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Profile: Mark Eli Kalderon (University College London)
  1. Mark Eli Kalderon, Aristotle on Transparency.
    In the Meno Socrates attributes to Empedocles a conception of perception as a mode of assimilation of material effluences: meno: And how do you define color? … socrates: Would you like an answer in the style Gorgias, such as you most readily follow? meno: Of course I should. socrates: You and he believe in Empedocles’ theory of effluences, do you not?
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  2. Mark Eli Kalderon, Logicism and the Sense–Denotation Distinction.
    Unless you are a Frege scholar, or a philosopher of mathematics, if you are familiar at all with Frege’s work, you are most likely familiar with his groundbreaking work in the philosophy of language. You might know that Frege was a mathematician who sought to establish the covertly logical subject matter of arithmetic, a project whose demands drove Frege to his logical investigations and reflections on language. But most likely the connection between Frege’s mathematical research and his philosophy of language (...)
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  3. Mark Eli Kalderon, The Generation of the Hues.
    The presence of the fiery substance illuminates the transparent medium. White (leukon) corresponds to the presence of this determinant of what is actually transparent. Conversely, black (melaton) corresponds to its absence. The absence of the fiery substance darkens the transparent medium. White and black are thus associated with a fundamental condition on the visibility of remote external particulars. No doubt in part because of this Aristotle attempts to explain the other hues in terms of the ratio of white and black. (...)
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  4. Mark Kalderon, Color and the Inverted Spectrum.
    If you trained someone to emit a particular sound at the sight of something red, another at the sight of something yellow, and so on for other colors, still he would not yet be describing objects by their colors. Though he might be a help to us in giving a description. A description is a representation of a distribution in a space (in that of time, for instance).
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  5. Mark Kalderon, How Not to Be a Normative Irrealist.
    Jimmy expresses sympathy for Scanlon’s contractualism but wonders whether it might be better developed in the context of a Humean expressivism. Jimmy presses this point, in part, by observing that much of what Scanlon wants to say about moral and normative discourse, such as their logical discipline and apparent truth-aptitude, can be accommodated by the expressivist. If all that Scanlon wants to say about moral and normative discourse can be accommodated by the expressivist then what content can be given to (...)
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  6. Mark Kalderon, Precis of Moral Fictionalism.
    The first main idea is that standard noncognitivism is a syndrome of three logically distinct claims. Standard noncognitivists claim that moral judgment is not belief or any other cognitive attitude but is, rather, a noncogntive attitude more akin to desire; that this noncognitive attitude is expressed by our public moral utterances; and, hence, that our public moral utterances lack a distinctively moral subject matter and so are not answerable to the moral facts. Notice, however, that these are logically distinct claims—the (...)
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  7. Mark Kalderon, Replies.
    Producing language that other people will be able to understand involves not just having a picture in your mind of the scenario…You have to deploy a shared linguistic system, according to established rules, using lexemes of known meaning, to present that picture to others in a way that will work for them. You have to consider whether there are other ways of viewing the situation at hand. You have to examine the wording you have chosen to see if it has (...)
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  8. Mark Eli Kalderon, Color Pluralism and the Location Problem.
     
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  9. Mark Eli Kalderon, Experiential Pluralism and the Power of Perception.
    Sight is a capacity, and seeing is its exercise. Reflection on the sense in which sight is for the sake of seeing reveals distinct relations of dependence between sight and seeing, the capacity and its exercise. Moreover, these relations of dependence in turn reveal the nature of our perceptual capacities and their exercise. Specifically, if sight is for the sake of seeing, then sight will depend, in a certain sense, upon seeing, in a manner inconsistent with experiential monism. Thus reflection (...)
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  10. Mark Eli Kalderon, Form Without Matter, Empedocles and Aristotle on Color Perception.
    Aristotle’s definition in De Anima of perception as the assimilation of sensible form without the matter of the perceived object is notoriously difficult to interpret. The present essay provides a novel interpretation of Aristotle’s definition by reading it in light of a puzzle about sensory presentation to be found in the work of Empedocles. Empedocles held a general conception of sensory awareness for which ingestion provides the model. In order for something to be perceived it must be taken within so (...)
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  11. Mark Eli Kalderon, Morality: Fact or Fiction?
    One cannot give too many or too frequent warnings against this laxity, or even mean cast of mind, which seeks its principle among empirical motives and laws; for, human reason in its weariness gladly rests on this pillow and in a dream of sweet illusions (which allow it to embrace a cloud instead of Juno) it substitutes for a morality a bastard patched up from limbs of quite diverse ancestry, which looks like whatever one wants to see in it but (...)
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  12. Mark Eli Kalderon, Realism and Perceptual Appearance.
    In his 1904 letter to G.F. Stout, Cook Wilson distinguishes objective and sub- jective conceptions of appearance, and provides a diagnosis for the modern acceptance of the subjective conception in terms of a confused misdescrip- tion of the objective appearances that perceptual experience affords. More- over, Cook Wilson links subjective appearances with idealism, the suggestion being that perceptual appearances must be objective if they are to afford us with something akin to proof of a world without the mind.
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  13. Mark Eli Kalderon & Charles Travis, Oxford Realism: Perception.
    This is the third and final section of a paper, "Oxford Realism", co-written with Charles Travis. -/- A concern for realism motivates a fundamental strand of Oxford reflection on perception. Begin with the realist conception of knowledge. The question then will be: What must perception be like if we can know something about an object without the mind by seeing it? What must perception be if it can, on occasion, afford us with proof concerning a subject matter independent of the (...)
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  14. Mark Eli Kalderon (forthcoming). Color and the Problem of Perceptual Presence. Dialectica.
    Very often, objects in the scene before us are somehow perceived to be constant or uniform or unchanging in color, shape, size, or position, even while their appearance with respect to these features somehow changes. This is a familiar and pervasive fact about perception, even if it is notoriously difficult to describe accurately let alone adequately account for. These difficulties are not unrelated—how we are inclined to describ the phenomenology of perceptual constancy will affect how we are inclined to accoun (...)
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  15. Mark Eli Kalderon (2013). Does Metaethics Rest on a Mistake? [REVIEW] Analysis 73 (1):129-138.
    Review of part one of Ronald Dworkin's Justice for Hedgehogs.
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  16. Mark Eli Kalderon (2011). Before the Law. Philosophical Issues 21 (1):219-244.
    Before the law sits a gatekeeper. To this gatekeeper comes a man from the country who asks to gain entry into the law. But the gatekeeper says that he cannot grant him entry at the moment. The man thinks about it and then asks if he will be allowed to come in sometime later on. “It is possible,” says the gatekeeper, “but not now.”—Franz Kafka..
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  17. Mark Eli Kalderon (2011). Color Illusion. Noûs 45 (4):751-775.
    As standardly conceived, an illusion is an experience of an object o appearing F where o is not in fact F. Paradigm examples of color illusion, however, do not fit this pattern. A diagnosis of this uncovers different sense of appearance talk that is the basis of a dilemma for the standard conception. The dilemma is only a challenge. But if the challenge cannot be met, then any conception of experience, such as representationalism, that is committed to the standard conception (...)
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  18. Mark Eli Kalderon (2011). The Multiply Qualitative. Mind 120 (478):239-262.
    Shoemaker argues that one could not hold both that the qualitative character of colour experience is inherited from the qualitative character of the experienced colour and that there are faultless forms of variation in colour perception. In this paper, I explain what is meant by inheritance and discuss in detail the problematic cases of perceptual variation. In so doing I argue that these claims are in fact consistent, and that the appearance to the contrary is due to an optional and (...)
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  19. Mark Kalderon (2009). Epistemic Relativism. Philosophical Review 118 (2):225-240.
    A critical review of Paul Boghossian's Fear of Knowledge. I argue that the central argument against epistemic relativism fails and that even if the arguments of Fear of Knowledge worked perfectly on their own terms, Fear of Knowledge would fail to persuade the relativistically inclined.
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  20. Mark Eli Kalderon & Charles Travis (2009). Oxford Handbook of the History of Analytic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
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  21. Mark Eli Kalderon & Charles Travis (2009). Oxford Realism. In Oxford Handbook of the History of Analytic Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 10 - 23.
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  22. Mark Kalderon (2008). Respecting Value. European Journal of Philosophy 16 (3):341-365.
    This conference is, in part, an expression of respect for Joseph Raz and his work from which we have all learned much. I thought it apt, then, to talk about Raz's (2001) views about respect as developed in chapter four of Value, Respect, and Attachment. Raz describes his views as having a Kantian origin. This might raise the eyebrow of some neo-Kantians or anyone inclined to interpret Kant as a formalist or as a constructivist. Nevertheless, I believe that Raz's views (...)
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  23. Mark Eli Kalderon (2008). Metamerism, Constancy, and Knowing Which. Mind 117 (468):549-585.
    When Norm perceives a red tomato in his garden, Norm perceives the tomato and its sensible qualities.
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  24. Mark Eli Kalderon (2008). Moral Fictionalism, the Frege-Geach Problem, and Reasonable Inference. Analysis 68 (298):133–143.
    CHANGE SLIDE Go through outline of talk CHANGE SLIDE It is my sincerest hope that if there is one thing that people take away from Moral Fictionalism, it is the recognition that standard noncognitivism involves a syndrome of three, logically distinct claims. Standard noncognitivists claim that moral judgment is not belief or any other cognitive attitude but is, rather, a noncognitive attitude more akin to desire; that this noncognitive attitude is expressed by our public moral utterances; and, hence, that our (...)
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  25. Mark Eli Kalderon (2008). M Oral Fictionalism , Summary. Philosophical Books 49 (1).
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  26. Mark Eli Kalderon (2008). The Trouble with Terminology. Philosophical Books 49 (1):33-41.
    Producing language that other people will be able to understand involves not just having a picture in your mind of the scenario…You have to deploy a shared linguistic system, according to established rules, using lexemes of known meaning, to present that picture to others in a way that will work for them. You have to consider whether there are other ways of viewing the situation at hand. You have to examine the wording you have chosen to see if it has (...)
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  27. Mark Eli Kalderon (2008). Respecting Value. European Journal of Philosophy 16 (3):341-365.
    This conference is, in part, an expression of respect for Joseph Raz and his work from which we have all learned much. I thought it apt, then, to talk about Raz's (2001) views about respect as developed in chapter four of Value, Respect, and Attachment. Raz describes his views as having a Kantian origin. This might raise the eyebrow of some neo•Kantians or anyone inclined to interpret Kant as a formalist or as a constructivist. Nevertheless, I believe that Raz's views (...)
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  28. Mark Eli Kalderon (2008). Summary. Philosophical Books 49 (1):1-3.
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  29. Mark Kalderon, Groundwork for a Nonconcessive Expressivism.
    The Frege Geach problem was rst raised by ? (1939: 33•34) and independently by ? (1958, 1960, 1965) and Searle (1962, 1969) and was originally directed at expressivist proposals such as Ayer's (1946: 108) emotivism: It is worth mentioning that ethical terms do not serve only to express feeling. They are calculated also to arouse feeling, and so to stimulate action. . . . In fact we may de ne the meaning of the various ethical words in terms both of (...)
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  30. Mark Eli Kalderon (2007). Color Pluralism. Philosophical Review 116 (4):563-601.
    Colors are sensible qualities. They are qualities that objects are perceived to have. Thus, when Norm, a normal perceiver, perceives a blue bead, the bead is perceived have a certain quality, perceived blueness. `Quality', here, is no mere synonym for property; rather, a quality is a kind of property a qualitative, as opposed to quan• titative, property. (The quantitative is a way of contrasting with the qualitative perhaps not the only way.).
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  31. Mark Eli Kalderon (2007). L a T E X and Subversion. Practex Journal (3).
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  32. Mark Eli Kalderon (2007). Using Assembla in Practex Production. Practex Journal (3).
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  33. Charilaos Skiadas, Thomas Kjosmoen & Mark Eli Kalderon (2007). Subversion and Textmate: Making Collaboration Easier for L a T E X Users. Practex Journal (3).
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  34. Kit Fine, Jane Heal, Jennifer Hornsby, Keith Hossack, April Jones, Mark Kalderon, Guy Longworth, Mike Martin, Joseph Melia & Alex Oliver (2006). Fraser MacBride. In Barry C. Smith (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oxford University Press.
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  35. Mark Eli Kalderon (ed.) (2005). Fictionalism in Metaphysics. Clarendon Press.
    This volume represents a major benchmark in the debate: it brings together an impressive international team of contributors, whose essays (all but one of them ...
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  36. Mark Eli Kalderon (2005). Moral Fictionalism. Oxford University Press.
    Non-cognitivists deny that moral judgement is belief but claim instead that it is the expression of an emotional attitude. Standardly, non-cognitivists deny that moral sentences even purport to represent moral reality and so have developed non-standard semantics for moral discourse. Mark Eli Kalderon argues for a version of non-cognitivism that eschews such controversial semantics; morality, he argues, is a fiction by means of which our emotional attitudes are conveyed. His book will be essential reading for anyone working across moral philosophy, (...)
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  37. Mark Eli Kalderon (2004). Open Questions and the Manifest Image. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (2):251–289.
    The essay argues that, on their usual metalinguistic reconstructions, the open question argument and Frege’s puzzle are variants of the same argument. Each are arguments to a conclusion about a difference in meaning; each deploy compositionality as a premise; and each deploy a premise linking epistemic features of sentences with their meaning (which, given certain meaning-platonist assumptions, can be interpreted as a universal instantiation of Leibniz’s law). Given these parallels, each is sound just in case the other is. They are, (...)
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  38. Mark Eli Kalderon (2001). Reasoning and Representing. Philosophical Studies 105 (2):129-160.
    I argue that logical understanding is not propositional knowledgebut is rather a species of practical knowledge. I further arguethat given the best explanation of logical understanding someversion or another of inferential role semantics must be the correct account of the determinants of logical content.
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  39. David R. Hilbert & Mark Eli Kalderon (2000). Color and the Inverted Spectrum. In Steven Davis (ed.), Vancouver Studies in Cognitive Science. New York: Oxford University Press. 187-214.
    If you trained someone to emit a particular sound at the sight of something red, another at the sight of something yellow, and so on for other colors, still he would not yet be describing objects by their colors. Though he might be a help to us in giving a description. A description is a representation of a distribution in a space (in that of time, for instance).
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  40. Mark Eli Kalderon (2000). Review of R Ealistic Rationalism. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review.
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  41. Mark Eli Kalderon (2000). Realistic Rationalism. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 109 (3):456-459.
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  42. Mark Eli Kalderon (1996). What Numbers Could Be (and, Hence, Necessarily Are). Philosophia Mathematica 4 (3):238-255.
    This essay explores the commitments of modal structuralism. The precise nature of the modal-structuralist analysis obscures an unclarity of its import. As usually presented, modal structuralism is a form of anti-platonism. I defend an interpretation of modal structuralism that, far from being a form of anti-platonism, is itself a platonist analysis: The metaphysically significant distinction between (i) primitive modality and (ii) the natural numbers (objectually understood) is genuine, but the arithmetic facts just are facts about possible progressions. If correct, modal (...)
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  43. Mark Eli Kalderon (1987). Epiphenomenalism and Content. Philosophical Studies 52 (July):71-90.
  44. Mark Kalderon, Attitude, Affect, and Authority.
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  45. Mark Kalderon, Moral Pyrrhonism and Noncognitivism.
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