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Marc D. Hauser [40]Marc Hauser [24]
  1. Marc Hauser, Testing Three Principles of Harm.
    ��Is moral judgment accomplished by intuition or conscious reasoning? An answer demands a detailed account of the moral principles in question. We investigated three principles that guide moral judgments: (a) Harm caused by action is worse than harm caused by omission, (b) harm intended as the means to a goal is worse than harm foreseen as the side effect of a goal, and (c) harm involving physical contact with the victim is worse than harm involving no physical contact. Asking whether (...)
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  2. Peter Singer & Marc Hauser, Godless Morality.
    Is religion necessary for morality? Many people consider it outrageous, even blasphemous, to deny the divine origin of morality. Either some divine being crafted our moral sense, or we picked it up from the teachings of organized religion. Either way, we need religion to curb nature’s vices. Paraphrasing Katherine Hepburn in the movie The African Queen, religion allows us to rise above wicked old Mother Nature, handing us a moral compass.
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  3. Elizabeth S. Spelke & Marc D. Hauser, Visual Representation in the Wild: How Rhesus Monkeys.
    & Visual object representation was studied in free-ranging rhesus monkeys. To facilitate comparison with humans, and to provide a new tool for neurophysiologists, we used a looking time procedure originally developed for studies of human infants. Monkeys’ looking times were measured to displays with one or two distinct objects, separated or together, stationary or moving. Results indicate that rhesus monkeys..
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  4. Jeffrey R. Stevens & Marc D. Hauser, Evolving the Psychological Mechanisms for Cooperation.
    ■ Abstract Cooperation is common across nonhuman animal taxa, from the hunting of large game in lions to the harvesting of building materials in ants. Theorists have proposed a number of models to explain the evolution of cooperative behavior. These ultimate explanations, however, rarely consider the proximate constraints on the implementation of cooperative behavior. Here we review several types of cooperation and propose a suite of cognitive abilities required for each type to evolve. We propose that several types of cooperation, (...)
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  5. Marc Hauser & Liane Young, The Psychology of Justice.
    In Natural Justice Binmore offers a game-theoretic map to the landscape of human morality. Following a long tradition of such accounts, Binmore’s argument concerns the forces of biological and cultural evolution that have shaped our judgments about the appropriate distribution of resources. In this sense, Binmore focuses on the morality of outcomes. This is a valuable perspective to which we add a friendly amendment from our own research: moral judgments appear to depend on process just as much as outcome. What (...)
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  6. Marc Hauser & Peter Singer (forthcoming). Morality Without God. Free Inquiry.
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  7. Marc D. Hauser, Charles Yang, Robert C. Berwick, Ian Tattersall, Michael J. Ryan, Jeffrey Watumull, Noam Chomsky & Richard C. Lewontin (2014). The Mystery of Language Evolution. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  8. Jeffrey Watumull, Marc D. Hauser, Ian G. Roberts & Norbert Hornstein (2014). On Recursion. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  9. Robert C. Berwick, Marc Hauser & Ian Tattersall (2013). Neanderthal Language? Just-so Stories Take Center Stage. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    Neanderthal language? Just-so stories take center stage.
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  10. Bryce Huebner & Marc D. Hauser (2011). Moral Judgments About Altruistic Self-Sacrifice: When Philosophical and Folk Intuitions Clash. Philosophical Psychology 24 (1):73-94.
    Altruistic self-sacrifice is rare, supererogatory, and not to be expected of any rational agent; but, the possibility of giving up one's life for the common good has played an important role in moral theorizing. For example, Judith Jarvis Thomson (2008) has argued in a recent paper that intuitions about altruistic self-sacrifice suggest that something has gone wrong in philosophical debates over the trolley problem. We begin by showing that her arguments face a series of significant philosophical objections; however, our project (...)
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  11. Bryce Huebner, Marc D. Hauser & Phillip Pettit (2011). How the Source, Inevitability and Means of Bringing About Harm Interact in Folk-Moral Judgments. Mind and Language 26 (2):210-233.
    Means-based harms are frequently seen as forbidden, even when they lead to a greater good. But, are there mitigating factors? Results from five experiments show that judgments about means-based harms are modulated by: 1) Pareto considerations (was the harmed person made worse off?), 2) the directness of physical contact, and 3) the source of the threat (e.g. mechanical, human, or natural). Pareto harms are more permissible than non-Pareto harms, Pareto harms requiring direct physical contact are less permissible than those that (...)
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  12. Linda Abarbanell & Marc D. Hauser (2010). Mayan Morality: An Exploration of Permissible Harms. Cognition 115 (2):207-224.
    Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis that certain moral principles apply universally. We presented Mayan participants with moral dilemmas translated into their native language, Tseltal. Paralleling several studies carried out with educated subjects living in large-scale, developed nations, the (...)
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  13. Susan Dwyer, Bryce Huebner & Marc D. Hauser (2010). The Linguistic Analogy: Motivations, Results, and Speculations. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):486-510.
    Inspired by the success of generative linguistics and transformational grammar, proponents of the linguistic analogy (LA) in moral psychology hypothesize that careful attention to folk-moral judgments is likely to reveal a small set of implicit rules and structures responsible for the ubiquitous and apparently unbounded capacity for making moral judgments. As a theoretical hypothesis, LA thus requires a rich description of the computational structures that underlie mature moral judgments, an account of the acquisition and development of these structures, and an (...)
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  14. Ben Fraser & Marc Hauser (2010). The Argument From Disagreement and the Role of Cross-Cultural Empirical Data. Mind and Language 25 (5):541-560.
    The Argument from Disagreement (AD) (Mackie, 1977) depends upon empirical evidence for ‘fundamental’ moral disagreement (FMD) (Doris and Stich, 2005; Doris and Plakias, 2008). Research on the Southern ‘culture of honour’ (Nisbett and Cohen, 1996) has been presented as evidence for FMD between Northerners and Southerners within the US. We raise some doubts about the usefulness of such data in settling AD. We offer an alternative based on recent work in moral psychology that targets the potential universality of morally significant (...)
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  15. Bryce Huebner, James Lee & Marc D. Hauser (2010). The Moral-Conventional Distinction in Mature Moral Competence. Journal of Cognition and Culture 10 (1/2):1-26.
    Developmental psychologists have long argued that the capacity to distinguish moral and conventional transgressions develops across cultures and emerges early in life. Children reliably treat moral transgressions as more wrong, more punishable, independent of structures of authority, and universally applicable. However, previous studies have not yet examined the role of these features in mature moral cognition. Using a battery of adult-appropriate cases (including vehicular and sexual assault, reckless behavior, and violations of etiquette and social contracts) we demonstrate that these features (...)
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  16. Ilkka Pyysiäinen & Marc Hauser (2010). The Origins of Religion : Evolved Adaptation or by-Product? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):104-109.
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  17. Bryce Huebner, Susan Dwyer & Marc D. Hauser (2009). The Role of Emotion in Moral Psychology. Trends in Cognitive Science 13 (1):1-6.
    Recent work in the cognitive and neurobiological sciences indicates an important relationship between emotion and moral judgment. Based on this evidence, several researchers have argued that emotions are the source of our intuitive moral judgments. However, despite the richness of the correlational data between emotion and morality, we argue that the current neurological, behavioral, developmental and evolutionary evidence is insufficient to demonstrate that emotion is necessary for making moral judgments. We suggest instead, that the source of moral judgments lies in (...)
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  18. David Barner, Justin Wood, Marc Hauser & Susan Carey (2008). Evidence for a Non-Linguistic Distinction Between Singular and Plural Sets in Rhesus Monkeys. Cognition 107 (2):603-622.
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  19. Marc D. Hauser (2008). When Your Moral Organ is Right! Think 7 (19):17-21.
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  20. Marc D. Hauser, Liane Young & Fiery Cushman (2008). Reviving Rawls's Linguistic Analogy: Operative Principles and the Causal Structure of Moral Actions. In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology, Volume 2. MIT Press.
    The thesis we develop in this essay is that all humans are endowed with a moral faculty. The moral faculty enables us to produce moral judgments on the basis of the causes and consequences of actions. As an empirical research program, we follow the framework of modern linguistics.1 The spirit of the argument dates back at least to the economist Adam Smith (1759/1976) who argued for something akin to a moral grammar, and more recently, to the political philosopher John Rawls (...)
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  21. Marc Hauser & Zenon Pylyshyn, Marshall M. Weinberg Conference: The Future of Cognitive Science - Friday Morning (Oct. 17, 2008) Session: Marc Hauser and Zenon Pylyshyn. [REVIEW]
    Six leading experts speak about the future of cognitive science.
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  22. Jenny Saffran, Marc Hauser, Rebecca Seibel, Joshua Kapfhamer, Fritz Tsao & Fiery Cushman (2008). Grammatical Pattern Learning by Human Infants and Cotton-Top Tamarin Monkeys. Cognition 107 (2):479-500.
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  23. Justin N. Wood & Marc D. Hauser (2008). Action Comprehension in Non-Human Primates: Motor Simulation or Inferential Reasoning? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (12):461-465.
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  24. Justin N. Wood, Marc D. Hauser, David D. Glynn & David Barner (2008). Free-Ranging Rhesus Monkeys Spontaneously Individuate and Enumerate Small Numbers of Non-Solid Portions. Cognition 106 (1):207-221.
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  25. Marc D. Hauser & Laurie R. Santos (2007). The Evolutionary Ancestry of Our Knowledge of Tools: From Percepts to Concepts. In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representation. Oxford University Press. 267--288.
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  26. Marc Hauser, Fiery Cushman, Liane Young, J. I. N. Kang-Xing & John Mikhail (2007). A Dissociation Between Moral Judgments and Justifications. Mind and Language 22 (1):1–21.
    To what extent do moral judgments depend on conscious reasoning from explicitly understood principles? We address this question by investigating one particular moral principle, the principle of the double effect. Using web-based technology, we collected a large data set on individuals' responses to a series of moral dilemmas, asking when harm to innocent others is permissible. Each moral dilemma presented a choice between action and inaction, both resulting in lives saved and lives lost. Results showed that: (1) patterns of moral (...)
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  27. Marc Hauser, Fiery Cushman, Liane Young, R. Kang‐Xing Jin & John Mikhail (2007). A Dissociation Between Moral Judgments and Justifications. Mind and Language 22 (1):1-21.
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  28. Liane Young, Fiery Cushman, Marc Hauser & and Rebecca Saxe (2007). The Neural Basis of the Interaction Between Theory of Mind and Moral Judgment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (20):8235-8240.
    Is the basis of criminality an act that causes harm, or an act undertaken with the belief that one will cause harm? The present study takes a cognitive neuroscience approach to investigating how information about an agent’s beliefs and an action’s conse- quences contribute to moral judgment. We build on prior devel- opmental evidence showing that these factors contribute differ- entially to the young child’s moral judgments coupled with neurobiological evidence suggesting a role for the right tem- poroparietal junction (RTPJ) (...)
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  29. Fiery Cushman, Liane Young & Marc Hauser (2006). The Role of Conscious Reasoning and Intuition in Moral Judgment. Psychological Science 17 (12):1082-1089.
    ��Is moral judgment accomplished by intuition or conscious reasoning? An answer demands a detailed account of the moral principles in question. We investigated three principles that guide moral judgments: (a) Harm caused by action is worse than harm caused by omission, (b) harm intended as the means to a goal is worse than harm foreseen as the side effect of a goal, and (c) harm involving physical contact with the victim is worse than harm involving no physical contact. Asking whether (...)
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  30. Marc Hauser (2006). Moral Minds: How Nature Designed Our Universal Sense of Right and Wrong. Harper Collins.
    Marc Hauser puts forth the theory that humans have evolved a universal moral instinct, unconsciously propelling us to deliver judgments of right and wrong independent of gender, education, and religion. Combining his cutting-edge research with the latest findings in cognitive psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, evolutionary biology, economics, and anthropology, Hauser explores the startling implications of his provocative theory vis-à-vis contemporary bioethics, religion, the law, and our everyday lives.
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  31. Ruth Tincoff, Marc D. Hauser & Marc Hauser (2006). Cognitive Basis for Language Evolution in Nonhuman Primates. In Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. 553--538.
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  32. Liane Young, Fiery Cushman, Ralph Adolphs, Daniel Tranel & Marc Hauser (2006). Does Emotion Mediate the Effect of an Action's Moral Status on its Intentional Status? Neuropsychological Evidence. Journal of Cognition and Culture 6:291-304.
    Studies of normal individuals reveal an asymmetry in the folk concept of intentional action: an action is more likely to be thought of as intentional when it is morally bad than when it is morally good. One interpretation of these results comes from the hypothesis that emotion plays a critical mediating role in the relationship between an action’s moral status and its intentional status. According to this hypothesis, the negative emotional response triggered by a morally bad action drives the attribution (...)
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  33. Noam Chomsky, Marc Hauser, Fitch D. & W. Tecumseh (2005). Appendix. The Minimalist Program. Philosophical Explorations.
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  34. W. T. Fitch, Marc D. Hauser & Noam Chomsky (2005). The Evolution of the Language Faculty: Clarifications and Implications. Cognition 97 (2):179-210.
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  35. W. Tecumseh Fitch, Marc Hauser, Chomsky D. & Noam (2005). The Evolution of the Language Faculty: Clarifications and Implications. Cognition 97:179-210.
  36. Jonathan I. Flombaum, Justin A. Junge & Marc D. Hauser (2005). Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Spontaneously Compute Addition Operations Over Large Numbers. Cognition 97 (3):315-325.
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  37. Marc D. Hauser (2005). Sunstein's Heuristics Provide Insufficient Descriptive and Explanatory Adequacy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):553-554.
    In considering a domain of knowledge – language, music, mathematics, or morality – it is necessary to derive principles that can describe the mature state and explain how an individual reaches this state. Although Sunstein's heuristics go some way toward a description of our moral sense, it is not clear that they are at the right level of description, and as stated, they provide no guidelines for looking at the acquisition process – the problem of explanatory adequacy.
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  38. Timothy J. O'Donnell, Marc D. Hauser & W. Tecumseh Fitch (2005). Using Mathematical Models of Language Experimentally. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (6):284-289.
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  39. Marc D. Hauser & Elizabeth Spelke (2004). Evolutionary and Developmental Foundations of Human Knowledge. In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences Iii. Mit Press.
    What are the brain and cognitive systems that allow humans to play baseball, compute square roots, cook soufflés, or navigate the Tokyo subways? It may seem that studies of human infants and of non-human animals will tell us little about these abilities, because only educated, enculturated human adults engage in organized games, formal mathematics, gourmet cooking, or map-reading. In this chapter, we argue against this seemingly sensible conclusion. When human adults exhibit complex, uniquely human, culture-specific skills, they draw on a (...)
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  40. Jeffrey R. Stevens & Marc D. Hauser (2004). Why Be Nice? Psychological Constraints on the Evolution of Cooperation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (2):60-65.
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  41. Marc D. Hauser (2003). To Innovate or Not to Innovate? That is the Question. In Simon M. Reader & Kevin N. Laland (eds.), Animal Innovation. Oup Oxford.
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  42. Jonathan I. Flombaum, Laurie R. Santos & Marc D. Hauser (2002). Neuroecology and Psychological Modularity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (3):106-108.
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  43. Marc D. Hauser, Stanislas Dehaene, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz & Andrea L. Patalano (2002). Spontaneous Number Discrimination of Multi-Format Auditory Stimuli in Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus Oedipus). Cognition 86 (2):B23-B32.
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  44. Marc D. Hauser, Daniel Weiss & Gary Marcus (2002). RETRACTED: Rule Learning by Cotton-Top Tamarins. Cognition 86 (1):B15-B22.
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  45. Marc Hauser, Chomsky D., Fitch Noam & W. Tecumseh (2002). The Faculty of Language: What is It, Who has It, and How Did It Evolve? Science 298 (22):1569-1579.
    We argue that an understanding of the faculty of language requires substantial interdisciplinary cooperation. We suggest how current developments in linguistics can be profitably wedded to work in evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, and neuroscience. We submit that a distinction should be made between the faculty of language in the broad sense (FLB)and in the narrow sense (FLN). FLB includes a sensory-motor system, a conceptual-intentional system, and the computational mechanisms for recursion, providing the capacity to generate an infinite range of expressions (...)
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  46. Laurie R. Santos, Marc D. Hauser & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2002). Domain-Specific Knowledge in Human Children and Non-Human Primates: Artifacts and Foods. In Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen & Gordon M. Burghardt (eds.), The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. Mit Press. 205--216.
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  47. Laurie R. Santos, Gregory M. Sulkowski, Geertrui M. Spaepen & Marc D. Hauser (2002). Object Individuation Using Property/Kind Information in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta). Cognition 83 (3):241-264.
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  48. Marc D. Hauser, Elissa L. Newport & Richard N. Aslin (2001). Segmentation of the Speech Stream in a Non-Human Primate: Statistical Learning in Cotton-Top Tamarins. Cognition 78 (3):B53-B64.
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  49. Natalia Komarova & Marc Hauser (2001). Building the Tower of Babble. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (10):412-413.
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  50. David Premack & Marc D. Hauser (2001). A Whale of a Tale: Calling It Culture Doesn't Help. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):350-351.
    We argue that the function of human culture is to clarify what people value. Consequently, nothing in cetacean behavior (or any other animal's behavior) comes remotely close to this aspect of human culture. This does not mean that the traditions observed in cetaceans are uninteresting, but rather, that we need to understand why they are so different from our own.
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