influences on (...) the values the Mexican state and educational policy makers see as necessary to be transmitted via education. Simultaneously, Mexican identity, which has evolved relatively consonant with the aims of a centralised and hierarchical state and in line with the principles of the 1910 Revolution, is being continuously challenged by internal as well as external forces. In this article we describe a study designed to understand the approaches to Mexico's values education as a particular instance of a larger comparative project to explore values education in a globally dynamic context. After describing Mexico's political economy, we present the current policy and approaches to values education in general and in the regions included in the Mexican study in particular. We present the findings from a survey to policy makers and educational élites and show regional differences and similarities. We discuss findings from other country contexts to contrast them with the Mexican findings in selected areas. We conclude with a discussion on how this study may help initiate a policy dialogue on values education in Mexico. (shrink)
Se describe una propuesta de intervención comunitaria en convivencia escolar, a partir de los resultados obtenidos en una investigación previa (Rodríguez, Vaca, Hewitt & Martínez, 2009) que buscaba caracterizar las formas de interacción en un contexto escolar. Si bien el punto de partida lo constitu.
This study builds upon the top management literature to predict and test antecedents to firms’ engagement in corruption. Building on a survey of 341 executives in India, we find that if executives have social ties with government officials, their firms are more likely to engage in corruption. Further, these executives are likely to rationalize engaging in corruption as a necessity for being competitive. The results collectively illustrate the role that executives’ social ties and perceptions have in shaping illegal actions of (...) their respective firms. (shrink)
The goal of this paper is to examine whether business performance is affected by the adoption of practices included under the term Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). To achieve this goal, we analyse the relation between CSR and certain accounting indicators and examine whether there exist significant differences in performance indicators between European firms that have adopted CSR and others that have not. The effects of compliance with the requirements of CSR were determined on the basis of firms included in the (...) Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI), and specific accounting indicators were applied to measure performance. For the purposes of this study, we selected one group of firms belonging to the DJSI and another comprised of firms quoted on the Dow Jones Global Index (DJGI) but not on the DJSI. The sample was made up of two groups of 55 firms, studied for the period 1998–2004. Empirical analysis supports the conclusion that differences in performance exist between firms that belong to the DJSI and to the DJGI and that these differences are related to CSR practices. We find that a short-term negative impact on performance is produced. (shrink)
We argue that the true nature of the renormalizability of Horava-Lifshitz gravity lies in the presence of higher order spatial derivatives and not in the anisotropic Lifshitz scaling of space and time. We discuss the possibility of constructing a higher order spatial derivatives model that has the same renormalization properties of Horava-Lifshitz gravity but that does not make use of the Lifshitz scaling. In addition, the state-of-the-art of the Lorentz symmetry restoration in Horava-Lifshitz-type theories of gravitation is reviewed.
In this paper two deductive systems (i.e., two consequence relations) associated with relevance logic are studied from an algebraic point of view. One is defined by the familiar, Hilbert-style, formalization of R; the other one is a weak version of it, called WR, which appears as the semantic entailment of the Meyer-Routley-Fine semantics, and which has already been suggested by Wójcicki for other reasons. This weaker consequence is first defined indirectly, using R, but we prove that the first one turns (...) out to be an axiomatic extension of WR. Moreover we provide WR with a natural Gentzen calculus (of a classical kind). It is proved that both deductive systems have the same associated class of algebras but different classes of models on these algebras. The notion of model used here is an abstract logic, that is, a closure operator on an abstract algebra; the abstract logics obtained in the case of WR are also the models, in a natural sense, of the given Gentzen calculus. (shrink)
One winter morning, the two of us—both postdoctoral fellows in medical humanities and bioethics—gathered with a handful of reproductive science graduate students in the lab to watch a demonstration on making alginate beads. Due to their three-dimensional nature, the beads are capable of holding ovarian follicles—the beads act as though they were a small ovary. The scientists in the lab have managed to mature the follicles maintained in the beads into eggs, fertilize these eggs, and produce the birth of live (...) mice. This research was begun in an effort to develop a means of gathering ovarian follicles from young human cancer patients before they commence cancer treatment that may result in their infertility, thus .. (shrink)
Previously, Rodriguez & LeMaster (2007) recommended that the SEC issue a “CSR Seal of Approval” for companies that voluntarily disclose their corporate social responsibility (CSR) projects. That work lacks the strength of third or fourth-party accreditation. This paper recommends that the SEC issue an accreditation grade of A, B, B-, or C to provide strength to the “CSR Seal of Approval” and to help companies indicate the quality of company CSR programs. By issuing an accredited “CSR Seal of Approval,” all (...) stakeholders benefit because companies can incorporate CSR into their strategies and achieve recognition for their CSR projects. The premise of the accreditation concept support the original authors notion of letting CSR remain voluntary and not legislated; thus, all companies (small, medium, large, foreign or domestic) maintain competitive advantage by not incurring additional regulated costs. (shrink)
Carlos Eduardo Alchourrón y Eugenio Bulygin efectuaron contribuciones de fundamental importancia para el desarrollo de la teoría de los sistemas jurídicos. Sus ideas evidencian una evolución de la presentación de una visión estática a una visión dinámica de tales sistemas. El objetivo central del presente trabajo consiste en mostrar que existe, no obstante, una cierta tensión en las tesis sostenidas por los autores entre dos concepciones diferentes de los sistemas jurídicos: por una parte, aquella que trata de reconstruir el conjunto (...) de las normas que resultan relevantes para la solución de un caso; por la otra, aquella que trata de ofrecer una caracterización satisfactoria del derecho como institución. Las diferentes finalidades que cada una de esas reconstrucciones persiguen obligan a refinar algunas ideas vinculadas con la dinámica del derecho para evitar derivaciones incompatibles con las intuiciones jurídicas ordinarias. Carlos Eduardo Alchourrón and Eugenio Bulygin have made contributions of fundamental importance for the development of the theory of legal systems. Their ideas reflex an evolution from a static to a dynamic vision of such systems. The main purpose of the present paper is to show that, notwithstanding, there exists a certain tension in the thesis defended by Alchourrón and Bulygin between two different conceptions of a legal system. On the one hand, a conception related to the reconstruction of the set of relevant norms to solve a certain case; on the other, a conception related to a satisfactory characterization of law as an institution. The different concerns of each of those reconstructions force to refine certain ideas associated with the dynamics of law to avoid derivations which appear incompatible with ordinary legal intuitions. (shrink)
The objective of this article is to analyse cultural influences when French companies cooperate with Mexican companies (subsidiaries of the French, established in Mexico) in the field of automotive manufacturing. An OEM supplier and a final assembly plant were selected to perform the study. Interviews with the workers, supervisors and managers have been performed. Case studies were collected in order to analyse the problems and to illustrate technical as well as cultural solutions. The analysis showed that important differences and coincidences (...) in the manufacturing solutions could be explained from the cultural (French and Mexican) standpoint. The conclusions integrate some recommendations for French and Mexican companies that are in actual cooperation or that are planning to globalise in the corresponding countries. (shrink)
The question of why populations with ecologies that resemble our evolutionary past rarely experience allergic conditions such as asthma has intrigued many biomedical scientists. Here we present descriptive data on the ecological context of allergic sensitization among the Hiwi of southwestern Venezuela and suggest reasons for why this and other lowland South American Indian groups do not express the allergic response at levels seen in industrialized contexts. Allergic sensitization among the Hiwi appears to be negligible. This absence occurs in the (...) context of high exposure to macroparasites (mainly hookworm), nutritional stress, frequent and prolonged breastfeeding, low indoor allergen deposition, and few hours spent per day indoors. We conclude that seeking unidimensional answers to the question of why isolated human groups generally experience few allergic conditions is potentially flawed because allergies are produced by a multifaceted immunoglobulin E (IgE) system that responds in complex ways to the environmental and behavioral exposures we examined. Instead, we propose a general model of physiological trade-offs in energy allocation between production of IgE of undefined specificity and production of allergen-specific IgE. In addition, we consider the simultaneous effects that exposures such as nutritional stress, allergen exposure, and breastfeeding may have on these trade-offs. (shrink)
La contribución de David Gauthier a la filosofía moral es poco conocida en nuestro país, a pesar de ser uno de los más novedosos y originales aportes que en materia de ética se han desarrollado en las últimas décadas en el ámbito norteamericano. El uso de la Teoría de la elección racional y de la teoría de los juegos hace que sus tesis morales contractualistas resulten muy interesantes a la luz del neocontractualismo. Algunos comentaristas han sostenido que desde la Teoría (...) de la justicia de John Rawls el contractualismo no volaba tan alto. En este trabajo se presenta de forma muy sintética la tesis de Gauthier, a la vez que se cuestiona la validez de su proyecto a la luz de sus posibilidades de aplicación práctica. (shrink)
Being located in the horizon of the philosophical outrage, our article purpose is to show the phenomenological basis of Max Scheler’s anthropological proposal, whose immediate antecedents were Husserl’s researches regarding to the correlation man-world, the debate held between phenomenology and the incursion of psychology within the field of the objectives sciences, the develop of a growing up discipline such as physiology, and in general the gradual consolidation of evolutionary theories, which were taking from the philosophical anthropology his conceit of prevailing (...) discipline in the explanation of human phenomena. In the midst this theoretical chaos Scheler in The man’s place in the cosmos radicalize the thesis of I – world correlation of life, guiding the study of man closer to the eidetic transcendental pretention, and beyond the purely empirical description. According to this we understand that Scheler develops an anthropological proposal with a phenomenological nature. (shrink)
We look at the relationship of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and country risk. We conceptualize the relationship first by asking if there is a correlationand then positing the directionality of the relationship. We posit that there is an inverse or negative correlation of implicit CSR with country risk and a positive correlation between explicit CSR and country risk. Understanding this relationship can help firms respond to a variety of external pressures such as those from activist organizations and stockholder disciplining; thus, (...) preventing firms from the need to “bolt” on CSR strategies to existing corporate strategies, as well as to help fulfill social needs within the community, mitigate political risks, and improve firm reputation. (shrink)
This work examines the extraction of mechanical properties from instrumented indentation P?h s curves via extensive three-dimensional finite element analyses for pyramidal tips in a wide range of solids under frictional and frictionless contact conditions. Since the topography of the imprint changes with the level of pile-up or sink-in, a relationship is identified between correction factor ? in the elastic equation for the unloading indentation stage and the amount of surface deformation effects. It is shown that the presumption of a (...) constant ? significantly affects mechanical property extractions. Consequently, a new best-fit function is found for the correlation between penetration depth ratios h e /h max, h r /h max and n, circumventing the need for the assumption of a constant value for ?, made in our prior investigation [Acta Mater. 53 (2005) pp. 3545?3561]. Simulations under frictional contact conditions provide sensible boundaries for the influence of friction on both h e /h max and h r /h max. Friction is essentially found to induce an overestimation in the inferred n. Instrumented indentation experiments are also performed in three archetypal metallic materials exhibiting distinctly different contact responses. Mechanical property extractions are finally demonstrated in each of these materials. (shrink)
En este artículo, el autor ofrece una interpretación de la importancia filosófica actual de la Ilustración escocesa. Después de un amplio repaso de las principales características de este movimiento y del pensamiento de figuras escocesas clave del siglo XVIII, se propone que discusiones del momento en tomo a la naturaleza y perspectivas del progreso en la historia, podrían beneficiarse de una reconsideración crítica de ciertos puntos de vista expuestos por los literati escoceses.
John Worrall ofreció hace veinte años una forma no típica, supuestamente viable, de realismo científico a la que llamó realismo estructural. Se suponía que éste era una alternativa al realismo típico y una forma viable de realismo. Las cuestiones principales que discuto en este artículo son lo que denomino los dos dogmas del realismo estructural: la idea de que hay retención de estructura en el cambio teórico, y la idea de que las estructuras teóricas describen el mundo. Arthur Fine proclamó (...) que el realismo científico había muerto. Yo afirmo que el intento de Worrall de resucitar el realismo científico ha fracasado. (shrink)
Aunque es erróneo creer en un desarrollo tecnológico absolutamente autónomo e independiente de constreñimientos humanos o sociales, la propia impresionante dinámica del actual avance tecnológico hace tentador creer en algún tipo de determinismo tecnológico. En el marco de la teoría de las consecuencias no intencionadas de la acción humana en la historia es posible acomodar una variante moderada, no absoluta de determinismo tecnológico. En ella hay cabida para un reconocimiento objetivo de la contingencia y finitud humanas junto a claras exigencias (...) de responsabilidad. (shrink)
Time and communication are important aspects of the medical consultation. Physician behavior in real-life pediatric consultations in relation to ethical practice, such as informed consent (provision of information, understanding), respect for integrity and patient autonomy (decision-making), has not been subjected to thorough empirical investigation. Such investigations are important tools in developing sound ethical praxis.
Recent findings emphasize the complexity, both genetic and functional, of the manifold genes and mutations causing inherited retinal degeneration in humans. Knowledge of the genetic bases of these diseases can contribute to design of rational therapy, as well as elucidating the function of each gene product in normal visual processes.
El chismorreo puede parecer un comportamiento anecdótico en el contexto de una microsociología de la vida cotidiana. Sin embargo, cuando los medios de comunicación lo convierten en un tema masivo y rentable, cabe pensar que el conocimiento que ofrecen de la vida privada o íntima de los otros tiene r..