The goals of this study are to test a pattern of ethical decision making that predicts ethical intentions of individuals within corporations based primarily on the ethical values embedded in corporate culture, and to see whether that model is generally stable across countries. The survey instrument used scales to measure the effects of corporate ethical values, idealism, and relativism on ethical intentions of Turkish, Thai, and American businesspeople. The samples include practitioner members of the American Marketing Association in the U.S., (...) and full-time businesspeople enrolled in executive MBA programs in Thailand and Turkey. The study is positioned within a fairly new stream that assesses patterns across countries, rather than differences between them, in a way that might be called “culture free.” The results show a generally positive influence between cultural ethical values and ethical intentions. The results also indicate that the positive effect of corporate ethical values on ethical intentions is greater for managers with low idealism and high relativism. We also discuss the implications of our results for managers of international businesses. (shrink)
This is a study of the effects of a number of background variables on ethical perceptions of Mexican and U.S. marketers. This research investigates how a marketer’s personal religiousness, relativism, and the ethical values influence in perceptions of the degree of ethical problems in hypothetical marketing scenarios. It also examines differences between Mexican and U.S. marketers on these variables. The results show significant differences in perception between the countries, and we discuss the implications of these differences for cross-cultural business activities.
The current disclosure model of informed consent ignores the linguistic complexity of any act of communication, and the increased risk of difficulties in the special circumstances of informed consent. This article explores, through linguistic analysis, the specificity of informed consent as a speech act, a communication act, and a form of dialogue, following on the theories of J.L. Austin, Roman Jakobson, and Mikhail Bakhtin, respectively. In the proposed model, informed consent is a performative speech act resulting from a series of (...) communication acts which together constitute a dialogic, polyphonic, heteroglossial discourse. It is an act of speech that results in action being taken after a conversation has happened where distinct individuals, multiple voices, and multiple perspectives have been respected, and convention observed and recognized. It is more meaningful and more ethical for both patient and physician, in all their human facets including their interconnectedness. Keywords: communication, dialogism, informed consent, linguistics, performative, physician-patient relationship CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
This study examines the influence of religiousness on different components of marketing professionals' ethical decision making: personal moral philosophies, perceived ethical problem, and ethical intentions. The data are from a national survey of the American Marketing Associations' professional members. The results generally indicate that the religiousness of a marketer can partially explain his or her perception of an ethical problem and behavioral intentions. Results also suggest that the religiousness significantly influences the personal moral philosophies of marketers.
This study compares Australian marketers with those in the United States along lines that are particular to the study of ethics. The test measured two different moral philosophies, idealism and relativism, and compared perceptions of ethical problems, ethical intentions, and corporate ethical values. According to Hofstede''s cultural typologies, there should be little difference between American and Australian marketers, but the study did find significant differences. Australians tended to be more idealistic and more relativistic than Americans and the other results were (...) mixed, making it difficult to generalize about the effects of moral philosophies on the components of ethical decision-making measured here. This is an important finding; as firms become increasingly more globalized, marketers will more often be involved in cross-cultural ethical dilemmas and it seems natural to assume that similar cultures will have similar ethical orientations. That assumption may well prove erroneous. (shrink)
This paper explores the value of a Poststructuralist psychoanalytic model of persons, or Subjects, as an expanded frame for the question Whose consent is it anyway? The elaboration of the need for this expanded frame, its tenets and its value form the substance of the paper. This frame incorporates the emotional, linguistic, and socio-cultural dimensions that help restore patients and physicians to their full status as persons from their restricted status, in the current dominant theory and model, as unidimensional, rationalistic, (...) medico-legally constructed players; emphasizes their interconnectedness; and, focuses broadly on responsibility as bearing consequences, and not only accountability. This frame does not deny the role and importance of cognition or rationality, it supplements them. It does not supplant rationality, but rather includes it in a view of the person that also includes those other human capacities which are not based on an ideal of pure reason. (shrink)
O presente artigo está dedicado ao estudo das relações entre Filosofia e Espiritualidade no pensamento de S. Boaventura a partir de uma análise da obra Itinerarium mentis in Deum. Na base do estudo está a discussão do problema da relação entre Fé e Razão no pensamento Boaventuriano, problema esse cuja solução, defende o autor do artigo, tem de ser procurada no carácter sapiencial do pensamento de S. Boaventura. A obra Itinerarium mostra sobretudo até que ponto a Espiritualidade tem uma profunda (...) base filosófica, como se pode ver pela linguagem simbólica que o pensador medieval utiliza. O artigo tem ainda como principais pontos de ancoragem o conceito de Caminho (Itinerarium) e o conceito de Amor. /// The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between Philosophy and Spirituality in the thought of Saint Bonaventure, particularly in his major work Itinerarium mentis in Deum. The starting point of the essay is the consideration of the relation between Faith and Reason in Bonaventura's work, a problem whose solution is to be found in the sapiential nature of his thought. According to the author of the article, the Itinerarium shows how Spirituality has a philosophical basis, as can be seen through the symbolic language that structures that medieval work. Finally, the article focuses also on the notions of Way (itinerarium,) and of Love. (shrink)
Building on an existing framework concerning ethical intention, this research explores how Thai business people perceive the importance of ethics in various scenarios. This study investigates the relative influences of personal characteristics and the organizational environment underlying the Thai business people’s ethical perception. Corporate ethical values and idealism are shown to positively influence a Thai manager’s perceptions about the importance of ethics. While their ability to perceive the existence of an ethical problem is negatively influenced by relativism, it is positively (...) impacted by their existing perceptions about the importance of ethics. Results also suggest positive relationships between perceived importance of ethics and perceived ethical problems with ethical intention. These results extend research in understanding the relationship between the antecedents and consequences of perceived importance of ethics within an economically growing non-Western culture. (shrink)
This paper presents an axiomatic characterization of the Owen set of transportation games. In the characterization we use six properties including consistency (CONS2) and splitting and merging (SM) which are firstly proposed and defined for this setup in the present paper.
The goals of this study are to test a pattern of ethical decision making that predicts ethical intentions of individuals within corporations based primarily on the ethical values embedded in corporate culture, and to see whether that model is generally stable across countries. The survey instrument used scales to measure the effects of corporate ethical values, idealism, and relativism on ethical intentions of Turkish, Thai, and American businesspeople. The samples include practitioner members of the American Marketing Association in the U.S., (...) and full-time businesspeople enrolled in executive MBA programs in Thailand and Turkey. The study is positioned within a fairly new stream that assesses patterns across countries, rather than differences between them, in a way that might be called "culture free. "The results show a generally positive influence between cultural ethical values and ethical intentions. The results also indicate that the positive effect of corporate ethical values on ethical intentions is greater for managers with low idealism and high relativism. We also discuss the implications of our results for managers of international businesses. (shrink)
El artículo estudia el modo cómo san Buenaventura profundiza el "socratismo cristiano" (É. Gilson). San Buenaventura a través de las fuentes filosóficas, teológicas y franciscanas entiende que el alma se une con el Bien. Pero ni la antropología es sólo filosófica, ni el Bien es sólo un concepto de la filosofía. San Buenaventura añade a los esquemas de Platón y Aristóteles, el bíblico que muestra que el alma es "imagen de Dios". En el Itinerarium mentis in Deum se nos propone (...) un lema alternativo al autoconocimiento. Se nos invita a mirar el alma que se ama a sí misma, lo que supone una de las fuentes del voluntarismo. (shrink)
In this paper we contend, against what fictionalism advocates use to hold, that logicism, in its pre Principia Mathematica if-thenist version, is unexpectedly similar to fictionalism, at least in H. Field’s version of the latter. We support this similarity claim by examining, on the one hand, each conception held by Russell during that period and, on the other hand, by confronting both views with the applicability of mathematics issue. Finally, we show that such views can be characterized by means of (...) a non-constructive condition upon the models, i.e. the serial condition, and that, despite its realist implications, this characterization seems to philosophically support modal if-thenism rather than fictionalism. (shrink)
El estudio muestra la relación entre la tradición medieval presente en la segunda escolástica y las consecuencias en el Barroco del humanismo renancentista, a partir de la referencia que hace Suárez a la risa en el Comentario al De anima. Aparece un desarrollo de la temática clásica y medieval sobre la risa, donde se tiene en cuenta la esfera intelectual del Humanismo científico y se señalan algunas temáticas que se tendrán presente en el Barroco moderno.
This paper presents a way of rethinking the current thought and the medieval philosophy, understanding that we can define the actual philosophy like neo-romanticism. The challenges of this thought can be approached from a reading of to medieval philosophy of St. Bonaventure. St. Francis of Assisi can appear as a romantic personage and the access to the philosophy is done bearing other texts in mind as the Leyenda Maior.
This paper, studies the way how St. Bonaventure deepens to the “Christian Socratism” (É. Gilson). St. Bonaventure through the philosophical, theological and Franciscans sources understands that the soul is united with the Good. The anthropology is not only philosophical, and the Good is not only a concept of the philosophy. San Buenaventura adds to the schemes of Plato and Aristotle, the Biblical scheme who understand that the soul is “image of God”. In Itinerarium mentis in Deum an alternative motto to (...) the self knowledge sets out to us. It is invited to us to watch the soul that is loved itself, which supposes one of the sources of voluntarism. (shrink)
El estudio intenta presentar la filosofía del pensador español, nacionalizado francés, José Miguel Guardia. Y, a través de él y su opúsculo "Conversation entre un médecin et un philosophe sur la science de l'homme", mostrar la lectura que se hace en España del materialismo. Este controvertido polemista bascula su posición intelectual entre un conocimiento profundo de la cultura clásica y las corrientes filosóficas de su tiempo como Spencer, Comte o Littré. Guardia encarna un positivismo y un materialismo de características propias. (...) A su vez, rinde homenaje en su obra a la larga tradición española de los "médicos-filósofos" iniciada siglos antes por Huarte de San Juan. Una obra y un pensamiento que nos señala una época vigorosa, erudita y alimentada de polémicas enriquecedoras. (shrink)
Between November 11 and 13, 2009, the conference Dal logos dei Greci e dei Romani al logos di Dio was held at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore(in Milan) in memory of Marta Sordi. The meeting is part of a multi-year project of dialogue and analysis exploring philosophical, religious, historical and political issues that were as widespread in classical and late antiquity as they are currently of concern in contemporary debate. The meeting explored the word logos, that has his (...) roots in the classical world before being adopted and used by Christianity as its own. The following report includes references from all participants’ papers. (shrink)
Una paradoja constitutiva de la cuestión migratoria a nivel mundial, tiene relación con el derecho humano a la libre circulación y la incapacidad política para avalarlo. Principalmente porque las garantías extendidas al emigrante no son las mismas que se ofrecen al inmigrante, y varían dependiendo de lo reconocido legítimamente por los Estados en su constitución y del interés, la conveniencia y la voluntad política de los gobiernos. Los que muchas veces tienden a politizar un problema social,..