To consider that the nature of forgiveness consists in its healing effects on the forgiver overlooks the distinction between the nature of forgiveness and the question about its desirable effects. What I suggest is that the curing effect of forgiveness is an indirectly intended consequence of forgiveness. To forgive mywrongdoer only because this is the way to gain inner peace or to “heal my soul” shows a somewhat utilitarian view on forgiveness. By forgiving the wrongdoer, thevictim extends an attitude of (...) authentic goodwill toward the offender as a person. However, the one who forgives does not extend this attitude toward the action theoffender performed. We can strongly oppose wrong behavior without opposing wrongdoers as persons. (shrink)
A renewed concern with Aristotle’s thought about the economic aspects of human life and society can be observed. Aristotle dealt with the economic issues in his practical philosophy. He thus considered ‘the economic’ within an ethical and political frame. This vision is coherent with a specific ontology of ‘the economic’ according to Aristotle. In a recent paper, I analysed this ontology and left its consequences, especially for Ethics and Politics, for another paper. In this article, I firstly summarise the reasoning (...) and conclusions of the aforementioned paper. Then, I extract the ethical and political “lessons” of the Aristotelian conception. I finally add a section with epistemological “lessons”, and consequences for the teaching of Economics. (shrink)
This paper sustains that reappraising Austrian economics in the light of Aristotelian ideas is not only possible but also fruitful. First, the paper draws a sketch of the essential features of Austrian economics. Next, it argues about the necessity for a thorough analysis of the notion of freedom, and it analyzes Mises's conception. Next, the paper exposes Aristotle's social, epistemological and economic thought related to Austrian main traits. An account of how the exercise of Aristotelian virtues may be synergic with (...) economic coordination and a sketch of the consequences of the proposal on the teaching of economics are then provided. Finally, the conclusion shortly sums up the content and relevance of Aristotle's contribution. (shrink)
This article begins by pointing out the difficulties involved by the insertion of freedom in economics: It poses epistemological problems that are not satisfactorily solved by the standard theories. The article suggests that the Aristotelian epistemological frame of practical rationality may be an apt position from which one can deal with freedom in economics. Aristotle's concepts of society and economics are first introduced. The role of virtues in achieving economic coordination is exposed. Then the corresponding concept of practical science is (...) described, showing its main characteristics and how they fit in with traditional political economy. The concept of value neutrality receives special attention in the article: A reinterpretation of the meaning of it is proposed. The article concludes that Aristotle's broad concepts of practical reason and science leave room for a more comprehensive notion of economics. (shrink)
In the so-called “international credit market crisis,” which started in the second half of 2007 in the US subprime mortgage market, financial derivatives, most notably credit default swaps (CDS), have been publically blamed for having caused, or at least aggravated, the economic and monetary debacle. However, sound economic [...].
Some mutual funds not only apply the usual asset management and custodial fees, but also front loads and redemption fees as a kind of 'toll charge' payable on entering and/or leaving the fund. The aim of this work is to examine the implications of the different loads and fees applied to mutual fund investors in the Spanish market. The results show that there is a relationship between the various charges and fees. The fact that load fund companies charge higher management (...) and custody fees proves the potential of the fund companies to impose higher fees on a segment of the clientele. The investors in load funds, which tend to be large in number of shareholders and belonging to banks and savings banks, are small investors who show a low cost sensitivity. A lower level of financial sophistication may be the reason for the apparent lower price awareness. The problem is that the investors in load funds are not financially compensated for the extra cost represented by the front-load and redemption fees. The only beneficiary seems to be the financial institution itself. On this view, the survival of load funds seems to depend on the lack of financial sophistication of their clientele, combined with market inefficiencies. It is worth asking about the ethics of a situation of market segmentation that allows managing institutions to benefit from the segment of the least sophisticated investors. (shrink)
. We explore the possibility and some potential payoffs of using the theory of accessible categories in the study of categories of logics. We illustrate this by two case studies focusing on the category of finitary structural logics and its subcategory of algebraizable logics.
This paper endeavours to summarize a variety of arguments for a reconsideration of ends in Economics. The logical structure of the rationality of ends (practical rationality) differs from the one of means (instrumental rationality). The paper sets out to explain the differences between both rationalities and some of the implications of incorporating this new emphasis on ends, given that Economics adopts the means rationality. The emergence of the topics of incommensurability and incomparability of ends is presented and a possible way (...) to tackle it is suggested. Finally, some implications for Economics are drawn. This article emphasizes the importance of incorporating practical rationality into economic analysis. The arguments of the paper are built on Aristotelian grounds. (shrink)
En este trabajo se postula que se pueden establecer relaciones entre las diversas ‘visiones dei mundo’ (en sentido vulgar) y las teorías economicas, a través de las epistemologías subyacentes a las mismas. Se ilustra con las siguientes relaciones: entre la cosmovisión propia dei sistema de Aristóteles y su noción de economía, entre la matriz racionalista moderna y la economía clásica y neoclásica, a través del uso de analogías físicas y biologicas, y entre algunas posturas recientes y una vision post-moderna del (...) mundo. Se busca fomentar una actitud crítica frente a las teorías e insistir en la necesidadde buscar siempre el camino epistemológico y metodológico adecuado al objeto de estudio.This paper tries to show the bridges between world visions (in a broad sense) and economic theories, through their underlying epistemological positions. The following relations are brought up: between Aristotle’s world vision and his concept of economics, between the modern rationalist frame and classical and neoclassical economics by the postulation of analogies from physics and biology, and finally between post-modern world vision and some current perspectives. The aim of the paper is to stress on the need of maintaining a critical position toward theories and also always looking for an adequate epistemological and methodological way. (shrink)
We discuss in this paper the scope of abduction in Economics. The literature on this type of inference shows that it can be interpreted in different ways, according to the role and nature of its outcome. We present a formal model that allows to capture these various meanings in different economic contexts.
Karl Giberson and Mariano Artigas offer an informed analysis on the views of Stephen Jay Gould, Richard Dawkins, Edward O. Wilson, Carl Sagan, Stephen Hawking and Steven Weinberg; carefully distinguishing science from philosophy and religion in the writings of the oracles.
The concept of indiscernibility in a structure is analysed with the aim of emphasizing that in asserting that two objects are indiscernible, it is useful to consider these objects as members of (the domain of) a structure. A case for this usefulness is presented by examining the consequences of this view to the philosophical discussion on identity and indiscernibility in quantum theory.
Ontology languages for the Semantic Web have their strengths and weaknesses, in particular in the light of deploying them for biological and medical information systems. We survey and compare the Description Logics-based OWL languages, and the DL-Lite and DLR families of languages. Language choices that an ontology developer has to make are, among others, expressivity with n-ary relations (where n > 2) and more role properties versus ontology usage for data-intensive tasks. Guidelines are suggested to facilitate choosing the language best (...) ﬁtted for a task. (shrink)
La meta del presente artículo es defender la tesis de que la aceptación de las ideas fundamentales del liberalismo político no conducen necesariamente a una concepción de la justicia global minimalista como la que desarrolló John Rawls en The Law of Peoples. Sostendré, contra lo que el filósofo explícitamente afirma, que las democracias liberales contemporáneas pueden apelar públicamente, en la esfera política global, a los ideales igualitarios y a una concepción robusta de los derechos humanos como justificación de ciertos aspectos (...) de su política exterior. Intentaré demostrar que ello no resulta incompatible con el requisito de asumir una posición de tolerancia y de respeto con las naciones que suscriben mayori-tariamente formas de vida y sistemas de creencias incompatibles con algunos de los valores liberales más significativos. The purpose of the following article is to sustain the view that accepting the basic notions of political liberalism does not necessarily lead to a minimalistic concept of global justice as that developed by John Rawls in The Law of Peoples. In opposition to his explicit opinion, I shall hold that -within the global political field- contemporary liberal democracies can publicly hold egalitarian ideals and a robust conception of human rights in order to justify some of the features of their foreign policy. I shall try to demonstrate that this is not incompatible with the required tolerance and respect toward nations that conspicuously embrace ways of life and belief systems incompatible with some of the most relevant liberal values. (shrink)
The O.P. Alford III Prize in Libertarian Scholarship is awarded annually by the Ludwig von Mises Institute. This year’s recipients are Thorsten Polleit and Jonathan Mariano, for their 2011 Libertarian Papers article, “Credit Default Swaps from the Viewpoint of Libertarian Property Rights and Contract Theory.” Congratulations to the authors!
The bumpy road to institutionalism : Schmitt's way-out of decisionism -- Exploring Schmitt's institutionalism : institutions and normality -- Institutionalist decisionism : law as the shelter of society -- Institution and identity : reassessing Schmitt's political theory -- Schmitt vs. Kelsen : the social ontology of legal life -- Schmitt vs. Hauriou : the politicization of institutionalism -- Schmitt vs. Romano : institutionalism without pluralism? -- Schmitt vs. Mortati : the concretization of the concrete order -- The impossibility of legal (...) indeterminacy -- The inconceivability of legal pluralism. (shrink)
The debate between the pure or fundamentalist branch of mathematics and the applied one induces to discuss dispassionately the links between the queen of sciences and the development of technology. To avoid the existing difficulty in separating the concrete daily problems from the conceptual and theoretic reflections, it generally produces good results to show some elements of the relations between mathematics and teehnology. The autonomous position, which characterizes the mathematics of absolute freedom, clashes with the quick development of technology, which (...) creates a new structure of mathematics. This development produces a pennanent interrogation about what is building and developing anyone who calls himself a mathematician. (shrink)