Search results for 'Margaret Anne Cleek' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  51
    Margaret Anne Cleek & Sherry Lynn Leonard (1998). Can Corporate Codes of Ethics Influence Behavior? Journal of Business Ethics 17 (6):619 - 630.
    There is increasing public interest in understanding the nature of corporate ethics due to the knowledge that unethical decisions and activities frequently undermine the performance and abilities of many organizations. Of the current literature found on the topic of ways organizations can influence ethical behavior, a majority is found on the issue of corporate codes of ethics.Most discussions on codes of ethics evaluate the contents of the codes and offer opinions on their wording, content, and/or value. Unfortunately, very little research (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   50 citations  
  2.  28
    Sean McAleer (2011). Baxley , Anne Margaret . Kant's Theory of Virtue: The Value of Autocracy . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Pp. Xvi+189. $85.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Ethics 122 (1):174-178.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3.  7
    Reidar Maliks (2013). Kant's Theory of Virtue: The Value of Autocracy. By Anne Margaret Baxley. (Cambridge UP, 2010. Pp. Xvi + 189. Price £61.00 Hb.). [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 63 (252):616-618.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4.  2
    Michael Petry, Pauline Phemister, Andrew Pyle, G. Parkinson & Charles Webster (1994). Review of Bibliothecae Selectae da Cusano a Leopardi Edited by Eugenio Canone Leo S. Olscki Editore, Firenze. Pp. Xxxii + 631 + 15 Plates. 1993. ISBN 88-222-4104-5; Franco Burgersdijk : Neo-Aristotelianism in Leiden Ed. By E. P. Bos and H. A. Krop Studies in the History of Ideas in the Low Countries Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, 1993, Pp. 185. Hfl. 60,-. ISBN 90-5183-374-1; Atoms, Pneuma, and Tranquillity: Epicurean and Stoic Themes in European Thought Margaret J. Osier, Ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991, Pp. Xii + 304. Hb. 32.50. ISBN 0-521-40048-1; The Rise of Modern Philosophy. The Tension Between the New and Traditional Philosophies From Machiavelli to Leibniz Ed. By Tom Sorell Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993, Pp. X + 352. 40.00. ISBN 0-19-823953-X; The Conway Letters. The Correspondence of Anne, Viscountess Conway, Henry More, and Their Friends 1642-1684. Edited by Marjorie Hope Nicolson. Revised Edition with an Introduction and New Material. Edited by Sarah Hutton. Oxfo. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Philosophy 2 (2):161-199.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5. Lisa Sarasohn (2001). *The Convent Of Pleasure and Other Plays* by Margaret Cavendish (Ed., Anne Shaver). [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 92:609-609.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  6.  45
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2010). Kant's Theory of Virtue: The Value of Autocracy. Cambridge University Press.
    Anne Margaret Baxley offers a systematic interpretation of Kant's theory of virtue, whose most distinctive features have not been properly understood. She explores the rich moral psychology in Kant's later and less widely read works on ethics, and argues that the key to understanding his account of virtue is the concept of autocracy, a form of moral self-government in which reason rules over sensibility. Although certain aspects of Kant's theory bear comparison to more familiar Aristotelian claims about virtue, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  7.  1
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2015). Robert N. Johnson, Self-Improvement: An Essay in Kantian Ethics Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011 Pp. 192 ISBN 9780199599349 $60.00. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 20 (1):133-137.
    Book Reviews Anne Margaret Baxley, Kantian Review, FirstView Article.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  8.  1
    Patrice Higonnet, Anne Higonnet & Margaret Higonnet (1984). Façades: Walter Benjamin's Paris. Critical Inquiry 10 (3):391-419.
    “Paris, Capital of the Nineteenth Century” juxtaposes elliptical descriptions that reveal the interiorization of commodities in the economy of high capitalism. “Allegory in the nineteenth century vacated the outer world, to colonize the inner world.”32 Each of the exposé’s six sections consists of two parts: “Fourier, or the Arcades,” “Daguerre, or the Panoramas,” “Grandville, or the World Exhibitions,” “Louis-Philippe, or the Interior,” “Baudelaire, or the Streets of Paris,” “Haussmann, or the Baricades.”33The commercial arcade and not the factory is the logical (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9. Anne Margaret Baxley (2015). Kant's Theory of Virtue: The Value of Autocracy. Cambridge University Press.
    Anne Margaret Baxley offers a systematic interpretation of Kant's theory of virtue, whose most distinctive features have not been properly understood. She explores the rich moral psychology in Kant's later and less widely read works on ethics, and argues that the key to understanding his account of virtue is the concept of autocracy, a form of moral self-government in which reason rules over sensibility. Although certain aspects of Kant's theory bear comparison to more familiar Aristotelian claims about virtue, (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  10.  2
    Anne N. van Buren (2009). Sarah-Grace Heller, Fashion in Medieval France.(Gallica, 3.) Woodbridge, Eng., and Rochester, NY: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. Pp. Ix, 206. $85. Margaret Scott, Medieval Dress and Fashion. London: British Library, 2007. Pp. 208; Many Black-and-White and Color Figures. $55. [REVIEW] Speculum 84 (1):160-163.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11.  2
    Margaret Wilson, Karl Schuhmann, Nicholas Fox, John Stephens & Ralph Walker (1997). ((Review of Celia Wolf-Devine, Descartes on Seeing: Epistemology and Visual Perception , ISBN 0-8093-1838-5); Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, with Selected Variants Front the Latin Edition of 1668, Ed. With Introduction and Notes, by Edwin Curley , ISBN 0-87220-178-3 , 0-87220-177-5 ; Allison Coudert, Leibniz and the Kabbalah , ISBN 0-7923-3114-1; Richard Price, The Correspondence, Ed. D. O. Thomas and W. Bernard Peach, Vol. III. February 1786-February 1791, Ed. W. Bernard Peach. , ISBN 0-8223-1327-8; Henry Allison, Idealism and Freedom: Essays on Kant's Theoretical and Practical Philosophy , ISBN 0-521-48295-X , 0-521-48337-9 ; Terry Pinkard, Hegel's Phenomenology: The Sociality of Reason , ISBN 0-521-45300-3); Mary Anne Perkins, Coleridge's Philosophy, The Logos as Unifying Principle , ISBN 0-19-824075-9; Elzbieta Ettinger, Hannah Arendt - Martin Heidegger , ISBN 0-300-06407-1; Dana R. Villa, Arendt and Heidegger - The Fate of the Political ISBN 0-691-04400-7. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Philosophy 5 (2):415-445.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. Catherine Stanton, Sarah Devaney, Anne-Maree Farrell & Alexandra Mullock (eds.) (2015). Pioneering Healthcare Law: Essays in Honour of Margaret Brazier. Routledge.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13.  39
    Margaret Anne Cameron (2015). Is Ground Said-in-Many-Ways? Studia Philosophica Estonica 7 (2):29.
    Proponents of ground, which is used to indicate relations of ontological fundamentality, insist that ground is a unified phenomenon, but this thesis has recently been criticized. I will first review the proponents' claims for ground's unicity, as well as the criticisms that ground is too heterogeneous to do the philosophical work it is supposed to do. By drawing on Aristotle's notion of homonymy, I explore whether ground's metaphysical heterogeneity can be theoretically accommodated while at the same time preserving its proponents' (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  14. Margaret Anne Fohl (forthcoming). Book Review: Premarital Guidance. [REVIEW] Interpretation 54 (4):446-446.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15.  73
    Mark A. Musen, Natalya F. Noy, Nigam H. Shah, Patricia L. Whetzel, Christopher G. Chute, Margaret-Anne Story & Barry Smith (2012). The National Center for Biomedical Ontology. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 19 (2):190-195.
    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is now in its seventh year. The goals of this National Center for Biomedical Computing are to: create and maintain a repository of biomedical ontologies and terminologies; build tools and web services to enable the use of ontologies and terminologies in clinical and translational research; educate their trainees and the scientific community broadly about biomedical ontology and ontology-based technology and best practices; and collaborate with a variety of groups who develop and use ontologies and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16.  44
    Margaret Anne Pierce & John W. Henry (1996). Computer Ethics: The Role of Personal, Informal, and Formal Codes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (4):425 - 437.
    Ethical decisions related to computer technology and computer use are subject to three primary influences: (1) the individual's own personal code (2) any informal code of ethical behavior that exists in the work place, and (3) exposure to formal codes of ethics. The relative importance of these codes, as well as factors influencing these codes, was explored in a nationwide survey of information system (IS) professionals. The implications of the findings are important to educators and employers in the development of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   21 citations  
  17.  17
    Margaret Anne Defeyter & Tim P. German (2003). Acquiring an Understanding of Design: Evidence From Children's Insight Problem Solving. Cognition 89 (2):133-155.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   12 citations  
  18.  3
    Amir Amin Yazdi, Tim P. German, Margaret Anne Defeyter & Michael Siegal (2006). Competence and Performance in Belief-Desire Reasoning Across Two Cultures: The Truth, the Whole Truth and Nothing but the Truth About False Belief? Cognition 100 (2):343-368.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  19.  16
    Margaret Anne Pierce & John W. Henry (2000). Judgements About Computer Ethics: Do Individual, Co-Worker, and Company Judgements Differ? Do Company Codes Make a Difference. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 28 (4):307 - 322.
    When faced with an ambiguous ethical situation related to computer technology (CT), the individual's course of action is influenced by personal experiences and opinions, consideration of what co-workers would do in the same situation, and an expectation of what the organization might sanction. In this article, the judgement of over three-hundred Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP) members concerning the actions taken in a series of CT ethical scenarios are examined. Respondents expressed their personal judgement, as well as their perception (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  20.  4
    Margaret Anne Pierce, Jacques Berleur, Joseph R. Herkert, Dorothy E. Denning, Charles Dunlop & Chuck Huff (1996). Responses to “The Consequences of Computing”. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 26 (1):7-10.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21.  67
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2014). Virtue, Self-Mastery, and the Autocracy of Practical Reason. In Lara Denis & Oliver Sensen (eds.), Kant’s Lectures on Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press 223-238.
    As analysis of Kant’s account of virtue in the Lectures on Ethics shows that Kant thinks of virtue as a form of moral self-mastery or self-command that represents a model of self-governance he compares to an autocracy. In light of the fact that the very concept of virtue presupposes struggle and conflict, Kant insists that virtue is distinct from holiness and that any ideal of moral perfection that overlooks the fact that morality is always difficult for us fails to provide (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22.  45
    Jacqueline Broad (2002). Women Philosophers of the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge University Press.
    In this rich and detailed study of early modern women's thought, Jacqueline Broad explores the complexity of women's responses to Cartesian philosophy and its intellectual legacy in England and Europe. She examines the work of thinkers such as Mary Astell, Elisabeth of Bohemia, Margaret Cavendish, Anne Conway and Damaris Masham, who were active participants in the intellectual life of their time and were also the respected colleagues of philosophers such as Descartes, Leibniz and Locke. She also illuminates the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   10 citations  
  23.  18
    Anne Drapkin Lyerly, Lisa M. Mitchell, Elizabeth Mitchell Armstrong, Lisa H. Harris, Rebecca Kukla, Miriam Kuppermann & Margaret Olivia Little (2009). Risk and the Pregnant Body. Hastings Center Report 39 (6):34-42.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  24.  60
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2003). Autocracy and Autonomy. Kant-Studien 94 (1):1-23.
  25.  32
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2001). Kant's Account of Virtue and the Apparent Problem with Autocracy. In Volker Gerhardt, Rolf-Peter Horstmann & Ralph Schumacher (eds.), Kant und die Berliner Aufklärung: Akten des IX. Internationalen Kant Kongresses, Band 4. Walter de Gruyter 63-71.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26.  27
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2004). Review: Stratton-Lake, Phillip, Kant, Duty and Moral Worth. [REVIEW] Kant-Studien 95 (3):388-389.
  27.  25
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2004). Review: Anderson-Gold, Sharon, Unnecessary Evil: History and Moral Progress in the Philosophy of Immanuel Kant. [REVIEW] Kant-Studien 95 (2):256-256.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28.  17
    Ruth R. Faden, Margaret Olivia Little & Anne Drapkin Lyerly (2011). Reframing the Framework: Toward Fair Inclusion of Pregnant Women as Participants in Research. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (5):50-52.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  29.  46
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2007). Kantian Virtue. Philosophy Compass 2 (3):396–410.
  30.  10
    Anne Drapkin Lyerly, Margaret Olivia Little & Ruth Faden (2008). The Second Wave: Toward Responsible Inclusion of Pregnant Women in Research. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 1 (2):5 - 22.
    Though much progress has been made on inclusion of non-pregnant women in research, thoughtful discussion about including pregnant women has lagged behind. We outline resulting knowledge gaps and their costs and then highlight four reasons why ethically we are obliged to confront the challenges of including pregnant women in clinical research. These are: the need for effective treatment for women during pregnancy, fetal safety, harm from the reticence to prescribe potentially beneficial medication, and the broader issues of justice and access (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  31.  36
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2012). The Problem of Obligation, the Finite Rational Will, and Kantian Value Realism. Inquiry 55 (6):567-583.
    Abstract Robert Stern's Understanding Moral Obligation is a remarkable achievement, representing an original reading of Kant's contribution to modern moral philosophy and the legacy he bequeathed to his later-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century successors in the German tradition. On Stern's interpretation, it was not the threat to autonomy posed by value realism, but the threat to autonomy posed by the obligatory nature of morality that led Kant to develop his critical moral theory grounded in the concept of the self-legislating moral agent. Accordingly, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  32.  13
    Anne Drapkin Lyerly, Margaret Olivia Little & Ruth R. Faden (2008). A Critique of the 'Fetus as Patient'. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (7):42 – 44.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  33.  45
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2008). Pleasure, Freedom and Grace: Schiller's “Completion” of Kant's Ethics. Inquiry 51 (1):1 – 15.
  34.  26
    Rebecca Kukla, Miriam Kuppermann, Margaret Little, Anne Drapkin Lyerly, Lisa M. Mitchell, Elizabeth M. Armstrong & Lisa Harris (2009). Finding Autonomy in Birth. Bioethics 23 (1):1-8.
    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women 'choosing' to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  35.  18
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2003). Does Kantian Virtue Amount to More Than Continence? Review of Metaphysics 56 (3):559 - 586.
  36.  1
    Abbey Hyde, Margaret Treacy, P. Anne Scott, Michelle Butler, Jonathan Drennan, Kate Irving, Anne Byrne, Padraig MacNeela & Marian Hanrahan (2005). Modes of Rationality in Nursing Documentation: Biology, Biography and the 'Voice of Nursing'. Nursing Inquiry 12 (2):66-77.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  37. Marjorie Hope Nicolson (ed.) (1992). The Conway Letters: The Correspondence of Anne, Viscountess Conway, Henry More, and Their Friends, 1642-1684. Clarendon Press.
    A scholarly edition of letters by Anne, Viscountess Conway, Henry More, and their friends. The edition presents an authoritative text, together with an introduction, commentary notes, and scholarly apparatus.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  38.  7
    Nicola Stanhope, Margaret Crowley‐Murphy, Charles Vincent, Anne M. O'Connor & Sally E. Taylor‐Adams (1999). An Evaluation of Adverse Incident Reporting. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 5 (1):5-12.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  39.  57
    Aaron Simmons (2007). A Critique of Mary Anne Warren's Weak Animal Rights View. Environmental Ethics 29 (3):267-278.
    In her book, Moral Status, Mary Anne Warren defends a comprehensive theory of the moral status of various entities. Under this theory, she argues that animals may have some moral rights but that their rights are much weaker in strength than the rights of humans, who have rights in the fullest, strongest sense. Subsequently, Warren believes that our duties to animals are far weaker than our duties to other humans. This weakness is especially evident from the fact that Warren (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40.  45
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2007). The Price of Virtue. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 88 (4):403–423.
    Aristotle famously held that there is a crucial difference between the person who merely acts rightly and the person who is wholehearted in what she does. He captures this contrast by insisting on a distinction between continence and full virtue. One way of accounting for the important difference here is to suppose that, for the genuinely virtuous person, the requirements of virtue "silence" competing reasons for action. I argue that the silencing interpretation is not compelling. As Aristotle rightly saw, virtue (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  41.  24
    Anne Drapkin Lyerly, Margaret Olivia Little & Ruth R. Faden (2008). Pregnancy and Clinical Research. Hastings Center Report 38 (6):3-3.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  42.  7
    Vernon A. Rosario (ed.) (1997). Science and Homosexualities. Routledge.
    Science and Homosexualities is the first anthology by historians of science to examine European and American scientific research on sexual orientation since the coining of the word "homosexual" almost 150 years ago. This collection is particularly timely given the enormous scientific and popular interest in biological studies of homosexuality, and the importance given such studies in current legal, legislative and cultural debates concerning gay civil rights. However, scientific and popular literature discussing the biology of sexual orientation have been short-sighted in (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  43.  4
    Stefan Storrie (2011). Anne Berkeley’s Contrast: A Note. Berkeley Studies 22:9-14.
    This essay provides some historical background for, and considers the philosophical importance of, the collection of Anne Berkeley’s letters to Adam Gordon. The primary philosophical significance of the letters is her arguments against the so-called “free thinkers.” She discusses the philosophical view and the behavior of five prominent free-thinkers: Shaftesbury, Bolingbroke, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Hume. Her discussion of Shaftesbury is particularly illuminating and can be read as a commentary on Alciphron III.13-14. Because the work of the other four were (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44.  47
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2005). The Practical Significance of Taste in Kant's "Critique of Judgment": Love of Natural Beauty as a Mark of Moral Character. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (1):33–45.
  45.  37
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2010). The Aesthetics of Morality: Schiller's Critique of Kantian Rationalism. Philosophy Compass 5 (12):1084-1095.
  46.  16
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2003). The Beautiful Soul and the Autocratic Agent: Schiller's and Kant's "Children of the House". Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (4):493-514.
  47.  12
    Anne Margaret Baxley (2013). Review: Deligiorgi, The Scope of Autonomy: Kant and the Morality of Freedom. [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):807-809.
  48.  37
    Vincent C. Müller (2008). Margaret A. Boden, Mind as Machine: A History of Cognitive Science , 2 Vols. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 18 (1):121-125.
    Review of: Margaret A. Boden, Mind as Machine: A History of Cognitive Science, 2 vols, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, xlvii+1631, cloth $225, ISBN 0-19-924144-9. - Mind as Machine is Margaret Boden’s opus magnum. For one thing, it comes in two massive volumes of nearly 1700 pages, ... But it is not just the opus magnum in simple terms of size, but also a truly crowning achievement of half a century’s career in cognitive science.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49.  9
    Mary Walsh (2008). The Oxford Handbook of Political Theory. Contemporary Political Theory 7 (2):232-234.
    Long recognized as one of the main branches of political science, political theory has in recent years burgeoned in many different directions. Close textual analysis of historical texts sits alongside more analytical work on the nature and normative grounds of political values. Continental and post-modern influences jostle with ones from economics, history, sociology, and the law. Feminist concerns with embodiment make us look at old problems in new ways, and challenges of new technologies open whole new vistas for political theory. (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50.  10
    Jeanine Grenberg (2011). Making Sense of the Relationship of Reason and Sensibility in Kant's Ethics. Kantian Review 16 (3):461-472.
    In this essay, I look at some claims Anne Margaret Baxley makes, in her recent book Kant's Theory of Virtue: The Value of Autocracy, about the relationship between reason and sensibility in Kant's theory of virtue. I then reflect on tensions I find in these claims as compared to the overall goal of her book: an account of Kant's conception of virtue as autocracy. Ultimately, I argue that interpreters like Baxley who want to welcome a more robust role (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 1000