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  1. Paul Bello, Marcello Guarini, Marjorie McShane & Brian Scassellati (eds.) (2014). Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
     
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  2. Marcello Guarini, Case Classification, Similarities, Spaces of Reasons, and Coherences.
    A simple recurrent artificial neural network is used to classify situations as permissible or impermissible. The trained ANN can be understood as having set up a similarity space of cases at the level of its internal or hidden units. An analysis of the network’s internal representations is undertaken using a new visualization technique for state space approaches to understanding similarity. Insights from the literature on moral philosophy pertaining to contributory standards will be used to interpret the state space set up (...)
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  3. Marcello Guarini (2013). Introduction: Machine Ethics and the Ethics of Building Intelligent Machines. [REVIEW] Topoi 32 (2):213-215.
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  4. Marcello Guarini (2013). Moral Case Classification and the Nonlocality of Reasons. Topoi 32 (2):267-289.
    This paper presents the results of training an artificial neural network (ANN) to classify moral situations. The ANN produces a similarity space in the process of solving its classification problem. The state space is subjected to analysis that suggests that holistic approaches to interpreting its functioning are problematic. The idea of a contributory or pro tanto standard, as discussed in debates between moral particularists and generalists, is used to understand the structure of the similarity space generated by the ANN. A (...)
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  5. Ian Dove & Marcello Guarini, Visual Analogies and Arguments.
    I argue that a basic similarity analysis of analogical reasoning handles many apparent cases of visual analogy. I consider how the visual and verbal elements interact in analogical cases. Finally, I offer two analyses of visual elements. One analysis is evidential. The visual elements are evidence for their ver-bal counterparts. One is non-evidential: the visual elements link to verbal elements without providing evi-dence for those elements. The result is to make more room for the logical analysis of visual argumentation.
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  6. Marcello Guarini (2011). Computational Neural Modeling and the Philosophy of Ethics: Reflections on the Particularism-Generalism Debate. In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
     
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  7. Paul Bello & Marcello Guarini (2010). Introspection and Mindreading as Mental Simulation. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. 2022--2028.
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  8. Marcello Guarini (2010). Particularism, Analogy, and Moral Cognition. Minds and Machines 20 (3):385-422.
    ‘Particularism’ and ‘generalism’ refer to families of positions in the philosophy of moral reasoning, with the former playing down the importance of principles, rules or standards, and the latter stressing their importance. Part of the debate has taken an empirical turn, and this turn has implications for AI research and the philosophy of cognitive modeling. In this paper, Jonathan Dancy’s approach to particularism (arguably one of the best known and most radical approaches) is questioned both on logical and empirical grounds. (...)
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  9. Marcello Guarini (2010). Understanding Blended Multi-Source Arguments as Arguments From Partial Analogies. Ratio Juris 23 (1):65-100.
    This paper identifies a type of multi-source (case-based) reasoning and differentiates it from other types of analogical reasoning. Work in cognitive science on mental space mapping or conceptual blending is used to better understand this type of reasoning. The type of argument featured herein will be shown to be a kind of source-blended argument. While it possesses some similarities to traditionally conceived analogical arguments, there are important differences as well. The triple contract (a key development in the usury debates of (...)
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  10. Marcello Guarini, Commentary on Wein.
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  11. Marcello Guarini, Amy Butchart, Paul Simard Smith & Andrei Moldovan (2009). Resources for Research on Analogy: A Multi-Disciplinary Guide. Informal Logic 29 (2):84-197.
    Work on analogy has been done from a number of disciplinary perspectives throughout the history of Western thought. This work is a multidisciplinary guide to theorizing about analogy. It contains 1,406 references, primarily to journal articles and monographs, and primarily to English language material. classical through to contemporary sources are included. The work is classified into eight different sections (with a number of subsections). A brief introduction to each section is provided. Keywords and key expressions of importance to research on (...)
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  12. Marcello Guarini (2007). Computation, Coherence, and Ethical Reasoning. Minds and Machines 17 (1):27-46.
    Theories of moral, and more generally, practical reasoning sometimes draw on the notion of coherence. Admirably, Paul Thagard has attempted to give a computationally detailed account of the kind of coherence involved in practical reasoning, claiming that it will help overcome problems in foundationalist approaches to ethics. The arguments herein rebut the alleged role of coherence in practical reasoning endorsed by Thagard. While there are some general lessons to be learned from the preceding, no attempt is made to argue against (...)
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  13. Marcello Guarini (2007). Critical Notice: BonJour and Sosa on Epistemic Justification. [REVIEW] Synthese 159 (1):131 - 148.
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  14. Marcello Guarini, The Triple Contract: A Case Study of a Source Blending Analogical Argument.
    One form of analogical argument proceeds by comparing a disputed case with an agreed upon case to try to resolve the dispute. There is a variation on preceding form of argument not yet identified in the theoretical literature. This variation involves multiple sources, and it requires that the sources be combined or blended for the argument to work. Arguments supporting the Triple Contract are shown to possess this structure.
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  15. Marcello Guarini (2004). A Defense of Non-Deductive Reconstructions of Analogical Arguments (AILACT Essay Competition Winner). Informal Logic 24 (2):153-168.
    Bruce Waller has defended a deductive reconstruction of the kinds of analogical arguments found in ethics, law, and metaphysics. This paper demonstrates the limits of such a reconstruction and argues for an alternative. non-deductive reconstruction. It will be shown that some analogical arguments do not fit Waller's deductive schema, and that such a schema does not allow for an adequate account of the strengths and weaknesses of an analogical argument. The similarities and differences between the account defended herein and the (...)
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  16. Marcello Guarini (2003). Bohm's Metaphors, Causality, and the Quantum Potential. Erkenntnis 59 (1):77 - 95.
    David Bohm's interpretation of quantum mechanics yields a quantum potential, Q. In his early work, the effects of Q are understood in causal terms as acting through a real (quantum) field which pushes particles around. In his later work (with Basil Hiley), the causal understanding of Q appears to have been abandoned. The purpose of this paper is to understand how the use of certain metaphors leads Bohm away from a causal treatment of Q, and to evaluate the use of (...)
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  17. Marcello Guarini, Connectionist Coherence and Moral Reasoning.
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  18. Marcello Guarini, Causality Bohm’S. Metaphors, Steven French, Décio Krause, Michael Friedman, Ludwig Wittgenstein & Clark Glymour (2003). Christian Arnsperger and Yanis Varoufakis. Erkenntnis 59 (1):431-432.
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  19. Marcello Guarini (2001). A Defence of Connectionism Against the "Syntactic" Argument. Synthese 128 (3):287-317.
    In "Representations without Rules, Connectionism and the Syntactic Argument'', Kenneth Aizawa argues against the view that connectionist nets can be understood as processing representations without the use of representation-level rules, and he provides a positive characterization of how to interpret connectionist nets as following representation-level rules. He takes Terry Horgan and John Tienson to be the targets of his critique. The present paper marshals functional and methodological considerations, gleaned from the practice of cognitive modelling, to argue against Aizawa's characterization of (...)
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  20. Marcello Guarini, Commentary on Plumer & Olson.
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  21. Marcello Guarini, On the Limits of the Woods-Hudak Reconstruction of Analogical Argument.
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  22. Marcello Guarini (2000). Horgan and Tienson on Ceteris Paribus Laws. Philosophy of Science 67 (2):301-315.
    Terence Horgan and John Tienson claim that folk psychological laws are different in kind from basic physical laws in at least two ways: first, physical laws do not possess the kind of ceteris paribus qualifications possessed by folk psychological laws, which means the two types of laws have different logical forms; and second, applied physical laws are best thought of as being about an idealized world and folk psychological laws about the actual world. I argue that Horgan and Tienson have (...)
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  23. Marcello Guarini (1998). Rules and Representations in the Classicism-Connectionism Debate. Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    This dissertation is a work in the philosophical foundations of cognitive modelling. To a significant extent, it is presented as a response to a critique of connectionist modelling originated by Jerry Fodor and Zenon Pylyshyn. The essence of the critique is that either connectionist models implement classical models of cognition, or if connectionist models are not implementational, then they are incapable of modelling cognition. I argue that barring an implausible interpretation of "implementation," there exists a subset of connectionist models which (...)
     
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  24. Marcello Guarini, Commentary on Rehg.
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  25. Marcello Guarini (1996). Tensor Products and Split-Level Architecture: Foundational Issues in the Classicism-Connectionism Debate. Philosophy of Science 63 (3):S239-S247.
    This paper responds to criticisms levelled by Fodor, Pylyshyn, and McLaughlin against connectionism. Specifically, I will rebut the charge that connectionists cannot account for representational systematicity without implementing a classical architecture. This will be accomplished by drawing on Paul Smolensky's Tensor Product model of representation and on his insights about split-level architectures.
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