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  1. Sanna Joronen, Markku Oksanen & Timo Vuorisalo (2011). Towards Weather Ethics: From Chance to Choice with Weather Modification. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):55-67.
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  2. Markku Oksanen (2008). Ecological Restoration as Moral Reparation. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 23:99-105.
    The notion of reparation in ethical, political and legal discourse has become popular in recent years. Reparation refers to a category of actions for which there are morally compelling reasons to perform due to wrongful action in the past. ‘Reparation’ is often, but not merely, used in the context of collective responsibility. The debate around the concept has mainly focussed on humans, but the wrongs done to humans can be indirect, such as contaminating the soil or polluting the air, in (...)
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  3. Markku Oksanen (2007). Species Extinction and Collective Responsibility. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 3:179-183.
    In this article I explore, from a philosophical perspective, what the responsibility for biodiversity means. Biodiversity is a peculiar thing because it consists of the variety of life in its all manifestations, that is, in all its forms, levels and combinations. Variation is a main characteristic of life on earth. Because of its vastness a collective has not only a right but also a duty to take responsibility for biodiversity conservation, and furthermore it has a prima facie duty to implement (...)
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  4. Julia Koricheva, Helena Siipi, Markku Oksanen & Juhani Pietarinen (2004). The Phenomenon of Biodiversity. In Markku Oksanen & Juhani Pietarinen (eds.), Philosophy and Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press.
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  5. Markku Oksanen (2004). Biodiversity Considered Philosophically: An Introduction. In Markku Oksanen & Juhani Pietarinen (eds.), Philosophy and Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press.
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  6. Markku Oksanen & Juhani Pietarinen (eds.) (2004). Philosophy and Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press.
    This important collection focuses on the nature and importance of biodiversity. Many controversies currently surround biodiversity and a few of them are examined here: What is worthy of protection or restoration, and what is the acceptable level of costs? Is it permissible to kill sentient animals to promote native populations? Can species be reintroduced if they have disappeared a long time ago? How should the responsibilities for biodiversity be shared?
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  7. Elisa Aaltola & Markku Oksanen (2002). Species Conservation and Minority Rights: The Case of Spring Time Bird Hunting. Environmental Values 11 (4):443-460.
    The article examines the case of springtime bird hunting in Åland from a moral point of view. In Åland springtime hunting has been a cultural practice for centuries but is now under investigation due to the EU Directive on the protection of birds. The main question of the article is whether restrictions on bird hunting have a sound basis. We approach this question by analysing three principles: The animal rights principle states that if hunting is not necessary for survival, it (...)
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