Search results for 'Mark A. Kramer' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  5
    Mark A. Kramer, Roger Costello & John Griffith (2009). Investigating the Force Multiplier Effect of Citizen Event Reporting by Social Simulation. Mind and Society 8 (2):209-221.
    Citizen event reporting (CER) attempts to leverage the eyes and ears of a large population of citizen sensors to increase the amount of information available to decision makers. When deployed in an environment that includes hostile elements, foes can exploit the system to exert indirect control over the response infrastructure. We use an agent-based model to relate the utility of responses to population composition, citizen behavior, and decision strategy, and measure the result in terms of a force multiplier. We show (...)
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  2.  25
    Matthew H. Kramer (ed.) (2008). The Legacy of H.L.A. Hart: Legal, Political, and Moral Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    This book is the product of a major British Academy Symposium held in 2007 to mark the centenary of the birth of H.L.A. Hart, the most important legal philosopher and one of the most important political philosophers of the twentieth century. -/- The book brings together contributions from seventeen of the world's foremost legal and political philosophers who explore the many subjects in which Hart produced influential work. Each essay engages in an original analysis of philosophical problems that were (...)
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  3. Sjoukje A. Osinga, Mark R. Kramer & Gert Jan Hofstede (2015). Sustainable Animal Welfare: Does Forcing Farmers Into Transition Help? AI and Society 30 (3):403-413.
  4.  9
    Eric Mark Kramer (1995). A Brief Hermeneutic of the Co-Constitution of Nature and Culture in the West Including Some Contemporary Consequences. History of European Ideas 20 (1-3):649-659.
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  5.  3
    Kelly G. Garner, Paul E. Dux, Joe Wagner, D. R. Tarrant, Christopher D. Chambers & A. Mark (2012). Attentional Asymmetries in a Visual Orienting Task Are Related to Temperament. Cognition and Emotion 26 (8):1508-1515.
    Spatial asymmetries are an intriguing feature of directed attention. Recent observations indicate an influence of temperament upon the direction of these asymmetries. It is unknown whether this influence generalises to visual orienting behaviour. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore the relationship between temperament and measures of spatial orienting as a function of target hemifield. An exogenous cueing task was administered to 92 healthy participants. Temperament was assessed using Carver and White's (1994) Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural (...)
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  6. Matthew H. Kramer (2009). Moral Realism as a Moral Doctrine. Wiley-Blackwell.
    In this major new work, Matthew Kramer seeks to establish two main conclusions. On the one hand, moral requirements are strongly objective. On the other hand, the objectivity of ethics is itself an ethical matter that rests primarily on ethical considerations. Moral realism - the doctrine that morality is indeed objective - is a moral doctrine. Major new volume in our new series _New Directions in Ethics_ Takes on the big picture - defending the objectivity of ethics whilst rejecting (...)
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  7.  9
    Matthew H. Kramer (1994). Critical Legal Theory and the Challenge of Feminism: A Philosophical Reconception. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Critical Legal Theory and the Challenge of Feminism provides both a thorough overview and a refinement of the ideas that underlie critical legal theory. Arguing with the rigor of analytic philosophy and the alertness to paradoxes characteristic of deconstructive philosophy, Matthew Kramer begins by exploring the tangled relations between metaphysics and politics. He then attempts to transform the discourses of the critical legal studies movement by laying out a framework of five general themes: contradictions, contingency, patterning, perspective, and ideology. (...)
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  8. Jeremy A. Good & Edward J. Kramer (1971). Yield and Recovery of the Flux Line Lattice in a Type II Superconductor. Philosophical Magazine 24 (188):339-357.
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  9. Regina L. Leckie, Lauren E. Oberlin, Michelle W. Voss, Ruchika S. Prakash, Amanda Szabo-Reed, Laura Chaddock-Heyman, Siobhan M. Phillips, Neha P. Gothe, Emily Mailey, Victoria J. Vieira-Potter, Stephen A. Martin, Brandt D. Pence, Mingkuan Lin, Raja Parasuraman, Pamela M. Greenwood, Karl J. Fryxell, Jeffrey A. Woods, Edward McAuley, Arthur F. Kramer & Kirk I. Erickson (2014). BDNF Mediates Improvements in Executive Function Following a 1-Year Exercise Intervention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  10.  12
    Nancy Grudens-Schuck & Brett A. Kramer (2003). Land-Grant Universities and Extension Into the 21st Century: Renegotiating or Abandoning a Social Contract. By George R. McDowell. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 20 (2):205-209.
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  11.  31
    Stephan Krämer & Stefan Roski (2015). A Note on the Logic of Worldly Ground. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (1):59-68.
    In his 2010 paper ‘Grounding and Truth-Functions’, Fabrice Correia has developed the first and so far only proposal for a logic of ground based on a worldly conception of facts. In this paper, we show that the logic allows the derivation of implausible grounding claims. We then generalize these results and draw some conclusions concerning the structural features of ground and its associated notion of relevance, which has so far not received the attention it deserves.
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  12.  73
    Stephan Krämer (2013). A Simpler Puzzle of Ground. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):85-89.
    Metaphysical grounding is standardly taken to be irreflexive: nothing grounds itself. Kit Fine has presented some puzzles that appear to contradict this principle. I construct a particularly simple variant of those puzzles that is independent of several of the assumptions required by Fine, instead employing quantification into sentence position. Various possible responses to Fine's puzzles thus turn out to apply only in a restricted range of cases.
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  13.  24
    Stephan Krämer & Stefan Roski (forthcoming). Difference-Making Grounds. Philosophical Studies:1-25.
    We define a notion of difference-making for partial grounds of a fact in rough analogy to existing notions of difference-making for causes of an event. Using orthodox assumptions about ground, we show that it induces a non-trivial division with examples of partial grounds on both sides. We then demonstrate the theoretical fruitfulness of the notion by applying it to the analysis of a certain kind of putative counter-example to the transitivity of ground recently described by Jonathan Schaffer. First, we show (...)
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  14.  4
    Matthew H. Kramer (2007). Why The Axioms and Theorems of Arithmetic Are Not Legal Norms. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 27 (3):555-562.
    Ronald Dworkin has long criticized legal positivists for their efforts to distinguish between legal and non-legal standards of conduct that are incumbent on people. Recently, Dworkin has broached this criticism in his hostile account of the debates between Incorporationist Legal Positivists and Exclusive Legal Positivists. Specifically, he has maintained that Incorporationists cannot avoid the unpalatable conclusion that the axioms and theorems of arithmetic are legal norms. This article shows why such a conclusion is indeed avoidable and why Dworkin's criticism is (...)
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  15.  6
    Jonathan Murphy & Mark Kramer, The Marxist Leninist Theory of History.
    Communism is not a reaction against the failure of the nineteenth century to organize optimal economic output. It is a reaction against its comparative success. It is a protest against the emptiness of economic welfare, an appeal to the ascetic in us all... The idealistic youth play with Communism because it is the only spiritual appeal which feels to them contemporary.
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  16.  1
    Victor A. Kramer (1972). Warren A. Shibles: Analysis of Metaphor in the Light of W. M. Urban's Theories. [REVIEW] Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 31 (2):278-279.
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  17.  50
    Matthew H. Kramer (2009). Moral Realism as a Moral Doctrine. Wiley-Blackwell.
    In this major new book, Matthew Kramer seeks to establish two main conclusions.
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  18. Matthew H. Kramer (1998). A Debate Over Rights: Philosophical Enquiries. Clarendon Press.
    This collection of essays forms a lively debate over the fundamental characteristics of legal and moral rights. The essays examine whether rights fundamentally protect individuals' interests or whether they instead fundamentally enable individuals to make choices.
     
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  19. Robert C. Solomon (1992). Sandor Goodhart, Ronald Bogue, Denis B. Walker, Timothy Clark, C. S. Schreiner, Robert Tobin, John Kleiner, David Carey, Chris Parkin, John Anzalone, Richard K. Emmerson, Janet Lungstrum, Alex Fischler, Hugh Bredin, Victor A. Kramer, Steven Rendall, Gerald Prince, John D. Lyons, David Hayman, Roberta Davidson, Dan Latimer, Joseph J. Maier, Kenneth Marc Harris, Lynne Vieth, Joanne Cutting-Gray, Michael L. Hall, Mark P. Drost, John J. Stuhr, Charles Affron, Celia E. Weller, Jerome Schwartz, Mary B. McKinley, Patrick Henry. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Literature 16 (1):174.
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  20.  48
    Ian Carter & Matthew H. Kramer (2008). How Changes in One's Preferences Can Affect One's Freedom (and How They Cannot): A Reply to Dowding and Van Hees. Economics and Philosophy 24 (1):81-96.
    How is a person's freedom related to his or her preferences? Liberal theorists of negative freedom have generally taken the view that the desire of a person to do or not do something is irrelevant to the question of whether he is free to do it. Supporters of the “pure negative” conception of freedom have advocated this view in its starkest form: they maintain that a person is unfree to Φ if and only if he is prevented from Φ-ing by (...)
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  21.  98
    Ian Carter, Matthew H. Kramer & Hillel Steiner (eds.) (2007). Freedom: A Philosophical Anthology. Blackwell Pub..
    Edited by leading contributors to the literature, Freedom: An Anthology is the most complete anthology on social, political and economic freedom ever compiled. Offers a broad guide to the vast literature on social, political and economic freedom. Contains selections from the best scholarship of recent decades as well as classic writings from Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau and Kant among others. General and sectional introductions help to orient the reader. Compiled and edited by three important contributors to the field.
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  22.  19
    V. Mark (1996). Conflicting Communication in a Split-Brain Patient: Support for Dual Consciousness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness. MIT Press 189--196.
  23.  39
    Matthew H. Kramer & Nigel E. Simmonds (1998). No Better Reasons: A Reply to Alan Gewirth. Southern Journal of Philosophy 36 (1):131-139.
    Alan Gewirth has propounded a moral theory which commits him to the view that prescriptions can appropriately be addressed to people who have neither any moral reasons nor any prudential reasons to follow the prescriptions. We highlight the strangeness of Gewirth's position and then show that it undermines his attempt to come up with a supreme moral principle.
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  24.  21
    David M. Mark & Barry Smith (2004). A Science of Topography: Bridging the Qualitative-Quantitative Divide. In Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology.
    The shape of the Earth's surface, its topography, is a fundamental dimension of the environment, shaping or mediating many other environmental flows or functions. But there is a major divergence in the way that topography is conceptualized in different domains. Topographic cartographers, information scientists, geomorphologists and environmental modelers typically conceptualize topographic variability as a continuous field of elevations or as some discrete approximation to such a field. Pilots, explorers, anthropologists, ecologists, hikers, and archeologists, on the other hand, typically conceptualize this (...)
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  25.  3
    Leonard S. Mark (2001). Toward a Strategy for Demonstrating the Perceptual Independence of the Global Array From Individual Sensory Arrays. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):227-227.
    This commentary discusses a strategy by which investigators can examine whether observers perceive properties of the global array independently of properties in individual sensory arrays. Research showing that perception of complex relationships appears to be independent of the perception of individual components is considered. Ashby and Townsend's (1986) methods for identifying perceptual independence are important tools for studying the global array.
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  26. John Danaher (2013). Kramer's Purgative Rationale for Capital Punishment: A Critique. Criminal Law and Philosophy (2):1-20.
    Matthew Kramer has recently defended a novel justification for the death penalty, something he calls the purgative rationale. According to this rationale, the death penalty can be justifiably implemented if it is necessary in order to purge defilingly evil offenders from a moral community. Kramer claims that this rationale overcomes the problems associated with traditional rationales for the death penalty. Although Kramer is to be commended for carving out a novel niche in a well-worn dialectical space, I (...)
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  27.  4
    Steven Freeland & Pernille Walther (forthcoming). Reimagining the Unimaginable? Reflections on Mark A. Drumbl's Vision of Child Soldiers. Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-12.
    The existence of child soldiers is a problem of the ages, and there are no positive signs that it is abating. The difference now is that, with the development of modern weapons technology, children can be involved in large scale and horrific acts during conflicts. The circumstances surrounding the use of children to wage war will vary from situation to situation. Yet, it has been suggested that many people seem to have a ‘single focussed’ view of what child soldiers look (...)
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  28. Mark A. Noll (1997). Creationism in Twentieth-Century America: A Ten-Volume Anthology of Documents, 1903-1961Ronald L. Numbers William Vance Trollinger, Jr. Paul Nelson Edward B. Davis Mark A. Kalthoff. [REVIEW] Isis 88 (1):160-162.
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  29. Jon Robson (2012). Do Possible Worlds Compromise God's Beauty? A Reply to Mark Ian Thomas Robson. Religious Studies 48 (4):515 - 532.
    In a recent article Mark Ian Thomas Robson argues that there is a clear contradiction between the view that possible worlds are a part of God's nature and the theologically pivotal, but philosophically neglected, claim that God is perfectly beautiful. In this article I show that Robson's argument depends on several key assumptions that he fails to justify and as such that there is reason to doubt the soundness of his argument. I also demonstrate that if Robson's argument were (...)
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  30.  39
    Mark Bedau, Open Problems in Artificial Life Mark A. Bedau∗,†.
    artificial life, each of which is a grand challenge requiring a major advance on a fundamental issue for its solution. Each problem is briefly explained, and, where deemed helpful, some promising paths to its solution are indicated.
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  31.  56
    Mark Allison (2014). The Making of British Socialism by Mark Bevir, And: Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Lifeby Jonathan Sperber (Review). Utopian Studies 25 (1):221-226.
    In the twenty-four years since the dismantling of the Berlin Wall, a body of high-quality scholarship on socialism has slowly accumulated. Here I discuss two superb additions to this incipient post–Cold War canon, Mark Bevir’s The Making of British Socialism and Jonathan Sperber’s Karl Marx: A Nineteenth Century Life. Both authors take it as axiomatic that the socialist utopia, with its quasi-eschatological promise of complete human emancipation, is an idea whose time has passed. But Bevir and, to a lesser (...)
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  32.  3
    A. J. Walsh, Review of 'Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea' by Mark Blyth: Oxford University Press, $29.95 Hb, 288 Pp, 9780199828302. [REVIEW]
    Mark Blyth's 'Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea' is at heart a morality tale, or, more accurately, an account of two competing and diametrically opposed morality tales jostling to explain both the recent Global Financial Crisis that engulfed much of Europe in 2008 and the austerity policies that were implemented by most governments in that region in its aftermath. According to proponents of austerity, economic growth can only be achieved through reductions in state spending. Blyth argues with great (...)
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  33. Andreas Elpidorou (2013). Reasoning About the Mark of the Cognitive: A Response to Adams and Garrison. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines (2):1-11.
    I critically examine Adams and Garrison’s proposed necessary condition for the mark of the cognitive (Adams and Garrison in Minds Mach 23(3):339–352, 2013). After a brief presentation of their position, I argue not only that their proposal is in need of additional support, but also that it is too restrictive.
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  34. Jussi Suikkanen (2009). Consequentialism, Constraints and The Good-Relative-To: A Reply to Mark Schroeder. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy (March 2009):1-9.
    Recently, it has been a part of the so-called consequentializing project to attempt to construct versions of consequentialism that can support agent-relative moral constraints. Mark Schroeder has argued that such views are bound to fail because they cannot make sense of the agent relative value on which they need to rely. In this paper, I provide a fitting-attitude account of both agent-relative and agent-neutral values that can together be used to consequentialize agent-relative constraints.
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  35. A. Klamer (2002). A Review of Mark A. Lutz's Economics for the Common Good: Two Centuries of Social Economic Thought in the Humanistic Tradition. [REVIEW] Journal of Economic Methodology 9 (2):251-252.
     
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  36.  24
    Vishwa Adluri (2012). Ralkowski, Mark A. 2009. Heideggers Platonism. New York and London: Continuum Publishing, 212 + Xx Pp., Hardbound, $130, 978-1441184894. [REVIEW] International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 6 (1):128-138.
    This article is currently available as a free download on ingentaconnect.
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  37. Andreas Rechtsteiner, Mark A. Bedau.
    We introduce and study a simple generic model of neutral evolution of genotypes, designed to provide a feasible and general method for quantifying excess evolutionary activity|the extent to which evolutionary activity is the product of adaptive evolution. We compare the behavior of the generic neutral model against two other models: Packard's agent-based model of the evolution of sensory-motor functionality and a neutral \shadow" of Packard's model. Diversity and evolutionary activity of these three models across the mutation rate spectrum illustrate the (...)
     
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  38.  15
    Bob Plant (2003). Doing Justice to the Derrida–Levinas Connection: A Response to Mark Dooley. Philosophy and Social Criticism 29 (4):427-450.
    Mark Dooley has recently argued (principally against Simon Critchley) that the attempt to establish too strong a ‘connection’ between Jacques Derrida and Emmanuel Levinas not only distorts crucial disparities between their respective philosophies, it also contaminates Derrida’s recent work with Levinas’s inherent ‘political naivety’. In short, on Dooley’s reading, Levinas is only of ‘inspirational value’ for Derrida. I am not concerned with defending Critchley’s own reading of the ‘Derrida–Levinas connection’. My objective is rather to demonstrate, first, the way in (...)
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  39. Joseph A. Bracken, Rémi Brague, J. Budziszewski & Stratford Caldecott (2009). An Asterisk Denotes a Publication by a Member of the American Catholic Philosophical Association. The Editors Welcome Suggestions for Reviews. Bedau, Mark A., and Emily C. Parke, Eds. The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory. Cambridge, Mass. And London: MIT Press, 2009. Pp. X+ 368. Paper $28.00, ISBN: 978-0-262-51269-5. [REVIEW] American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 83 (3).
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  40.  96
    David Enoch (2011). On Mark Schroeder's Hypotheticalism: A Critical Notice of Slaves of the Passions. Philosophical Review 120 (3):423-446.
    In Slaves of the Passions Mark Schroeder puts forward Hypotheticalism, his version of a Humean theory of normative reasons that is capable, so he argues, to avoid many of the difficulties Humeanism is traditionally vulnerable to. In this critical notice, I first outline the main argument of the book, and then proceed to highlight some difficulties and challenges. I argue that these challenges show that Schroeder's improvements on traditional Humeanism – while they do succeed in making the view more (...)
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  41.  12
    Uwe Steinhoff (2016). Torture and Moral Integrity: A Philosophical Enquiry by Matthew H. Kramer. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25 (4):1-6.
    The blurb of Matthew Kramer’s book, Torture and Moral Integrity: A Philosophical Enquiry, states that the book “seeks to explain why interrogational and other types of torture are always and everywhere morally wrong.” This might give the prospective reader the impression that the book takes an absolutist stance against torture, but this impression would be misleading. The explanation of the discrepancy between the book’s self-presentation and what it is actually saying lies in the idiosyncratic terminology Kramer employs throughout (...)
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  42. Duncan McFarland (1999). Mark Johnston's Substitution Principle: A New Counterexample? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (3):683-689.
    According to a subjectivist view of some concept, C, there is an a priori implication of subjective responses in C's application or possession conditions. Subjectivists who intend their view to be descriptive of our practice with C will hold that it is possible for there to be true empirical claims which explain such responses in terms of certain things being C. Mark Johnston's "missing-explanation argument" employs a substitution principle with a view to establishing that these strands of subjectivism are (...)
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  43.  3
    Rosie Harding (2007). Sir Mark Potter And The Protection Of The Traditional Family: Why Same Sex Marriage Is (Still) A Feminist Issue. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 15 (2):223-234.
    In Wilkinson v. Kitzinger, the petitioner (Susan Wilkinson) sought a declaration of her marital status, following her marriage to Celia Kitzinger in British Columbia, Canada in August 2003. The High Court refused the application, finding that their valid Canadian marriage is, in United Kingdom law, a civil partnership. In this note, I focus on Sir Mark Potter’s adjudication of the human rights issues under Articles 8, 12 and 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights (E.C.H.R.), highlighting his restatement (...)
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  44.  53
    D. Efird (2011). Make/Believing the World(S): Toward a Christian Ontological Pluralism * By Mark S. McLeod-Harrison. Analysis 71 (2):404-406.
    ‘We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth’, so Christians confess when they recite the Nicene Creed. Now if the argument of Mark S. McLeod-Harrison’s Make/Believing the World: Toward a Christian Ontological Pluralism is correct, God is not alone in that task. We human beings are makers of heaven and earth, too, in the sense that what exists is as it is because our minds have made it so, which is a kind of (...)
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  45.  1
    Lisa Kretz (2016). Environmental Skill: Motivation, Knowledge, and the Possibility of a Non-Romantic Environmental Ethics by Mark Coeckelbergh. Ethics and the Environment 21 (1):109-118.
    In Environmental Skill: Motivation, Knowledge, and the Possibility of a Non-Romantic Environmental Ethics, Mark Coeckelbergh presents an expansive approach to rethinking the ontological, epistemic, and ethical relationships humans have with the environment. It is a book with a wide historical scope rooted in the Western tradition, and it seeks to address the gap between humans’ ecological ideals and environmental practices.The text begins with an exploration of the psychological conditions for environmental change. Coeckelbergh seeks to bridge the gap between what (...)
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  46.  7
    Friderik Klampfer (2005). Contextualism and Moral Justification: A Discussion of Mark Timmons, Morality Without Foundations: A Defense of Ethical Contextualism. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 5 (3):569-582.
    In his insightful and stimulating book Morality Without Foundations: A Defense of Ethical Contextualism, Mark Timmons presents a strong case for embracing contextualism as a vibrant alternative to the two rival accounts that used to dominate moral epistemology in the past, foundationalism and coherentism. His sophisticated version of contextualist moral epistemology comprises of several intriguing and mind-boggling theses: moral beliefs that lack Justification altogether can nevertheless be held in an epistemically responsible way; such unjustified beliefs can provide justification for (...)
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  47.  15
    Tom Grimwood (2012). The Concept of Reading: Kierkegaard, Irony, and Duality—A Response to Mark Cortes Favis. The European Legacy 17 (4):471 - 483.
    In a recent article in The European Legacy, Mark Cortes Favis argued that the figure of Kierkegaard expressed a tension between two aspects of writing?the Socratic and the Platonic. While Favis is correct to see a duality in Kierkegaard's writing, his article does not fully answer the problem of how we can account for our interpretation of this tension. Given that the duality within Kierkegaard's writing transgresses the boundaries of author and reader, we cannot easily circumscribe any claims on (...)
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  48.  2
    Irene McMullin (2015). A Response to Mark D. White’s “A Modest Comment on McMullin: A Kantian Account of Modesty”. Journal of Philosophical Research 40:7-11.
    In response to Mark D. White's Kantian critique of my article "A Modest Proposal: Accounting for the Virtuousness of Modesty," I argue that invoking Kant's notions of dignity and respect in order to provide an egalitarian account of modesty brings with it conceptual commitments that are not always easy to reconcile with the moral phenomenology of that virtue. In light of this I question White's claim that a Kantian account of modesty offers a better explanation than the existential phenomenological (...)
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  49.  4
    Patricia E. Kahlbaugh (1993). James Mark Baldwin: A Bridge Between Social and Cognitive Theories of Development. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 23 (1):79–103.
    Traditionally, developmental psychology has been characterized by two approaches, one predominantly social and the other, cognitive. Despite this separatism, develop-mentalists have expressed the need for a better understanding of how these two facets of the person interact - a need for a better account of development within the person as a whole. However, such an integration has been difficult given the incompatibility of underlying assumptions guiding these two areas of inquiry. James Mark Baldwin's integration of social and cognitive development (...)
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  50.  21
    Christopher D. Green, Will the Real James Mark Baldwin Stand Up?: A Comment on Griffiths (2001).
    Griffiths (2001) make a number of comments about James Mark Baldwin's motivations and character at the time that he was developing what later became known as the "Baldwin effect." Some of these comments I found to be misleading. I attempt to correct the historical record concerning the origins of the "Baldwin effect.".
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