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  1. Mark D. Sullivan (2002). The Meaning of Facial Expressions of Pain Lies in Their Use, Not in Their Reference. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):472-473.
    As a product of natural selection, pain behavior must serve an adaptive function for the species beyond the accurate portrayal of the pain experience. Pain behavior does not simply refer to the pain experience, but promotes survival of the species in various and complex ways. This means that there is no purely respondent or operant pain behavior found in nature.
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  2. Mark D. Sullivan, Stuart J. Youngner & Linda Ganzini (1998). Should Psychiatrists Serve as Gatekeepers for Physician‐Assisted Suicide? Hastings Center Report 28 (4):24-31.
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  3. Mark D. Sullivan (1995). Key Concepts: Pain. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 2 (3):277-280.
  4. Louis E. Newman, Bonnie B. O'Connor, Jean-Pierre Poullier, Mark Risjord, Wendell Stephenson & Mark D. Sullivan (1993). A Qualified Bioethic: Particularity in James Gustafson and Stanley Hauer-Was, by Gerald P. McKenny 511 Advance Directives for Voluntary Euthanasia: A Volatile Combination? By Leslie Pickering Francis 297 After the Fall: Particularism in Bioethics, by Kevin Wm. Wildes, 5.7. 505. [REVIEW] Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18:599-602.
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  5. Mark D. Sullivan (1993). Placebo Controls and Epistemic Control in Orthodox Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (2):213-231.
    American orthodox medicine consolidated its professional authority in the early 20th Century on the basis of its unbiased scientific method. The centerpiece of such a method is a strategy for identifying truly effective new therapies, i.e., the randomized clinical trial (RCT). A crucial component of the RCT in illnesses without established treatment is the placebo control. Placebo effects must be identified and distinguished from pharmacological effects because placebos produce actual but unexplained therapeutic successes. The blinding necessary for a proper placebo-controlled (...)
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  6. Mark D. Sullivan (1990). Reconsidering the Wisdom of the Body: An Epistemological Critique of Claude Bernard's Concept of the Internal Environment. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 15 (5):493-514.
    Claude Bernard's concept of the internal environment ( milieu intérieur ) played a crucial role in the development of experimental physiology and the specific medical therapeutics derived from it. This concept allowed the experimentalist to approach the organism as fully determined yet relatively autonomous with respect to its external environment. However, Bernard's theory of knowledge required that he find organismic functioning as the result of an external necessity. He is therefore unable to explain adequately the origin or operation of organismic (...)
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